JUDE  


 
THE BOOK OF JUDE
 
INTRODUCTION
1. Purpose:
Victory in spiritual conflict: v. 3
Orientation to apostasy: v. 4-19
Spiritual preparation: v. 20-21
Ambassadorship: v. 22-23
Confidence for eternity: v. 24-25
 
2. General orientation:
Date: between 68-80 AD
      Sometime after the death of both Paul and Peter
      who were both martyred between 67-70 AD.
Writer: Jude the half brother of Jesus.
Recipients: A general group of believers in an unknown geographical location.

3. The controversy surrounding this book revolves around Jude's references to two apocryphal books.
The solution is simple.
   A. First, the book of Jude has been accepted as Scripture by the church fathers, and subsequently by the church leaders throughout history. Accordingly the issue of inspiration is an accepted fact by this writer.
   B. At verses 6, 9 and 14-15, Jude references oral and written tradition as found in the apocryphal book The Assumption (or Testament) of Moses, and the book of Enoch. Through inspiration, Jude's writing validates the information and complements what we learn from the rest of Scripture. It does not, however, validate the apocryphal books as inspired. Thus, some of the information found in those books is accurate. But ONLY such as is in agreement with the inspired 66 books of the Bible. See details at the respective verses.

Verse 1
 
1. Jude: same as Judas in the Greek. Probably rendered as Jude in the English to distinguish between Judas Iscariot and Judas, the son of James of Luke 6:14-16. However, that distinction is made simply by designating himself as the “brother” of James.
 
2. Servant: doulos refers to a bond-servant.
It refers to an indentured slave who is such either by force or by choice.
The “bond” servant was a servant/slave who completed his service/bondage,
but chose to remain in the service of the master out of love and devotion.
According to Jewish custom, such a person would then have his ear pierced as indication of his choice to offer lifetime service and devotion to the owner/master. Ex. 21:6; Deut. 15:17.
    A. This title teaches the principle of true humility as we recognize that God is the source and
     provider of all things.
    B. the example of being a bond servant is seen in Jesus. Phil. 2:5-7
    C. Four principles pertaining to the bond servant.
        1. A servant belongs to someone else.
        2. He was purchased by someone else.
        3. The buyer is responsible for the care and protection.
        4. The servant’s whole life is now centered around serving and pleasing the master.
 
    D. It is actually a change from one form of slavery to a different form. In the case of the believer, he has been positionally delivered from bondage to darkness and sin and has
become a slave to righteousness and a servant in the kingdom of God.
See Topic: Position in Christ

   E. The believer in Jesus Christ has entered into a relationship of benevolent servitude.
The MASTER (God) has only the welfare of his servants in mind.
As a bond servant the believer seeks only what is beneficial to the master. He seeks only
to please God.
Acts 5:29, "We must obey God rather than men."
We are left here on earth to promote the character and plan of God in our life and our message.
Paul clarifies that there is no room for compromise in our servitude. Galatians 1:10
Religion and Christianity are mutually exclusive. And only Christianity is pleasing to God.
And in fact, only true biblical Christianity is pleasing to God.
So it is imperative that each believer comes to terms with grace, faith, freedom
and true spirituality. And of course, that is why there is so much debate and division.
See Topic: SERVING GOD

 
3. Of Jesus Christ: This is the one who purchased and owns the slave
    A. Acts 20:28 ; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 Cor. 6:19 -20; 7:23; Rev. 5:9
    B. Titus 1:1 and James 1:1 - servant of God
    C. The order of words, “Jesus Christ” indicates an emphasis in the mind of the writer.
         For example Paul changes the order many times in his writings and nothing is to be made of it
         except his own personal focus at the time.
   
D. Jesus: The Greek, iāsous, is simply the form for the Hebrew, Joshuah (yeshua) which means Yahweh saves or simply “savior.” With this personal name assigned to the Messiah, we see His first advent mission clearly proclaimed by Gabriel at Mat. 1:21, "And she will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for it is He who will save His people from their sins." The emphasis is on his humanity and the soul sacrifice required for the redemption of mankind. Isaiah 53:10-11; John 1:14, 29, the Lamb of God.
       
    E. Christ: christos means anointed one, and refers to
the Messiah (Hebrew, mishiyach - for anointed one) promised throughout the Old Testament. It indicates that Jesus received the Messianic commission from  God the Father.   Luke 4:18 ; Acts 4;27; Psalm 2:1 and Acts 4:26
 
It was established throughout the Old Testament that the Messiah would in fact, be Yahweh come in the flesh Who will "dwell with us." Is. 7:14; Mat. 1:23
        1. The promise to Abraham: Gal. 3:16; Rom. 9:4-5
        2. At Jesus’ birth: Luke 2:11
        3. Simeon’s confession: Luke 2:25-32
        4. John’s confession: John 1:19 -20; 3:27 -36;
        5. Jesus’ confession: John 4:25-26; Mat. 26:63-66
        6. Peter’s confession: Mat. 16:15 -16; Acts 2:36
        7. Apostle John’s statement: John 20:30-31
        8. Paul’s conviction: Acts 9:22
        9. Son of man title: John 9:35-38
      10. The issue of the incarnation: 1 Jon. 2:22; 4:2; 5:1
      11. Fulfilled prophecy: Luke 24:25-27
See topics on Christ's deity.

4. The status and attitude of the bond servant.
    A. All believers have a servant status. 1 Cor. 7:23
    B. All believers should live as a servant of Christ.  Eph. 6:6; 1 Pet. 2:16
    C. A new believer is unable to fully orient to his servant status and function, and must be taught
         and equipped for service.  Eph. 4:11-12; 2 Tim. 2:15
    D. As the believer learns more and more about the character and plan of God, he comes to the
        place where he accepts with humility, confidence and joy his place as servant of Christ. 
                1 Peter 1:13-17
    E. In secular society, the bond servant is characterized by the CHOICE to stay in service
        after the time of his servitude has expired.
    F. For the believer, the CHOICE to FUNCTION as a bond servant is made on a daily basis
         concerning values and priorities in every area of  life.
        Mat. 6:24 ; 10:34 -38; Luke 9:23; Joshua 24:14-15
    G. The believer perpetuates his FUNCTION as a servant by maintaining fellowship with God
         through walking in the light by the filling/control of the Holy Spirit and using Bible truth.
        No man can serve two masters. The believer will either be under the control of the sin nature
        or under the filling/control of the Spirit. Romans 6:12-20; Gal. 5:1, 13-17; Romans 13:17-18

    H. To call oneself a servant of God, indicates that the choice has been made to live under the
         jurisdiction of God’s authority, viewpoint and policy as found in the Bible.

    I. If the confession is made without conformity to the standards of Bible truth,
       then it is a false and self-deceptive confession. In such a case, the believer is
       out of fellowship with God but has not lost his salvation. 1 John 1:5-10; James 1:5-8, 21-27
        However, such a one MIGHT not even be a believer. Mat. 7:15-29
 
5. the brother of James: Jude appeals to a recognized name among believers in order to properly identify himself within the church. Jude mentions SECOND his physical connection with a recognized leader of the church in order to indicate the spiritual priority in his life.
 
A. Neither Jude nor James were saved during Christ's ministry but saved after the resurrection. John 7:1-5; 1 Cor. 15:7
 
B. James was numbered among the disciples in the upper room and accordingly, shared in the formation of the Jerusalem church. Acts 1:14ff

C. James did not have the gift of apostle. There were only 12 apostles. Revelation 21:14.
However, he was recognized as having apostolic authority, or rather, as "revelation" authority.
He probably had the gift of prophet which qualified him to receive revelation from God as per
Ephesians 3:5. Accordingly, the book that bears his name is considered to be inspired.

 
D. He was the leader of the Jerusalem church from 44 AD until the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD.  Acts 12:1, 17; 15:13; 21:18; Gal. 1:19; 2:2, 9-12
 
6. Although both James and Jude could lay claim to being the half-brother of Jesus, neither does so as an indication of humility. It is the attitude that Jesus is the one to be showcased. The issue with every believer should be his functional relationship and devotion to Jesus and not any “physical” connection.
 
7. There were two disciples named “Judas” according to Luke 6:16. Judas Iscariot (the betrayer) and Judas the son of James. By designating himself as “the brother of James, Jude indicates that he is not the disciple who was the son of James.
 
8. Jude was not an apostle. There were only 12 apostles. Revelation 21:14.
(The 11 disciples and Paul)
See Topic apostles
He has been traditionally recognized by the church fathers as qualified to write inspired scripture and accordingly this book has been accepted into the New Testament canon. As we accept this tradition, we must then establish the basis for accepting Jude as providing us with inspired information from God. Obviously, it is because of his spiritual gift. Only those gifts that could receive revelation from God can be recognized as providing us with inspired information from God.
The three gifts other than apostle that could receive revelation from God were:
Word of knowledge
Word of Wisdom
Prophecy
 
Jude had one of these gifts (probably prophecy). Each believer possesses only one spiritual gift.
  See Topic: Spiritual gifts
 
9. To those who are loved by God the father: the verb is agapaō as a perfect passive
participle. Agapa
ō means to place such value on something so as to ever desire and seek what is of the best benefit to the object of love. It is true that all mankind is loved by God as He ever seeks what is best for all of His creation (John 3:16). However, believers are the recipients of a special kind of love from God based on the family relationship of being children of God. Thus, as per Romans 8:32, “He who spared not His own son but delivered him up for us all, how shall He not with him freely give us all things.” In other words, since He did the very MOST for us in saving us from our sins, He will do nothing LESS than the absolute BEST for us after salvation.
 
10. and in Jesus Christ preserved elect ones:
The verb is t
āreō as a perfect passive participle.
It means to keep, guard, protect, preserve. The perfect tense indicates that the action was initiated in the past and the results continue into the future until something equal to or greater than the initiator of the action suspends it.
In this case the Father is the initiator of the action and He has promised that he will not suspend that action.
That action by God was initiated at the specific point in time when any particular believer trusted
in Christ as Savior. And at that very point of time that believer was sealed by the indwelling
presence of the Holy Spirit as the guarantee of God's saving act. Eph. 1:13-14
 
The sphere of protection is IN Jesus Christ. This refers to our positional union with Him, whereby we share God’s righteousness (2Cor.5:21b).
The permanence of this position IN CHRIST is declared to be un-removable according to Romans 8:38-39, which is summarized by “nothing is able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.”
See Topic salvation security
 
Elect ones refers to our new status in God’s plan which is called election.
A. The PRIVILEGE of election: One is elected based on God's grace. There is no personal merit or works involved at all. Grace provides our destiny. All man needs to do is accept it by personal trust in Jesus as the Messiah-Savior. Ephesians 2:8-9; 2 Corinthians 8:9
 
B. The RANK of election: A new "position" in union with Christ. Dead, buried, raised and seated with Christ. Romans 6:3-4; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 2:12; 3:1 The rank of "royalty." 1 Peter 2:9
 
C. The FUNCTION of election: To gear every aspect of our life for the purpose of bringing honor and glory to the character and plan of God. 1 Corinthians10:31; Romans 14:8. This is fulfilled through priesthood and ambassadorship in association with the spiritual gift that every believer has.
 
Since we are partakers of this ELECTION, we are designated as elect ones.
The word here is klātos. Another word for this factor is eklektos.
A. Called: The word group, klātos (kaleō, klāsis) describes our election with emphasis on the believer's function and responsibility here on earth. It also is used to indicate the "invitation" aspect of God's plan of salvation. "many are called (as in all) but few are chosen," Matthew
22:14
 
B. Elect: The word group, eklektos (eklegomai) describes our election with emphasis on the believer's position in union with Christ. The STATUS of election. Sometimes this word is translated as "chosen." We are "chosen" by God to be part of His plan because we accept His invitation through faith.
 
C. Both words are used together at: Revelation 17:14; 2 Pet. 1:10; Mat. 22:14
 
For complete details see Doctrine of Election.
 
Verse 2
THE SALUTATION
May mercy, peace and love be multiplied to you
 
1. Multiplied is plāthunō as an aorist passive optative.
The optative mood expresses a desire on the part of the writer.
The actual experience of these benefits depends on each individual recipient,
who is volitionally responsible for meeting the conditions required.
Each believer must learn and apply the doctrinal truths that promote these things
in his life. And of course, he must be in fellowship – that is have no un-confessed sins in the life as per the principles of spirituality.
See doctrine of: fellowship with God and the Filling of the Holy Spirit
 
2. Mercy: the word is eleos. It refers to the expression of grace (charis).
Grace is the PROVISION of divine benefits. Mercy is the actual attitude of God that
DOES something for the benefit of God’s creatures. Grace is WHAT IS DONE.
This is a standard greeting from the writers of the New testament letters.
Paul usually says “grace and peace.”
But in both “Timothy” letters, he writes “grace, mercy and peace,” which simply provides a more complete picture of the “chain” of expression.
Using “grace” alone does not eliminate the place of “mercy.” Nor does using “mercy” alone eliminate the place of “grace.”
Peter also uses “grace and peace” in his two letters.
And then, at 2Peter 1:2-4, Peter clarifies exactly HOW the believer can experience God’s grace and mercy; experience the peace of God; and reflect God’s love in life.
See 2Peter 1:1

3. peace: The word is eir
ānā.
Peace is the result of using God’s grace provisions. le., the total relaxation and confidence of trusting in the character and plan of God.
Peace is the absence of enmity and conflict in the soul; no fear, worry, stress, doubt, anger, hate.
See doctrine: Peace of God
 
4. Love is agapā. This is the attitude that places highest value on the object and always seeks what is beneficial to that object.
The capacity to love is built through knowledge of God’s word. God’s word in the soul through spiritual growth CHANGES character to produce the character of Christ in the believer’s life.
I like to use the term "character reflection" as Christ's character that is formed within us, is reflected out from the soul to those who see us.
See topics: love, love structure, beneficent love
 
Jude desires for the believer to continually benefit from God’s grace provisions and to experience the resultant peace in the soul and character expression of love to others.
Jude ADDS the love factor here because this character virtue is absolutely necessary when dealing with false teachers and false doctrine.
This will be clarified at verses 20-22.
 
 VERSE 3
1. Beloved: agap
ātos indicates the objects of beneficent love from the writer.
   A. The focus is on Jude’s attitude toward the recipients of this letter.
   B. Jude is a mature believer with a consistent character expression of love.
   C. He is totally relaxed toward all believers and always seeks what is most
       beneficial to them.
 
2. While I was making: the verb is poieō as a present middle particple.
While Jude is in the process of organizing a letter to the church in general, and under divine inspiration, he indicates that his primary concern is a pro-active or aggressive DEFENSE of the Christian faith.
 
3. The letter of Jude very closely parallels 2Peter, especially chapter 2. However, this does not mean that Jude “copied” from Peter or even vice versa (as many believe). It means rather, that through the principle of divine inspiration, each person wrote a similarly INSPIRED message from God, using their own personal vocabulary and background. It even takes into consideration through the wisdom of God, what group of believes would be first to receive the information.
 
4. every effort to write to you: pas spoudā, eagerness, earnestness, diligence.
This indicates a very strong desire to address a major issue facing the church.
 
5. about our common salvation:
   A. common: koinos. It is the same for all of us.
   B. salvation: There is only
ONE salvation and only ONE way to enter it.
      Everything else is counterfeit.
   C. Just as Paul wrote concerning the gospel at Galatians 1:6-12
   D. At Titus 1:4, Paul writes "according to a (the) common faith (pistis)."
 
6. I felt necessity to write to you: echo as an aorist active indicative – I had.
   A. anagk
ā in the greek gives a perfect picture of divine inspiration.
   B. The necessity or COMPULSION is the influence of the Holy Spirit using the
       human writer to bring the mind of God to the readers.
   C. This is what Peter describes at 2Peter
2:21.
      “Prophecy was formerly brought not by an act of human will, but men
       carried along by the Holy Spirit, spoke from God.”
   D. This principle applies to the writers of the New Testament as well.
       1. 1 Cor. 2:7-10
       2. Ephesians 3:5
   E. See Topic: INSPIRATION
 
7. exhorting you: parakaleō as a present active participle.
This is a motivation and encouragement word.
It is designed to motivate the believers to be pro-active in their defense of the Christian faith.
 
8. to contend earnestly: one word in the Greek. Epagōnidzomai as a present middle infinitive. It is a combination of the preposition “epi” (upon) and the verb agōnidzomai, which means to struggle intensively in competition or combat. The addition of the preposition intensifies it even more and thus brings us closer to the English, “agonize.” Accordingly, we have some INTENSE spiritual combat involved.
At 2 Tim. 4:7, "I have fought (ag
ōnidzomai) the good (kalos) fight (agōn)."
Jude gives us SEVEN combat factors to accomplish this in verses 17-21.
 
9. For THE FAITH: pistis with the definite article is a technical term to refer to the whole realm of Christian doctrine or the Faith (divine) Value System or system of belief.

Examples in Timothy and Titus: 1Tim. 1:19; 1Tim. 3:9; 1Tim. 3:13; 1Tim. 4:1; 1Tim. 4:6; 1Tim. 5:8; 1Tim. 6:10; 1Tim. 6:12; 1Tim. 6:21; 2Tim. 1:13; 2Tim. 2:18; 2Tim. 3:8; 2Tim. 4:7; Titus 1:1; Titus 1:4; Titus 1:13; Titus 2:2; Titus 3:15

In addition, I suggest that the use of the term THE FAITH in the following places, also refers to the Faith Value System as it is represented by the established body of divine truth.
Acts 6:7; 13:8; 14:22; 16:5; Gal. 1:23; Heb. 12:2; 13:7; 1 Peter 5:9; Jude 1:3; Rev. 2:13; 14:12.
See commentary on James 1:3 and 2:1 for details.

Jude also uses the word, "faith" at verse 20, but with the possessive pronoun "your" he has in mind
the functional faith by which we live the Christian way of life after salvation.
See discussion at 2 Peter 1:1.

Every believer is in the spiritual conflict from the moment of salvation. He needs to prepare for combat through spiritual growth. However, the believer can choose NOT to fight. If the believer fails to prepare and function as a Christian, he has deserted the faith and becomes a casualty with no spiritual impact or influence in the world. As such, he can actually be used by the enemy to discredit Christianity. This is what Paul has in mind at Col. 1:23, “if you continue IN the faith.” And what we see at 1Tim. 1.19; 4:1; 5:8; 6:10 and 6:21.
Being “in the faith” is functioning as a growing, obedient ambassador for Christ, maintaining sinless consistency. Failure to function in this manner constitutes NOT continuing in the faith and is spiritual desertion. Thus, we have the ministry of Paul at Acts 14:22, “strengthening the souls of the disciples, encouraging them to continue in the faith.”
And Paul's exhortation to the Corinthians at 2Cor.13:5-6. This is a functional issue and not a
salvation issue.
At this point it is imperative to remind my readers that the believer cannot lose his salvation. The issue is function or non-function; blessing or no blessing while here on earth.
 
10. which was once: hapaxz can indicate a “one time” idea or “once for all” (and does not need to be repeated) idea. In this case “the faith” was once and permanently delivered to the church through the apostles and prophets.
 
11. delivered to the saints: paradidomi as an aorist active participle.
This refers to the historical point of time that THE faith was established and committed to the “church” through the apostles and prophets.
Thus, this “point of time” covers the apostolic period specifically embracing Peter, Paul and James. Paul describes this “body of doctrine” as “the mystery of Christ . . .  which has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets through the Spirit.”
Ephesians 3:3-5.
Thus, at the time of Jude’s writing, there is an established absolute and uncompromising standard of spiritual truth provided by God in writing and circulated among the churches.
Romans 16:17-18; 1Cor 11:2; Gal. 2:5; Philp. 3:17-19; Col. 2:8; 2 Thes.
2:14-15;
1 Tim. 6:3-5; 1 Tim. 6:20-21; Titus 1:9; 1 Peter 5:12.
The doctrinal foundation has been established. through inspiration, Jude is used by God
to supplement that foundation, but not alter it.
 
12. THE STANDARDS OF THE FAITH
   1. Our teaching: 2 Tim.
4:15
   2. Words of Jesus: 1 Tim. 6:3
   3. Our instruction: 2 Thes.
3:14
 
13. The spiritual conflict
    1. 2 Cor. 10:3-6
    2. Eph. 6:10-18
    3. 2 Tim. 2:1-3; 6:12
See Topic: Angelic Conflict
 
Verse 4
THE INFILTRATION OF THE CHURCH
 
1. For: explanatory gar to introduce the reason why believers should be diligent to fight for the faith. It is not just that the “world” is in opposition to the Christian world view, but the assemblies of believers have been infiltrated.
 
2. certain persons (men – anthropos): reference to the false teachers
2. have crept in unnoticed, “secretly infiltrated”: The verb is pareisdu
ō as an aorist active indicative. Triple compound verb: para (beside) + eis (into) + duo (go down, as the sun setting).
Thus, to go down INTO to the side of. The idea of "down" indicates an entrance different than the normal one. A. T Robertson says "as if by a side door."
   The arrival and influence of the false teachers.  They infiltrate under false pretenses and then begin to spread their own false doctrine that is clearly contrary to the established standard of THE FAITH. 2 Peter 2:1, "there will also be false teachers among you, who will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them."
A powerful system of sensuality that was starting to gain steam at this time was Gnosticism.
Gnosticism had a two pronged philosophy and attack on Christianity.
(1) the total pursuit of physical and soulish pleasures and
(2) the denial of the true Godhead and the only true savior, Jesus Christ.
See Topic: GNOSTICISM
 
3. the ones marked out: prographō as a perfect passive participle. Written about before. And then, “from of old” (adverb, palai) indicates a judgment that had been “previously” proclaimed. It does not necessarily mean “ancient,” but simply previously, formerly. It is used this way at 2 peter 1:9,
"previously committed sins."
Jude mentions both the ancient prophecy at verses 14-15 given by Enoch, and also to the more recent writings of the apostles at verses 17-18, such as what Paul wrote at 2Thes. 1:7-10.
 
4. Unto this judgment: krima can refer to an evaluation or a punishment. Although Jude certainly exposes the character and intent of these false teachers, I think the focus from this word, krima, is the ultimate judgment that will come upon them at the second coming of Jesus.
 
5. ungodly persons: the description continues with asebās. The negative “a” indicates no godly reverence, respect or character. It revolves around the idea of WORSHIP. Thus, with the negative, there is no worshipful attitude toward God.
In contrast, the word eusebeia, indicates a respectful, worshipping expression toward God. This word group should not be translated as “godly” or “ungodly,” but as reverent or irreverent. Such ones do not follow any divine viewpoint or moral standards, but are dedicated only to their owns lusts and emotions and material profit. Titus 1:11; Romans 16:18
 
6. who turn: metatithāmi means to alter or distort. This is one aspect of their teaching. It takes TRUTH and then distorts it. In this case it takes the freedom that comes from God’s grace, and turns it into a license to sin. It takes the established standards of THE FAITH and adds or subtracts in order to promote their own agenda.
 
7. The grace of God: the focus is on God’s grace that gives us freedom to enjoy the many pleasures of life without being restricted by legalism and unbiblical, man-made regulations.  Gal. 5:1, “Into freedom Christ set us free. Therefore, keep standing firm and stop being loaded down again with a yoke of slavery.”
Grace is DIVINE MOTIVATION to govern one’s life
1 Cor.
6:12, ”all things are lawful for me but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered (controlled) by anything.”
Col. 2:16, “Therefore let no one judge you in regard to food or drink, or in respect to a festival or a new moon celebration or a Sabbath day.”
 
8. into sensuality: aselgeia refers to a total abandonment to one’s own senses and emotions; lusts and desires. Warning against this at Galatians 5:13, "For you were called to freedom brethren;
only do not use your freedom as an opportunity for the flesh." (1 Peter 2:16)

Sensuality is actually a philosophy of SELF GRATIFICATION.
The philosophy of sensuality centers around four factors:
(1) lust for physical gratification
(2) lust for praise
(3) lust for money
(4) lust for power
See Topic: Sensuality
 
9. and deny: rejection of the person and work of the Messiah.
The issue with denial here is a rejection of Christ’s deity – the incarnation and the hypostatic union. This was a key factor with Gnosticism. That is what John addressed so perfectly in 1 John 1:1-4;
2:22-23 and 4:1-3.
 
10. our only master: the word, despotās focuses on the JESUS who deserves unlimited and unquestioned obedience and service.
   A. At 2Peter 2:1, It is "the MASTER who bought them," Greek verb is agoradz
ō.
   B. At Rev. 5:9, speaking of Jesus, "and you purchased for God with your blood people
       from every tribe and tongue and people and nation." Greek verb is agoradz
ō.
   c. Technically, the word "only" does not challenge the sovereignty of the Father, for the
|     word "despot
ās" recognizes earned authority (Eph. 1:20-23); equal honor (John 5:22-23);
       equality of power (John 10:27-30); equality of function (John 14:9-11);
       and equality in deity (John 20:28-29).
      
11. and Lord: kurios focuses on the deity of the Messiah.
12. Jesus Christ:  As seen above at verse 1, the focus is on “savior” and “Messiah.”
 
INFILTRATION OF CHRISTIANITY
1. Jesus: Mat. 7:15-23
2. Paul: Acts
20:29-30; Gal. 2:4-5; 2 Tim. 3:1-7; Titus 1:10-14
3. Peter: 2 Peter 2:1-3, 12-22
4. John: 1 John 4:1-6
 
VERSES 5-19
THE FIRST FACTOR OF SENSUALITY
Reminder of historical apostasy and the attack on God’s system for sexual morality.
Verse 5a
1. Now I desire: boulomai as a present mid indicative.
The union of a dedicated character and divine inspiration.
 
2. to remind you: hupomimnāskō as an aorist active infinitive.
This reviews both Old testament writings and the teachings of the apostles.
A key factor in "learning" Christianity is to learn the Old Testament.
3. though you have known: oida as a perfect active participle indicates knowledge gained in the past and is now a part of the mentality of the soul.
For a long time in the early church the only Scripture they had was the Old Testament.
When Paul taught and wrote, he practically communicated in Old testament quotations.
 
4. once: hapaxz can indicate a “one time” idea or a “once for all” (and not needed again).
Jude recognizes that these things have been commonly taught throughout the church.
 
5. all things: This indicates that the Old Testament body of truth provided by God HAS BEEN adequately circulated and taught among the churches. It does not necessarily mean that ALL believers have learned and retained the information. However, he is not implying that anyone has forgotten. He is simply using these “commonly known” truths as a springboard to focus on the present danger of apostasy that has infiltrated so many of the local assemblies.
 
Verse 5b: first example of moral apostasy – the exodus generation – apostate BELIEVERS.
1. That the Lord: This is a reference to the pre-incarnate Christ, who is the one who was proactive in dealing with the Exodus generation.
1 Corinthians 10:1-4; Isaiah 51:5, 9-11
 
2. after delivering a people out from the land of Egypt: sōdzō is the common word for “save” or “deliver.” But salvation is not in view here. This is talking about the PHYSICAL deliverance out of Egypt.
 
3. subsequently destroyed: apollumi as an aorist active indicative. This refers to the time period of the wilderness wandering during which all who came out of Egypt died except Caleb and Joshua. These disobedient believers were judged by God because of maximum failure to trust God’s character and plan. Numbers 14:22-30.
 
4. Those who did not believe: persistent failure to trust in the character and plan of God.  This is not a salvation issue.
 
5. There are many expressions of apostasy committed by the Exodus generation (summarized at 1 Cor. 10:5-10; Heb. 3:7-13; 4:11; Psalm 95:7-11), and by the false teachers Jude has in mind. However, the primary incident in Jude's mind is probably the sexual immorality mentioned at Numbers 25:1-9 and referenced by Paul at 1 Cor. 10:8.
I believe this is the focus instead of the GENERAL rebellion and disbelief that occurred over the 40 years of wandering.
   A. The reference to the angels deals with sexual immorality.
   B. The reference to
Sodom deals with sexual immorality.
   C. The comparison to the false teachers at Jude 8 deals with sexual immorality.
See Topic: SIN UNTO DEATH
 
5. Principle: If God judged believers who rebelled against divine design, He will do no less than judge the unbelieving false teachers who have rebelled against Him.
 
Verse 6: SECOND example of sexual immorality – The angelic infiltration
Although this incident of the angelic infiltration is presented in the apocryphal book of Enoch, Jude's use of similar language does not validate that book as inspired. The book of Enoch records the traditional account of what happened in Genesis 6. Both Peter and Jude, through inspiration, validate that account.
1. The angels: This refers to a group of FALLEN angels. It refers to an event that occurred AFTER the fall of the angels. The angelic revolt occurred before the creation of the human race. The event in view here occurred before the flood, over a period of 120 years from 1536 AH to 1656 AH.
 
2. who kept not their own domain: archā means “beginning.” But in the context of Genesis 6, it refers to their own “sphere of existence” or created physical boundaries.
3. but abandoned their own dwelling: oik
ātārion refers to one’s physical realm of living.
4. Study topic: Angelic Infiltration

and commentary on Genesis six.
 
5. He has kept: tāreō as a perfect active indicative. He has preserved in the past with the result that the condition of that action remains in effect until the doer of the action or someone greater than the doer reverses it. In this case, no one can reverse the judgment that God has placed upon these angels.
6. in eternal bonds: desmos refers to something that TIES something down.
Eternal is the word, haidios. Only used here and at Romans 1:20. There it is used of God, referring to His eternal power.
This refers only to this specific group of fallen angels. The other fallen angels are quite active operating under Satan’s administration. Eph. 6:12; 1 Tim. 4:1
7. under darkness: dzophos refers to darkness or gloom. The idea is both a physical and a functional experience. The location of this judgment is in tartarus.
1 Peter 3:18-20; 2 Peter 2:4
This is a place IN hades, probably to be identified as the great chasm that existed between “torments” and “paradise.”
See Topic: Physical death
 
8. For the judgment of the great day: This refers to the final judgment placed upon Satan and his angels which will occur in two stages.
   A. Immediately after the battle of Armageddon: Revelation 20:1-3
   B. At the end of the millennial reign of Jesus: Rev. 20:7-10; Mt. 25:41; Zech 13:2.
   C. It does seem likely that these fallen angels are released for a short time to oppress
       the citizens of the beast's kingdom during the Day of the Lord judgments.
       See discussion at The 6 Trumpets.
 
9. Principle: If God judged the angels who rebelled against divine design, He will do no less than judge humans who rebel against divine design.
 
Verse 7 The third example of sexual immorality: Sodom and Gomorrah
1. Just as
Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them:
   A. Refers to the five cities of the
Jordan valley. Gen. 13:11,12; 14:2
      
Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, Bela (which was later called Zoar).
   B. These people were involved in gross immorality. Deviation from divine morality
       in every area. Gen. 13:13
   C. Each of these cities were destroyed except Bela (Zoar). Gen. 19:19-25
   D. Hosea 11:8; Jeremiah 49:18
 
2. since they in the same way as these (the angels of verse 6).
3. having indulged in gross immorality: exporneu
ō as an aorist active participle.
From the word group, pornos, and refers to PHYSICAL immorality.
 
4. and having gone after flesh of a different kind: aperchomai as an aorist active participle. Refers to sexual activity with a person that is contrary to divine design. God’s design is one man and one woman.
This then refers primarily to homosexuality (Gen. 19:4-5) but includes bestiality.
Description at Romans 1:24-27.
 
5. are exhibited: prokeimai as a present mid indicative means, are publicly displayed. The word is used for bread or a corpse which is on display.
In this case, universally displayed through the judgment pronounced by the scriptures.
6. as an example: deigma – illustration, example, lesson
7. by undergoing: hupech
ō as a present active participle.
   A. the punishment: dik
ā refers to an expression of justice.
   B. everlasting fire: This refers specifically to the PHYSICAL “fire and brimstone”
      that rained down on the cities (Gen. 19:24-25), but it typifies the ETERNAL
    “burning” of torments (Luke
16:23-24) and the lake of fire
    (Rev. 14:9-11;
20:10-15).
   C. The “physical” judgment came because of their immorality, but the ultimate
       judgment in the lake of fire is because of failure to trust in Christ as the Savior.
 
See Topic: Lake of fire
 
Verse 8
Comparison to the false teachers who have infiltrated the churches
1. Yet in the same manner: the particular expression of apostasy committed by the fallen angels of Genesis 6 and by the cities of the plain.
 
2. these dreamers: enupniadzomai as a present middle participle.
What they think and believe is delusion rather than truth. The force of this is not simply the idea of “dreaming,” but it is on the NATURE of the dreaming. Thus a more accurate understanding is “these dreamers of delusion.”
 
3. FIRST EXPRESSION of apostasy. (sexual immorality)
defile the flesh: miain
ō (present active indicative) means to pollute or defile. Flesh refers to the human body in the overall context and has in view sexual immorality as mentioned in the examples above.
 
4. SECOND EXPRESSION of apostasy. (Lust for power, money and praise)
reject authority: athete
ō as a present active indicative plus kuriotās.
Authority IN GENERAL. They are SELF-governed, rejecting anything that seeks to put any kind of limitation on what THEY want to do.
This is amplified at 2peter
2:10 with the words, “daring” and “self-willed.”
   A. daring: tolm
ātās means brazen, arrogantly impudent.
   B. self-willed: authad
ās indicates the basic inclination of the sin nature.
     It is totally and solely interested in seeking that which brings pleasure to SELF.
 
5. THIRD EXPRESSION of apostasy. (wrong side of the angelic conflict)
revile majesties: blasph
āmeō (present active indicative) – malign, ridicule, disrespect, and even BLAME.
The word majesty is the plural of doxza, which basically means “glory” but in the plural refers to God’s angels. Used this way at 2 Peter 2:10.
The primary function of the elect angels is to represent and promote the GLORY of God – His character and plan.
Even the fallen angels once functioned in this capacity and should not be arrogantly confronted. They should be faced with Boldness and confidence certainly, but not with pride and self-righteousness, as the example of Michael in verse 9 indicates.

These false teachers are used by Satan to revile God’s angels as an attack on the character and plan of God. This reviling of the elect angels discredits them and elevates the fallen angels as being “right” and unfairly treated by God. For these people to be used this way indicates their disorientation to the spiritual conflict and is evidence that they are clearly “on the wrong side.”
As verse 10 indicates, “these men revile the things which they do not understand.”
1 Timothy 1:7, “they do not understand either what they are saying or the matters about which they make confident assertions.”
 
Verse 9 is a parenthetical statement to show how utterly arrogant and brazen these false teachers are who dare to malign God’s higher creation.
Even Michael does not stoop to arrogant accusations against the angelic creation.
 
1. But Michael the archangel:
A. Hebrew: miykAāl - has 3 parts.

  
1. Interrogative pronoun, miy = who?
   2. preposition, ke = like or as.
   3. el (āl) = God
   4. Result: Who is like God?
   5. Communicates God's uniqueness in character and essence.
   6. Gabriel's name communicates that he is God's "right hand man."
 
B. Daniel 10:13, "one of the chief princes." Notice, NOT the chief prince.
  
1. Cf. New Testament archangel in Jude 1:9 and 1 Thes. 4:16
  
2. Jewish tradition indicates that their are 7 archangels, but the bible indicates
      there is only one.

  
3. The term describes the rank with regard to his special function in God's plan.
 
C. Daniel 10:21 and 11:1, indicate that Michael is in a subordinate position to Gabriel.
 
D. Daniel 12:1, describes Michael as the "guardian angel" of the nation of Israel.
Daniel 10:21. In 1 Thes. 4:16, Michael participates at the rapture because this is also the time for the restoration of
Israel as the evangelistic agent).
 
E. Rev. 12:7, does not contradict this position. Michael is still functioning as the guardian of Israel, even though he has temporarily "stepped aside" as indicated at Daniel 12:1.
 
F. Michael is very high in rank, if not number 2, but he has specific function in connection with Israel while Gabriel's function is to "stand in the presence of God."
See topic: Gabriel
 
G. At Jude 9, Michael had the responsibility of putting the body of Moses in a "safe place" after his death , to await his role in the tribulation as one of the 2 witnesses-heralds of Rev. 11.
 
H. Michael is NOT the pre-incarnate Christ, ie, the "Word" of John 1:1.
  
1. Michael is "one of" the chief angels, not THE chief. Dan. 10:13.
   2. Michael and the Christ "appear" in the same historical context as two different
       beings at Rev. 12:
   3. Christ is identified via 1 Cor. 10:1-3 as the Rock who delivered and followed  
     
Israel throughout the wilderness (Deut. 32). And the Rock is none other than  
      Yahweh God Himself (the second member of the Godhead).

  
4. Michael is NOT the angel (messenger) of the LORD. The angel of the Lord is
       clearly identified as Yahweh Himself (the second member of the Godhead).
 
2. when he disputed with the devil: diakrinō as a present middle participle
3. argued: dialegomai as an imperfect mid indicative (continuous action in past time). This simply indicates that there was a confrontation as Satan tried to prevent Mike from securing the body. It did not last very long, for Mike just appealed to the authority of God and argument over.
It was not emotional. Michael did not take it "personally."
That is one thing we can never do when dealing with people who differ - never take it personally!
CT: “And Michael the archangel while he was disputing with the devil, arguing about the body of Moses, did not pronounce against him a maligning judgment.”
 
4. THE BODY OF MOSES:
Moses received a special, private burial by God. Deuteronomy 34:5-6.
“So Moses the servant of Yahweh died there in the
land of Moab, according to Yahweh’s word. And He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab, opposite Beth-peor; but no man knows his burial place to this day.”
 
God’s plan called for a special future assignment for Moses (one of the two witnesses of Revelation 11), in a RE-ANIMATED/resuscitated human body (not resurrection). That is the reason for this huge angelic dispute between Michael and Satan. The only reason Mike could win this dispute was by appealing to the character and plan of God, for he could not over power Satan, and certainly would not be arrogant enough to revile him.  

There is no record of this dispute in the Old Testament. Jude references oral and written tradition as found in the apocryphal book The Assumption (or Testament) of Moses. Through inspiration, Jude's reference validates the incident and complements the three facts we know about the future of Moses.
(1) Moses had a secret, private burial by God. Deut. 34:5-6
(2) Moses appears as one of the heralds of the second coming of Messiah at Mat. 16:27-17:8.
(3) Moses qualifies as one of the two witnesses of Revelation 11.

Jude's reference does not however, validate the apocryphal book that records the oral tradition.
The book does in fact contain some accurate and truthful information just like someone's commentary on Scripture might contain such.. But ONLY that which is found within the 66 books of the Bible can be viewed as spiritually accurate.

The soul of Moses went into paradise, known also as Abraham’s bosom, where he experienced great peace and joy along with every other BELIEVER of the Old Testament time period (See Topic: Physical death).. All of these believers remained in paradise, in the heart of the earth until Jesus took them to the third heaven with Him at His resurrection and ascension.
Matthew 16:27-28 and 17:1-8
 Revelation 11:1-13

 
5. did not dare: tolmao (aorist active indicative). Do to so, would be to show arrogance and self-righteousness – personal mental attitude sins that would indicate a disregard for the plan and character of God.
 
6. to pronounce against him: epipherō (aorist act. Infinitive) indicates a VERBAL expression, which in this case would be arrogant and self-righteous.
7. a judgment of revilement: krisis plus genitive of blasph
āmia.
To do this would be taking matters into his own hands and expressing personal feelings of hatred, arrogance and self-righteousness.
 
8. but said (legō, aorist act indicative) the Lord rebuke you: epitimaō (aorist act. Optative).
The word means to censor someone’s behavior. But Mike is appealing to the character and plan of God for this censorship.
Mike simply appealed to the authority of God. Basically, “this is NOT between you and me, buddy, but it’s between you AND GOD.” It was not emotional and Mike did not take it personally.
That is one thing we cannot do when dealing with people who differ from us. NEVER take it personally!
A similar situation can be seen at Zechariah 3:1-2, and needs to be addressed so that there is no confusion.
At Zechariah it is the Angel of Yahweh who does the rebuking saying, "Yahweh rebuke you."
This is the second member of the Godhead functioning in a "servant" capacity to the Father (the Most High),
rebuking Satan basically in the name of the Father by saying, "Yahweh rebuke you."
So, it is Yahweh (the "son") saying to Satan, "Yahweh (the Father) rebuke you."
See the three persons of the Godhead at Isaiah 48:12-16.
For details on the Godhead see topic: The Godhead
 
9. Not only does this condemn the arrogant activity of the false teachers who dare to revile angelic authorities, but it also gives US an example how to handle those we encounter who are in opposition to us.
It should also provide a guideline for us when we encounter demonic activity and/or demons themselves.
Attempts at exorcism can be quite dangerous but a verbal rebuke in the name of Jesus Christ by a believer
who is functionally "right" with God (I.E. in fellowship) will provide sufficient protection if not alleviation from the spiritual crisis that is being faced.

10. Never takes things personally or let pride and self-righteousness determine your actions.
The principle of “rebuke” in such cases is found at Titus 1:9-13; 2 Tim. 2:24-25; 4:1-2; and of course later here at verses 22-23.
 
Verse 10
1. But these men on the one hand: the false teachers of v. 4 and 8
2. Revile: blasph
āmeō (present a indicative) in contrast to Michael’s knowledge and attitude.
3. the things they don’t understand: oida plus the negative (perfect a indicative).
Basically, the whole nature of the angelic conflict. They are ignorant dupes being used by Satan to undermine spiritual truth by their teaching. Not only do they teach error, but they criticize, ridicule and even deny THE truth.
 
4. and on the other hand, the things which they know by instinct:  
   A. Know: epistamai (present mid indicative) to be aware of something, to know about.  
   B. by nature: phusik
ōs (adverb), by instinct or through the natural order of things. This word is used at
       Romans 1:26-27 to refer specifically to sexual immorality.
   C. Paul teaches that in the soul (heart) of everyone, there is a "natural" instinctive knowledge
       of what is morally right and wrong (Rom. 2:14-15). People can embrace or reject that natural
       design, but it is there to establish the divine standard for morality within the human race.
   D. See Topics: MORALITY

5. Jude continues with the fact that these false teachers are teaching and practicing physically immoral activity as mentioned in verse 8.
The natural order is one man and one woman in a monogamous physical relationship.
(Genesis 2:24; 1 Cor. 7:2)
The people of the Exodus generation violated this.
The fallen angels violated this.
The people of the 5 cities violated this.
And these false teachers are violating this.

 
6. like unreasoning animals: alogos (2 Peter 2:12). Animals have no REASONING ability. They operate entirely on INSTINCT – the instinct of doing only what is “comfortable” to self. Instinct can be “directed” or trained, but it is still doing only what is physically beneficial to the animal.
(A good example is when a dog “humps” a person’s leg, trying to find physical gratification)
This animalistic behavior is mentioned quite often in the Old Testament  to describe the senseless human.
Hebrew: beiyr = animal.  baar (noun) = senseless person; Ps. 92:7; 73:22; Prov. 12:1; 30:2.
Verb, bAar = to be brutish, animalistic (stupid like an animal):  Jeremiah 10:8, 14, 21; 51:17;  Is. 19:11
 
7. in these things they corrupt themselves: phtheirō (present mid indicative).
This has in view the physical corruption of sexual immorality, but through it their soul is even further corrupted and distorted. First the soul chooses to sin and then the body follows and then the soul is further corrupted.
Paul describes this at Romans 1:24-27

Verse 24
(1) first comes the “lusts of their hearts.”
(2) then “their bodies might be dishonored among them.”
Verse 26
(1) dishonorable passions
(2) exchanged natural function for that which is unnatural.
 
Verse 11 THE THREE OTHER FACTORS OF SENSUALITY
1. Woe to them: pronouncement of personal and judicial consequences
2. They have gone the way of Cain: This embraces both the LUST FOR PRAISE factor, and a works-system for salvation. It also leads to the many sinful practices that stem from it. (Gen. 4:1-12; 1John 3:12 )

 
 The Way of Cain

3. abandoned themselves into the error of Balaam.  This is the lust for money factor, which likewise leads to many other sinful practices. Numbers 22-24. Although Balaam was a believer who fell into the error of lust for money, these apostate unbelievers are likewise motivated by lust for money.
The way of Balaam
 
4. and perished in the rebellion of Korah: This is the lust for power factor.
This is a category of apostasy that rejects divine authority in both spiritual and moral living through verbal and overt opposition. Numbers 16:1-40

The Rebellion of Korah
 
Verses 12-13
FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS from nature to expose the corrupt character of the false teachers.

HIDDEN REEFS
1. These are (hidden reefs or stains): The word is spilos. Its original meaning is “hidden reef.” But later came to mean a spot or stain that mars something’s outward appearance.
Either meaning can apply to these false teachers, but Jude probably has in mind the meaning “hidden reefs” because it is the first of the five illustrations from nature (reefs, clouds, trees, waves, stars).
These false teachers have actually SECRETLY infiltrated the churches (v.4), so in many cases their true nature and intent will be unknown by many of the members.
They thus, become a HIDDEN danger as they fellowship with you and slowly woo you into listening and accepting their false teachings. This will cause both internal and external problems. INTERNALLY, it will cause conflicts and divisions within the assemblies. EXTERNALLY, it will produce the STAIN effect, as Christian values are distorted and compromised, thus MARRING the testimony within the society.

2. However, we can give fair consideration to “stain” because of Peter’s 2nd letter, where he uses the word in a very similar context.  2Peter 2:1-17
At 2Peter
2:13
, “these are stains (spilos) and blemishes (momos), reveling in their deceptions as they party with you.” A stain is that which mars something’s outward appearance, and thus diminishes from true value. They produce a conflicting “image” or testimony as they claim to be Christian and yet teach and live contrary to Christian values.
Jude has communicated the problem of “fellowshipping” with the false teachers focusing on a different factor – the factor of HIDDEN danger, rather than the STAIN danger. However, at the same time, THAT hidden danger includes the deception that produces a stain on their image, message and testimony.
 
3. in your love feasts: agapā in the plural refers to the fellowship suppers where the members would provide food for the needy, visit and celebrate Christian values. This use of the word occurs only here. The celebration probably includes the communion service, and is probably what Paul has in mind at 1 Cor. 11:17-34.
This “love feast” is not commanded by the Lord, nor is it ever mentioned in a positive light in the three places it is referenced (Jude 12; 1 Cor. 11; 2 Peter 2:13). It appears to have been something started with “good intentions” but quickly deteriorated into a source for conflict and division.
 
4. while they feast with you: suneuōcheomai (present mid participle).
Same word used at 2Peter
2:13.
 
5. without fear: aphobōs indicates they are arrogant and confident that their true character and intentions are “hidden” from the members.
 
5. caring for themselves: poimainō (present act participle), constantly shepherding themselves. They interested only in satisfying their own motives and desires at the expense of the feelings, needs and protection of others.
They want to "collect" the victims for they need them on their side, but they really don't care about them.
Jude’s intentional use of this “shepherding” word indicates that the false teachers totally reject the pastor’s authority and the truth as represented in the written word of God.
The false shepherds who care only for themselves is reminiscent of  the false shepherds of Israel in the days
of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Ezekiel 34:2-10; Jeremiah 23:1-2.
 
CLOUDS without water blown around by winds
Second illustration from nature.
1. They should provide irrigation for the crops to promote growth.
2. If the cloud shows up without water, it has nothing to contribute for the benefit of the crops.
3. These false teachers represent themselves as authorities on spiritual matters.
      Titus 1:6, "they profess to know God."
4. But they have nothing in the soul to pass on to the people.
    Instead, they have only empty emotionalism and falsehood as described above.
5. What they should provide for others is illustrated at Deut. 32:1
    "My teaching shall drop as rain, my speech shall distill as the dew, as the droplets
      on the fresh grass and as the showers on the herb."
6. carried along by winds: present passive participle of parapherō indicates that these "useless" teachers
    RECEIVE an influence that controls and motivates them.
   A. They are under the power of their own emotions. Romans 16:17-18, "for such men are slaves
        not of our Lord Christ, but of their own emotions (koilia)."
   B. They themselves are being deceived: 2 Tim. 3:13, "deceived and being deceived."
7. Same principle at 2Peter 2:17, "springs without water."

AUTUMN TREES without fruit
Third illustration from nature
1. No production. Mat. 7:15-29
2. Therefore, they have nothing to contribute to your spiritual growth.
3. Twice dead: twice dead (aorist active participle, having died twice).
   A. The first death is the failure to produce fruit.
       1. For the unbeliever, his status in unbelief = no production.
       2. For the believer, being out of fellowship results in no production.
            James 2:17, "faith without works is useless (dead)."
            Ephesians 5:14, "awake o sleeper (believer out of fellowship) - awareness
                                      and arise from the dead (spiritual neutralization) - recovery
                                      and Christ will shine on you (provide the light of truth)." - growth
   B. Thus, the second death, which is being uprooted. Totally rejected by the farmer.
       1. For the unbeliever, this "second death" refers to the act of God in discarding him or
           turning him over to his darkness way of life that the has embraced. Rom. 1:24, 26, 28.
       2. For the believer, it is pronouncement of the sin unto death. 1 Jn 5:16-17; John 15:6

WILD WAVES of the sea
Fourth illustration from nature
1. Casting up: epaphridz
ō as a present active participle to describe a continuous or constant activity
in every expression of their life.
2. their own shame: aischun
ā in the plural = shameful things; what they say and do.
3. As the waves explode onto the seashore and display the FOAM of the water's contents,
    so these false teachers continually display their error and hypocrisy.
4. Through discernment and application of Divine truth the functional believers will be able to clearly see
    the true nature and intent of these false teachers. Mat. 7:20-21.
5. At Isaiah 57:20-21 we are shown two factors about the "wild" waves.
    1. They cast up their "character" and works upon the shore - refuse and mud.
    2. And their tumultuous life can never experience true peace.

WANDERING STARS
Fifth illustration from nature
1. Star plus the adjective, plan
ātās, from the verb, planaō which means to wander.
2. This could be a reference to the "planets" rather than to meteorites or comets.
3. The stars would be relied upon for directional guidance. The "wandering" planets, not so,
    as there was no DAILY, monthly and even yearly pattern that was discernable.
4. Thus, again, the image of these false teachers is one of instability and unreliability.
5. This might also be a hint at their imitation of light as per 2Cor. 11:13-15.

6. However, Jude could have in view meteorites which likewise have no pattern or directional
   benefit to the navigators. Keeping in mind that Jude most likely has before him the book of Enoch,
   which interestingly enough has language concerning false teachers that resembles a meteorite.
7. The commentaries are divided on this, but the image remains the same regardless.

VERSE 13
The eternal judgment that awaits these unbelieving false teachers
1. for whom the gloom: zophos - indicates intense mental and physical misery.
2. of the darkness (skotos). Assigning them to the same "type" (dzophos) of suffering as the angels of verse 6.
    Cf. 2Peter 2:4, He committed them to pits of gloom (zophos).
    Cf. 2Peter 2:17, for whom the gloom (zophos) of the darkness (skotos) has been reserved.

3. has been reserved: tāreō as a perfect passive participle indicates action that was established in the past and continues into the future.
   A. Hebrews 9:27, appointed unto men to die once and after this comes judgment.
   B. John 3:18, has been judged already (the judgment has been established in the past).
   C. forever: eis ai
ōn (plural) - unto ages.
See topic: everlasting judgment

VERSE 14-15
Enoch's reference to this everlasting judgment.
Jude does not quote the book of Enoch precisely, but close enough to leave no doubt that he certainly had this book in mind when he writes. Of course, inspiration makes Jude's words more accurate and precise.
Verse 14
1.And about these also: specifically, the unbelieving false teachers of the context, but it applies to all unbelievers, as all share the same judgment in the lake of fire.

2. Enoch, the 7th from Adam: According to Genesis 5:1-18, 1 Chron. 1:1-3 and Luke 3:37-38,
Enoch is the 7th name in the genealogical list.

3. prophesied: prophāteuō as an aorist active indicative. It means to FOREtell or the FORTHtell.
Thus, the idea of predicting (prophesying) the future as well as proclaiming spiritual truth in general.
However, the primary focus is not on "future" telling, but on proclaiming THROUGH divine inspiration.
So, it is the prophets who are given divine revelation to pass on to the people of God.
We see this in the Old Testament with the phrase, "thus says the Lord."
And in the New Testament at 1Cor. 14:3, "the one who prophesies speaks to men for edification and exhortation and consolation."
And at Ephesians 3:5, "they mystery . . .has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit."
Now, although Enoch is not designated as a "prophet," he certainly qualifies under the dispensational concept of the family priest, and in view of his spiritual consistency, which is indicated by the phrase, "Enoch walked with God" (Gen. 5:24 cf Gen. 6:9)) and "he was pleasing to God," (Heb. 11:5).
Furthermore, the use of this verb and a FUTURE event certainly designates Enoch as a prophet.
Enoch taught about the future coming in judgment (second coming) of the promised Messiah.

4. saying: legō as a present active participle to indicate a genuine quotation from Enoch.
The book of Enoch at IEnoch 1:9 preserves this oral tradition and Jude validates it through inspiration.
A translation by R.H. Charles:
"And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones
To execute judgment upon all
And to destroy all the ungodly:
And to convict all flesh
Of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed,
And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."
HOWEVER -
J. B. Mayor in the Expositor's Greek Testament provides a quote from Charles
that is different from the above.
"And lo! He comes with ten thousands of his holy ones to execute judgment upon them,
and He will destroy the ungodly and will convict all flesh of all that the sinners and ungodly have wrought and ungodly committed against Him."

Translated from the Ethiopic by Richard Laurence.
"Behold, he comes with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon them,
and destroy the wicked, and reprove all the carnal for everything which sinful and
ungodly have done, and committed against him."

Simon J. Kistemaker in Baker Books New Testament Commentary provides a different translation which he ascribes to Isaac, I.
"Behold, he will arrive with ten million of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all.
He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done,
that which the sinners and the wicked ones committed against him."

There seems to be no definitive translation of the book of Enoch. Suffice it to say that the words are similar enough to justify the conclusion that Jude certainly had that book in mind as he wrote about the second coming of Christ. But as mentioned earlier, this simply validates a very early prophetic teaching from Enoch that has been preserved from the time of the flood via oral tradition (most certainly) or by written tradition (less likely), and does not indicate that the book of Enoch or ANYTHING in it should be considered as inspired.

5. Behold the Lord came: erchomai as an aorist active indicative. The use of the past (or completed action) tense is a prophetic device that indicates the certainty of the event that is in view.
This of course, refers to the second coming of the promised Messiah that Jesus taught about at Matthew 24:29-44.
According to the prewrath view of the rapture, the second coming occurs when Jesus arrives in the clouds of the sky and gathers together all believers "from the farthest end of the earth unto the farthest end of heaven." (Mark 13:27). This is when the rapture occurs.
The physical descent of Jesus at Armageddon is NOT the second coming, but an event that will occur many days AFTER His arrival in the sky.
For details see article WHAT IS THE PREWRATH RAPTURE.

6. with His holy ten thousands (literal): The NASB, "with many thousands of His holy ones," in not literal as the marginal note indicates.
The Greek word, murias is used for a unit of ten thousand or for a very large number of unknown limit. Translating it as either "ten thousands" or simply "thousands" still communicates a huge number of angels who will come with Jesus at His arrival in the clouds of the sky as per Matthew 16:27 and Mat. 24:30-31 and 2Thes. 1:7. In fact, Jesus said at Mat. 24:31, that when He returns it will be with "ALL THE ANGELS with Him."
I Thes. 3:13 says that He comes "with ALL HIS HOLY ONES."
These "holy ones" are angels and not believers, as the context there indicates.
See analysis of 1Thes. 3:13.

Verse 15
Summary statement of the entire judgment scenario.
Here two factors are mentioned, but the "second-advent" judgments will be carried out in several stages once Jesus initially arrives in the clouds of the sky with power and great glory.

1. to execute judgment: verb poieō as an aorist active infinitive plus the noun, krisis.
This includes both a physical and a spiritual (soulish) judgment.

Isaiah 11:4b, "And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth,
and with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked."

2. and to convict: elegchō (elengko), aorist active infinitive, expose, convict and rebuke.
The verbal indictment that exposes and convicts them of their failure to adjust to Divine justice on God's terms.
Psalm 2:5, "Then He will speak to them in His anger, and terrify them in His fury."
   A. all the ungodly: aseb
ās, mental attitude status. Those who do not recognize God  in a worshipful attitude.
       Arrogance and rebellion - no awe, respect or fear.
   B. of all their deeds of ungodliness: ergos + asebeia (noun).
       This is the overt expression of creature aggrogance.
   C. which they have done in irreverence: verb, asebe
ō
       1. The rebellion of Psalm 2:2-3, "The kings of the earth take, and the rulers take counsel together
           against Yahweh and against His Messiah:
           let us tear their fetters apart, and cast away their cords from us."
       2. The resistance of Romans 1:18, "who resist the truth in unrighteousness."
       3. Sons of disobedience. Ephesians 2:2
   D. and of all the hard things: skl
āros. reference to stubbornness and hardness of heart expressed verbally
        in rebellion and antagonism. Psalm 2:3
   E. which ungodly sinners:
asebās (irreverent) + hamartōlos. The emphasis is on the status of deficiency.
        They have come short and therefore are deficient of God's righteousness. Romans 3:23.
       This establishes their unbeliever status.
   F. have spoken against Him: laleo (aorist active indicative) + preposition, kata (against).
       1. The scoffing of religion: Luke 16:14
       2. The mocking of 2 Peter 3:3-4

3. The order of judgment: See many studies in Prophecy for complete details.
   A. The terror caused by His initial arrival in the clouds. Mt. 24:30; Rev. 6:15-16
   B. The 7 trumpet judgments: Rev. 8-9. seventh seal and 6 trumpets
   C. The bowl judgments: Rev. 16. Seventh trumpet
   D. Armageddon: Rev. 19:11-21. See Topic: Armageddon
   E. At the end of the kingdom: Rev. 20:7-10
   F. The great white throne judgment: Rev. 20:11-13.
   G. Final casting into the lake of fire. Rev. 20:14-15. See Topic: everlasting judgment

Verse 16
Continues the general description of these false teachers
1. These are: eimi, present indicative - introduces a functional description of the false teachers.
2. grumblers: gonggust
ās (plural)- whisperers of discontent described by the next two participles.
   A. Only here as a person.
   B. 5 times as a verb, gonggudz
ō: Mat. 20:11; Luke 5:30; John 6:41, 43; 1 Cor. 10:10
   C. 4 times as a noun, gonggusmos: John 7:12; Acts 6:1; Philip 2:14; 1 Peter 4:9

3. finding fault: mempsimoiros, plural adjective to describe the nature of the grumbling.
   Constantly complaining and criticizing life people and things.
   This breeds discontent with the church leadership, undermining their authority and teaching,
   and lures the people to themselves and their own false teaching.

4. following their own lusts: poreuomai as a present active participle.
   Plus kata and epithumia: according to the standard of their own lusts, which as verse 4 has indicated,
  is according to the philosophy of sensuality.

5. and their mouth speaks: laleo as a present active indicative.
   A. in arrogance: huperogkos, swollen to oversize.
      Thus, thinking yourself to be "more" than you actually are.
      Having an air of confidence, using words and ideas that impress the hearers.
      This is exactly what Paul avoided as at 1 Cor. 2:1-5.
   B. awing people (faces): impressing the people with your words and confidence.
       1. thaumadz
ō as a present active participle. It means to cause wonder or awe; impressing people.
       2. It is possible that the phrase follows a common Hebrew expression.
           a. Lev. 19:15, "you shall not be partial to the poor nor defer to the great." (NASB)
           b. Hebrew: "you shall not lift up the face of the poor nor favor the face of the great."
           c. (LXX) ""you shall not receive the face of the poor nor marvel at the face of the mighty."
          At Job 13:10, the NASB renders it "show paritality." (LXX), "secretly respect persons."
       3. Some commentators and translations (NASB) understand this to mean "flatter," but I don't agree.
           A. T. Robertson renders it "showing respect of persons."
       4. But the issue here is NOT flattery or showing favor toward anyone. The word "marvel" needs to go
           hand in hand with speaking in arrogance. Flattery does not relate to this, but awing and impressing
           people with confidence and knowledge does.
           It is true that flattery might elicit "gain" from the hearers, but so would awing them. So given the choice,
           I prefer the idea of actions and words that "awe" and impress the hearers.
         
       5. for the purpose of personal advantage:
ōpheleia
           Financial gain: 1 Thes. 2:5; Titus 1:10-11
           Recognition and glory: 1 Thes. 2:6

Verses 17-21
Personal exhortation of combat against apostacy.
Jude gives us SEVEN combat factors.
(1) REMEMBRANCE: verses 17-19
1. but you beloved: popular term to address fellow believers. agap
ātos
    The object of beneficent love, seeking what is best for them.
2. ought to remember: mimn
āskō as an aorist passive imperative.
    Reference to doctrinal information taught in the past.
3. the words which were spoken before: aorist active participle of proleg
ō.
4. by the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ. Specifically by Peter and Paul. Acts 20:29
   This statement also clarifies that Jude does not consider himself to be an apostle.
   But Peter does the same thing at 2 Peter 3:2, "by your apostles." Peter is simply being all inclusive
   concerning the authority of the apostles.  I have already shown that there are only 12 apostles and
   Jude is not on the list.
   As mentioned earlier, Jude was probably a prophet functioning as per Ephesians 3:5 1Cor. 12:28.
Verse 18
1. that they were saying to you: imperfect act. indicative of lego. In speech and in writing.
2. that in the last time: chronos (sing) with eschatos (last).
   This is a reference to the progression of time throughout the church age and not to the end of the church age.
   Thus, the idea is in "later" times as the church age continues. The infiltration of false teachers began at the
   start of the church age and has continued even to the present time. Mat. 24:4-5, 11, 23-26.
   1Tim. 4:1-3; 2 Tim. 3:1-7, 13; 4:3-4; 2 Peter 2:1-3; 3:3-4; 1 John 2:18-19; 4:3
3. there shall be mockers: empaikt
ās - verbal ridicule         
4. following after: poreuomai - present middle participle
5. their own lusts of ungodliness: epithumia + asebeia - lusts of irreverent arrogance
Verse 19 - further description of the false teachers
1.These are those who cause divisions: apodioridz
ō - present act participle.
   Triple compound verb
   A. horidz
ō means to set limits. We get our word horizon from this verb.
   B. preposition dia means "through" which gives us the idea of DIVIDE.
   C. preposition apo means "away from" to indicate something contrary to established truth.
   D. The false teachers use their own self-centered standards to undermine and contradict
        the bona-fide authority and doctrines of the church.

2. soulish: psukikos - functioning without spiritual insight for they do not have the Holy Spirit's control
      through biblical spirituality. 1 Corinthians 2:12-13
3. not having the Spirit: pneuma means, spirit, force, influence, breath, SPIRIT.
    The definite article is not present, but it is not needed to still refer to the Holy Spirit.
    This further indicates what the context has already indicated; these false teachers are unbelievers.
    They do not have the indwelling Holy Spirit.
4. SUMMARY OF INDWELLING
   A. The Holy Spirit is given at the moment of salvation to all church age believers.
       1 Cor. 12:13; Romans 8:9; Gal. 3:2-8, 13-14
   B. The makes the believer's body the temple of God. 1 Cor. 3:16
   C. The Holy Spirit is given from God the Father. 1 Cor. 6:19.
   D. The Holy Spirit is the seal (guarantee) of salvation. 2Cor. 1:22; 5:5; Eph. 1:13-14
   E. The indwelling of the Holy Spirit is permanent. John 14:16-17; Romans 8:9

(2) SPIRITUAL GROWTH
1. but you beloved: only true believers have the capacity to "grow" (understand and utilize)
    Divine truth.
2. building yourselves up: epoikodome
ō as a present active participle.
   See topic: SPIRITUAL GROWTH
3. by your most holy faith: pistis refers to faith as a function in the Christian way of life.
    A. "Your" makes it possessive and personal and therefore FUNCTIONAL.
    B.  most holy: superlative form of hagios (only used this way here).
         1. Most unique: a special kind of faith that only the believer has the capacity to express.
         2. A faith that recognizes the divine standard of truth and trusts in it.
         3. Peter describes it as "the same quality of faith" at 2 Peter 1:1.
         4. He then writes for us to use that functional faith to advance in the growth process. vs. 5-7.
   C. See Topic: FAITH THINKING 

(3) PRAYER
1. praying: proseuchomai as a present middle participle indicates continuity throughout life. 1Thes. 5:17
   Praying for self and for others.
2. see topic: PRAYER (summary)

(4) FILLING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT
1. in the Holy Spirit: reference to fellowship with and guidance from the Holy Spirit not only for prayer,
   but in every area of your life. Galatians 5:16-26
2. See topic: FILLING OF THE HOLY SPIRIT (summary)

(5) BENEFICENT LOVE
1. keep yourselves: aorist active imperative of t
āreō - guard and protect
    The aorist tense relates the principle of character reflection (imitation) that results from
    knowledge and application of bible truth.
2. in the love of God: agap
ā
   A. This has nothing to do with salvation but with a character expression of God's love through building up
        a doctrinal "house" of love in the soul.
   B. John 15:9-10; 14:23-24; 1 Tim. 1:5; 1 John 2:3-6; 5:3; 2 John 6-9; Eph. 4:11-16
   B. See several topics: LOVE

(6) CONFIDENCE
1. waiting expectantly: prosdechomai as a present middle participle.
   It is a confident expectation based on knowledge of God's plan for the future.
   It also indicates dedication to the pursuit and promotion of God's kingdom as at 2Peter 3:12.
   " Looking for and advancing (promoting) the coming of the day of God." Second advent.
   A. apekdechomai: 1cor. 1:7; Rom. 8:19-25 + 2 Cor. 4:13-18; Gal. 5:4-5; Philip. 3:20-21; Heb. 9:28
   B. prosdechomai: Titus 2:11-13
   C. We need to be confident and decisive in our communication of truth and how we live the Christian life.
      Confidence is not arrogance. Confidence is based on proper understanding of Bible Truth.
      Knowledge is power. The message of the gospel is power. The word of God is power.
      It is true that Paul writes at 1 Coir. 8:1 that "knowledge makes arrogant and love edifies."
      But it is knowledge PLUS love that edifies. Love cannot do it alone.
      The soul cannot function without knowledge.

2. for the mercy: eleos is Jude's vocabulary of GRACE which emphasizes the manifestation/expression
   of God's beneficent love, seeking and providing what is best for Himself and His children.
3. of our Lord Jesus Christ: the expression of grace that comes from Him when Christ comes in the clouds
    of the sky with power and great glory to gather together (rapture) his people to Himself.
4. unto eternal life: the second stage of our salvation which is the acquisition of resurrection body
    when Christ returns. 1 Thes. 4:13-14; Philip. 3:20-21.
5. See topic: RAPTURE

(7) AMBASSADORSHIP - in three categories (verses 22-23)
Verse 22 - REPROOF (expose, censure, rebuke)
1. and some: the false teachers actively teaching error.
2. keep on refuting: elengk
ō as a present active imperative. It means to expose, refute and  rebuke.
    He is telling the believers to get proactive in dealing with the infiltrators.
    Don't be intimidated, don't be bullied.
    But of course, this requires SUCCESS in the previous combat factors.
    Preparation before combat or else you become a failure - a casualty.
    A. Manuscript evidence varies between "convict" and "show mercy." Likewise, do commentators
        differ. Good manuscripts exist for both readings.
    B. The Nestle/Aland text prefers "mercy," but with a C rating, which is not very confident.
        J. B. Mayor of Expositor's opts for convict; Kistemaker for "mercy; Robertson is non-committal.
    C. Certainly if diakrino is to be taken as "contend" (which is preferable), then convicting the disputers
        is a more appropriate response given the nature of the spiritual "fight" we are in.
    D. If we do not take this as an aggressive dealing with the apostates (reprove, rebuke, convict), then the
         context does not give us a proactive response to them, which the rest of Scripture requires of us.
    E. This first exhortation for dealing with others is not looking at the "doubters" but the "aggressors."
    F. Verses 23-24 deals with the "victims" (doubters, deceived), "saving" and "showing mercy."
    G. There is no "mercy" to be shown to the false teachers. They are to be exposed, rebuked and censored."
        
3. when they contend with you: diakrin
ō (pres. m. part.) means to dispute, argue as at verse 9.
   Eph. 5:11, "and do not participate in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even refute them."
   Titus 1:7-14; 2:15 (who must be silenced)
   2 Timothy 4:2-4, Paul uses 3 words; expose (elengk
ō), rebuke (epitimaō), exhort (parakaleō).

Verse 23a - EVANGELISM - ministry to unbelievers
1. and others save: s
ōdzō - present active imperatiave. salvation for the unbeliever.
   But of course, "we" cannot "save" them. Our job is to give an accurate gospel message.
   It is God the Holy Spirit who convicts. It is God who saves.
2. snatching them out of the fire: harpadz
ō - present act participle.
   When they trust in Christ, they are delivered from judgment - from the lake of fire. John 5:24; Rev. 20:15.

Verse 23b - EXHORTATION - ministry to believers.
1. and to others: believers who have embraced false teaching.
   The ones who have been deceived by the false teachers.
2. show mercy: elee
ō - present active imperative. Express grace to them.
    (remember, "mercy" is Jude's word to refer to all that GRACE involves.
3. with fear: phobos - reverence, respect, humility
   Romans 15:1-2, Galatians 6:1-2
4. hating: mise
ō - attitude of rejection, disfavor. present active participle
5. even the garment: this refers to the way of life rather than the person themselves.
   No matter how grievous is the offense, we must love (seek the benefit) of the offender.
   But we still disprove of and hate the offense.
6. spotted (stained) by the flesh: spilo
ō - perfect passive participle.
   The "stain" is there from the sin nature. It is well set in and will not be removed until the CAUSE
   is neutralized. That means the sin nature needs to be shut down.
7. the flesh: sarx refers to the sin nature. This is the first time the sin nature has been mentioned by Jude.
   A detailed study is required.
   See topics: Sin nature and deliverance from the sin nature.
8. 1 Thes. 5:14-15, "And we urge you brethren, admonish the unruly, encourage the fainthearted,
                               help the weak, be patient with all men. See that no one repays another with
                               evil for evil, but always seek after that which is good for one another and for all men."

Verses 24-25 Closing focus on the character and plan of God
Verse 24
1. Now unto Him: recognizes the source. Always the primary factor when relating to spiritual truth.
   God is the source. The primary cause, the reason, the authority - always the FOCUS.
   TO HIM BE THE GLORY

2. who is able: dunamai as a present middle participle. Indicates divine ability to provide everything
    we need to help us succeed here on earth. 2Peter 1:3.
   "seeing that His divine power has granted everything we need for life and worship through the
    full knowledge of Him."
3. to guard you: phulass
ō, aorist active infinitive. This is protection by PROVIDING what you need.
    God will not STOP you from erring; from sin. He is faithful to provide what we need to avoid sin.
4. from stumbling: aptaistos. Hebrews 12:1 shows us two things that will trip us up from living the
    Christian way of life successfully according to biblical truth.
    A. every encumbrance: hobkos - this refers to human viewpoint; the ideas, theories, philosophies
         that are contrary to the clear teaching of God's revealed truth in the Bible.
    B. every sin that easily entangles us: Lit: "the easily entangling us sin. This refers to personal sin.
        The adjective euperistatos means to easily tangle up the feet.
        It comes from the verb, periist
āmi which means to place or stand around.
        The adverb, eu, basically means "good." Thus the idea of easy instead of hard.
        And all together it is something that is easily placed "around" the feet to trip you up.
    C. See topic: STUMBLING: Preservation from stumbling

5. and to present you: verb is histāmi - put, place, stand. NASB has, "make you stand."
    The simple, "place you" communicates it well. Aorist act infinitive.
   A. in the presence: katen
ōpion (only 3 times) - sight or presence depending on context.
       1. At Ephesians 1:4, "that we should be holy and blameless before Him" means
           "in His sight," and refers to both experience and position.
       2. At Col. 1:22, "in order to present you before Him holy and blameless and beyond reproach,"
            means "in His sight" and refers to the tactical victory of the Christian as he lives a successful
           Christian life as verse 23 indicates. "not moved away from the HOPE of the gospel."
            In other words, the believer who remains faithful to his "first love" through growth and application
            is the one who  is "presented" before God throughout his Christian life as "holy, blameless and
            beyond reproach." He keeps his focus on the character and plan of God.
            Sinless consistency - not sinlessness.
           See topic: sinless consistency
       3. And here, clearly in His actual presence after this life, either through death or rapture.
           "in the presence OF HIS GLORY."

   B. blameless: amōmos - no fault or blame. Since this is clearly referring to our arrival into the presence
       of God's glory, and specifically has in view our gathering together to Him at the rapture, this
       "blamelessness" refers to the "experiential" situation as we face Him.
       1. It is true that every believer has positional righteousness and blamelessness IN CHRIST and this
           guarantees our salvation and status in the kingdom of God.
       2. But their is an initial "reaction" or "feeling" that each believer will experience when he meets
           Christ face to face.
       3. This "feeling" will either be good or bad. We will know within ourselves whether we are experientially
           "right" with God or not. If the believer is "in fellowship" (or more accurately,
           in a condition of living a successful Christian life) at his arrival in the presence of God,
           there will be great joy and rejoicing. The word here is agaliasis. At 1 Peter 1:8 it is described as,
          "praise, and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ."
           At 1 Peter 4:13, ". . .keep on rejoicing; so that at the revelation of His glory, you may rejoice
           with exultation."
           At 1 John 2:28, the feeling is "confidence" (parr
āsia).
       4. If the believer is not "in fellowship" (not living a successful Christian life) at this arrival,
           there will be shame and embarrassment.  1 John 2:28
           "And now little children, abide in Him, so that when He appears, we may have confidence
            and not shrink away from Him in shame at His coming."

   C. This has nothing to do with the STATUS of salvation. The believer is secure regardless of
       function during his life. The issue will be reward vs. little or no reward. (1 Cor. 3:10-15).
       "Yet, he himself will be saved, although barely as though through fire."
      Review salvation security if necessary: Salvation security

Verse 25
Final focus on the character and the plan of God.
It is God the Father who gets the ultimate glory. Everything points back to Him.
Christ is glorified through the Father, and by that is the Father further glorified.
1. To the only God our savior: Because it is the Father's plan, HE IS OUR SAVIOR.
    Luke 1:47; 1 Tim. 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; Titus 1:3; 2:10; 3:4.
2. Through Jesus Christ our Lord: Because the Son executed the plan, HE IS OUR SAVIOR.
    Luke 2:11; John 4:42; Acts 5:31; 13:23; Eph. 5:23; Philip. 3:20; 2 Tim. 1:10; Titus 1:4; 2:13; 3:6;
    2 Peter 1:1, 11; 2:20; 3:2, 18; 1 John 4:14.

3. be glory: doxa - recognition of His character
4. majesty: megal
ōsunā - recognition of his superiority in all things
5. dominion: kratos - ruling power. Sovereignty in action over all his creatures.
6. authority: exousia - the PRINCIPLE of absolute authority for all eternity.

7. From before every age:
8. From before every age: preposition, pro + pas + ai
ōn in the singular.
        From BEFORE every age, thus eternity past.
       The "ages" began when "time" began at the creation of the angels and universe.
        And then "every age" refers to the time periods that occur after that and before the "now."
        Those include the time before human history and the two dispensations before the church
        (the age/dispensation of the family priesthood and the national priesthood)..

9. and now: It does not seem that this refers to "this age" as the time of human history in contrast
    with "the age to come" since there are ageS (plural) that follow the "now."
    A. Thus, it probably refers to the present church time period from 30 Ad until the second coming
         and the rapture.
    B. Jude does not say the "now age." He does not use the word "age" for the present "now" time
         period. This is consistent since the word, age, is not used for dispensations, and NOW does
         refer to the present church dispensation within this context.
      
10. and unto all the ages: preposition eis + pas (all) + ai
ōn (plural). Historical and eternal future.
   The use of "all" suggests that God sees multiple "ages" beyond the "now" time period
   A. The "now" time period includes the church age from 30 Ad until the second coming and the
       70th week of Daniel which completes the Jewish age  (Plus the additional 75 days of
       Daniel 12:11-12).
   B. After this is the 1000 year reign of Christ.
   C. And after this is the eternal age, which might be broken down into other time periods based on
       unrevealed aspects of God's plan for the future.

10. am
ān: in absolute truth. Final confirmation of inspired spiritual principles.
This states the author's agreement with all that has been written.
11. The ultimate glorification of the Father (the Godhead) is described at 1Cor. 15:21-28.
 

 

 
 
 

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