THE BOOK OF JUDE
1. Addressed to believers: verse 1
A. Loved by God indicates a family relationship in this context.
B. Preserved ELECT:
1. Elect: This refers to the privilege, rank and function of “son of God.”
2. Preserved: The Greek verb is tāreo as a perfect passive participle.
This is a reference to the doctrine of salvation security.
3. In Christ Jesus: Position in union with Christ. 2 Cor. 5:17; Gal. 3:27-29
2. The GENERAL desire of the writer: verse 2 – mercy, peace and love.
A. Mercy: eleos is Jude’s choice for what the apostles usually use – charis – grace.
The reality of God’s grace provisions are experienced through volitional acceptance.
B. Peace: eirānā - Inner contentment, relaxation and confidence.
1. Summary word for the abundant life
2. It results from the proper response to God’s grace provisions.
C. Love: agapā – This refers to the character expression of divine love reflected or radiated
in the life of the believer. The goal of the instruction is LOVE – 1 Timothy 1:5
3. The SPECIFIC desire: Verse 3
To fight earnestly for the faith
A. The Greek verb, epagōnidzomai as a present middle infinitive. This refers to intense exertion as the believer applies every effort to represent truth to the world.
B. The Faith: Refers to the whole realm of Christian truth based on the person, work and resurrection of Christ. Acts 6:7; 13:8; 14:22; 16:5; Heb. 12:2; 13:7; 1 Pet. 5:9; James 1:3; 2:1; Rev. 2:13; 14:12
C. Which was once delivered to the saints.
1. The verb is paradidomi as an aorist passive participle
2. It was delivered through divine revelation as per Ephesians 3:5 (aorist passive indicative).
D. This purpose is the mandate for confrontation and the mandate for dogmatism.
E. Titus 1:9-14
4. The Reason for the mandate: Verse 4, the infiltration of apostasy.
A. Those who turn grace into sensuality (aselgeia). This refers to a frantic search for happiness with emphasis on materialism lust.
B. They deny Christ: This refers to anything from the rejection of the doctrine of grace to the doctrine of Christ’s deity.
C. Warning: Acts 20:29-30; 2 Tim. 3:6
5. Principle of repetition: Verse 5a
A. I desire: the verb is boulomai as a present middle participle.
B. To remind you: the verb is hupomimnāsko as an aorist active infinitive.
C. Deuteronomy 6:6-9
D. 2 Peter 1:12-15
6. Review of historical apostasy: Verses 5-7
A. Verse 5b – apostate believers
1. The Exodus generation – Psalm 95:7-11
2. Those who did not believe: pisteuo as an aorist active participle + the negative.
B. The angelic infiltration: Verse 6 – angelic apostasy
C. Sodom and Gomorah: Verse 7 – Unbeliever apostasy
Victory in spiritual conflict: v. 3
Orientation to apostasy: v. 4-19
Spiritual preparation: v. 20-21
Ambassadorship: v. 22-23
Confidence for eternity: v. 24-25
2. General orientation:
Date: between 68-80 AD
Sometime after the death of both Paul and Peter
who were both martyred between 67-70 AD.
Writer: Jude the half brother of Jesus.
Recipients: A general group of believers in an unknown geographical location.
controversy surrounding this book revolves around Jude's references to two
SEE: Pronunciation guide
1. Jude: same as Judas in the Greek. Probably rendered as Jude in the English to distinguish between Judas Iscariot and Judas, the son of James of Luke 6:14-16. However, that distinction is made simply by designating himself as the “brother” of James.
2. Servant: doulos refers to a bond-servant.
It refers to an indentured slave who is such either by force or by choice.
The “bond” servant was a servant/slave who completed his service/bondage, but chose to remain in the service of the master out of love and devotion.
According to Jewish custom, such a person would then have his ear pierced as indication of his choice to offer lifetime service and devotion to the owner/master. Ex. 21:6; Deut. 15:17.
A. This title teaches the principle of true humility as we recognize
that God is the source and provider of all things.
B. the example of being a bond servant is seen in Jesus. Phil. 2:5-7
C. Four principles pertaining to the bond servant.
1. A servant belongs to someone else.
2. He was purchased by someone else.
3. The buyer is responsible for the care and protection.
4. The servant’s whole life is now centered around serving and
pleasing the master.
D. It is actually a change from one form of slavery to a different form. In the case of the believer, he has been positionally delivered from bondage to darkness and sin and has become a slave to righteousness and a servant in the kingdom of God.
See Topic: Position in Christ
The believer in Jesus Christ has entered into a relationship of benevolent
3. Of Jesus Christ: This is the one who purchased and owns the slave
A. Acts 20:28 ; 2 Peter 2:1; 1 Cor. 6:19 -20; 7:23; Rev. 5:9
B. Titus 1:1 and James 1:1 - servant of God
C. The order of words, “Jesus Christ” indicates an emphasis in the
mind of the writer.
For example Paul changes the order many times in his writings
and nothing is to be made of it except his own personal focus at
D. Jesus: The Greek, iāsous, is simply the form for the Hebrew, Joshuah (yeshua) which means Yahweh saves or simply “savior.” With this personal name assigned to the Messiah, we see His first advent mission clearly proclaimed by Gabriel at Mat. 1:21, "And she will bear a Son; and you shall call His name Jesus, for it is He who will save His people from their sins." The emphasis is on his humanity and the soul sacrifice required for the redemption of mankind. Isaiah 53:10-11; John 1:14, 29, the Lamb of God.
E. Christ: christos means anointed one, and refers to the Messiah (Hebrew, mishiyach - for anointed one) promised throughout the Old Testament. It indicates that Jesus received the Messianic commission from God the Father. Luke 4:18 ; Acts 4;27; Psalm 2:1 and Acts 4:26
It was established throughout the Old Testament that the Messiah would in fact, be Yahweh come in the flesh Who will "dwell with us." Is. 7:14; Mat. 1:23
1. The promise to Abraham: Gal. 3:16; Rom. 9:4-5
2. At Jesus’ birth: Luke 2:11
3. Simeon’s confession: Luke 2:25-32
4. John’s confession: John 1:19 -20; 3:27 -36;
5. Jesus’ confession: John 4:25-26; Mat. 26:63-66
6. Peter’s confession: Mat. 16:15 -16; Acts 2:36
7. Apostle John’s statement: John 20:30-31
8. Paul’s conviction: Acts 9:22
9. Son of man title: John 9:35-38
10. The issue of the incarnation: 1 Jon. 2:22; 4:2; 5:1
11. Fulfilled prophecy: Luke 24:25-27
See topics on Christ's deity.
4. The status and attitude of the bond servant.
A. All believers have a servant status. 1 Cor. 7:23
B. All believers should live as a servant of Christ.
Eph. 6:6; 1 Pet. 2:16
C. A new believer is unable to fully orient to his servant status and
function, and must be taught and equipped for service.
Eph. 4:11-12; 2 Tim. 2:15
D. As the believer learns more and more about the character and plan
of God, he comes to the place where he accepts with humility,
confidence and joy his place as servant of Christ. 1 Peter 1:13-17
E. In secular society, the bond servant is characterized by the CHOICE
to stay in service after the time of his servitude has expired.
F. For the believer, the CHOICE to FUNCTION as a bond servant is
made on a daily basis concerning values and priorities in every
area of life. Mat. 6:24 ; 10:34 -38; Luke 9:23; Joshua 24:14-15
G. The believer perpetuates his FUNCTION as a servant by
maintaining fellowship with God through walking in the light by the
filling/control of the Holy Spirit and using Bible truth.
No man can serve two masters. The believer will either be under
the control of the sin nature or under the filling/control of the Spirit.
Romans 6:12-20; Gal. 5:1, 13-17; Romans 13:17-18
H. To call oneself a servant of God, indicates that the choice has been
made to live under the jurisdiction of God’s authority, viewpoint
and policy as found in the Bible.
I. If the confession is made without conformity to the standards of Bible truth, then it is a false and self-deceptive confession. In such a case, the believer is out of fellowship with God but has not lost his salvation. 1 John 1:5-10; James 1:5-8, 21-27
However, such a one MIGHT not even be a believer. Mat. 7:15-29
5. the brother of James: Jude appeals to a recognized name among believers in order to properly identify himself within the church. Jude mentions SECOND his physical connection with a recognized leader of the church in order to indicate the spiritual priority in his life.
A. Neither Jude nor James were saved during Christ's ministry but saved after the resurrection. John 7:1-5; 1 Cor. 15:7
B. James was numbered among the disciples in the upper room and accordingly, shared in the formation of the Jerusalem church. Acts 1:14ff
C. James did not have the gift of
There were only 12 apostles. Revelation 21:14.
D. He was the leader of the Jerusalem church from 44 AD until the fall of Jerusalem in 70 AD. Acts 12:1, 17; 15:13; 21:18; Gal. 1:19; 2:2, 9-12
6. Although both James and Jude could lay claim to being the half-brother of Jesus, neither does so as an indication of humility. It is the attitude that Jesus is the one to be showcased. The issue with every believer should be his functional relationship and devotion to Jesus and not any “physical” connection.
7. There were two disciples named “Judas” according to Luke 6:16. Judas Iscariot (the betrayer) and Judas the son of James. By designating himself as “the brother of James, Jude indicates that he is not the disciple who was the son of James.
8. Jude was not an apostle. There were only 12 apostles. Revelation 21:14. (The 11 disciples and Paul)
See Topic apostles
He has been traditionally recognized by the church fathers as qualified to write inspired scripture and accordingly this book has been accepted into the New Testament canon. As we accept this tradition, we must then establish the basis for accepting Jude as providing us with inspired information from God. Obviously, it is because of his spiritual gift. Only those gifts that could receive revelation from God can be recognized as providing us with inspired information from God.
The three gifts other than apostle that could receive revelation from God were:
Word of knowledge
Word of Wisdom
Jude had one of these gifts (probably prophecy). Each believer possesses only one spiritual gift.
See Topic: Spiritual gifts
9. To those who are loved by God the father: the verb is agapaō as a perfect passive participle. Agapaō means to place such value on something so as to ever desire and seek what is of the best benefit to the object of love. It is true that all mankind is loved by God as He ever seeks what is best for all of His creation (John 3:16). However, believers are the recipients of a special kind of love from God based on the family relationship of being children of God. Thus, as per Romans 8:32, “He who spared not His own son but delivered him up for us all, how shall He not with him freely give us all things.” In other words, since He did the very MOST for us in saving us from our sins, He will do nothing LESS than the absolute BEST for us after salvation.
10. and in Jesus Christ preserved elect ones:
The verb is tāreō as a perfect passive participle.
It means to keep, guard, protect, preserve. The perfect tense indicates that the action was initiated in the past and the results continue into the future until something equal to or greater than the initiator of the action suspends it.
In this case the Father is the initiator of the action and He has promised that he will not suspend that action.
That action by God was initiated at the specific point in time when any particular believer trusted in Christ as Savior. And at that very point of time that believer was sealed by the indwelling presence of the Holy Spirit as the guarantee of God's saving act. Eph. 1:13-14
The sphere of protection is IN Jesus Christ. This refers to our positional union with Him, whereby we share God’s righteousness (2Cor.5:21b).
The permanence of this position IN CHRIST is declared to be un-removable according to Romans 8:38-39, which is summarized by “nothing is able to separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.”
See Topic salvation security
Elect ones refers to our new status in God’s plan which is called election.
A. The PRIVILEGE of election: One is elected based on God's grace. There is no personal merit or works involved at all. Grace provides our destiny. All man needs to do is accept it by personal trust in Jesus as the Messiah-Savior. Ephesians 2:8-9; 2 Corinthians 8:9
B. The RANK of election: A new "position" in union with Christ. Dead, buried, raised and seated with Christ. Romans 6:3-4; Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 2:12; 3:1 The rank of "royalty." 1 Peter 2:9
C. The FUNCTION of election: To gear every aspect of our life for the purpose of bringing honor and glory to the character and plan of God. 1 Corinthians10:31; Romans 14:8. This is fulfilled through priesthood and ambassadorship in association with the spiritual gift that every believer has.
Since we are partakers of this ELECTION, we are designated as elect ones. The word here is klātos. Another word for this factor is eklektos.
A. Called: The word group, klātos (kaleō, klāsis) describes our election with emphasis on the believer's function and responsibility here on earth. It also is used to indicate the "invitation" aspect of God's plan of salvation. "many are called (as in all) but few are chosen," Matthew 22:14
B. Elect: The word group, eklektos (eklegomai) describes our election with emphasis on the believer's position in union with Christ. The STATUS of election. Sometimes this word is translated as "chosen." We are "chosen" by God to be part of His plan because we accept His invitation through faith.
C. Both words are used together at: Revelation 17:14; 2 Pet. 1:10; Mat. 22:14
For complete details see Doctrine of Election.
May mercy, peace and love be multiplied to you
1. Multiplied is plāthunō as an aorist passive optative.
The optative mood expresses a desire on the part of the writer.
The actual experience of these benefits depends on each individual recipient, who is volitionally responsible for meeting the conditions required.
Each believer must learn and apply the doctrinal truths that promote these things in his life. And of course, he must be in fellowship – that is have no un-confessed sins in the life as per the principles of spirituality.
See doctrine of: fellowship with God and the Filling of the Holy Spirit
2. Mercy: the word is eleos. It refers to the expression of grace (charis).
Grace is the PROVISION of divine benefits. Mercy is the actual attitude of God that DOES something for the benefit of God’s creatures. Grace is WHAT IS DONE.
This is a standard greeting from the writers of the New testament letters.
Paul usually says “grace and peace.”
But in both “Timothy” letters, he writes “grace, mercy and peace,” which simply provides a more complete picture of the “chain” of expression.
Using “grace” alone does not eliminate the place of “mercy.” Nor does using “mercy” alone eliminate the place of “grace.”
Peter also uses “grace and peace” in his two letters.
And then, at 2Peter 1:2-4, Peter clarifies exactly HOW the believer can experience God’s grace and mercy; experience the peace of God; and reflect God’s love in life.
See 2Peter 1:1
3. peace: The word is eirānā.
Peace is the result of using God’s grace provisions. le., the total relaxation and confidence of trusting in the character and plan of God.
Peace is the absence of enmity and conflict in the soul; no fear, worry, stress, doubt, anger, hate.
See doctrine: Peace of God
4. Love is agapā. This is the attitude that places highest value on the object and always seeks what is beneficial to that object.
The capacity to love is built through knowledge of God’s word. God’s word in the soul through spiritual growth CHANGES character to produce the character of Christ in the believer’s life.
I like to use the term "character reflection" as Christ's character that is formed within us, is reflected out from the soul to those who see us.
See topics: love, love structure, beneficent love
Jude desires for the believer to continually benefit from God’s grace provisions and to experience the resultant peace in the soul and character expression of love to others.
Jude ADDS the love factor here because this character virtue is absolutely necessary when dealing with false teachers and false doctrine.
This will be clarified at verses 20-22.
1. Beloved: agapātos indicates the objects of beneficent love from the writer.
A. The focus is on Jude’s attitude toward the recipients of this letter.
B. Jude is a mature believer with a consistent character expression of love.
C. He is totally relaxed toward all believers and always seeks what is most beneficial to them.
2. While I was making: the verb is poieō as a present middle particple.
While Jude is in the process of organizing a letter to the church in general, and under divine inspiration, he indicates that his primary concern is a pro-active or aggressive DEFENSE of the Christian faith.
3. The letter of Jude very closely parallels 2Peter, especially chapter 2. However, this does not mean that Jude “copied” from Peter or even vice versa (as many believe). It means rather, that through the principle of divine inspiration, each person wrote a similarly INSPIRED message from God, using their own personal vocabulary and background. It even takes into consideration through the wisdom of God, what group of believes would be first to receive the information.
4. every effort to write to you: pas spoudā, eagerness, earnestness, diligence. This indicates a very strong desire to address a major issue facing the church.
5. about our common salvation:
A. common: koinos. It is the same for all of us.
B. salvation: There is only ONE salvation and only ONE way to enter it.
Everything else is counterfeit.
C. Just as Paul wrote concerning the gospel at Galatians 1:6-12
D. At Titus 1:4, Paul writes "according to a (the) common faith (pistis)."
6. I felt necessity to write to you: echo as an aorist active indicative – I had.
A. anagkā in the greek gives a perfect picture of divine inspiration.
B. The necessity or COMPULSION is the influence of the Holy Spirit using the
human writer to bring the mind of God to the readers.
C. This is what Peter describes at 2Peter 2:21.
“Prophecy was formerly brought not by an act of human will, but
men carried along by the Holy Spirit, spoke from God.”
D. This principle applies to the writers of the New Testament as well.
1. 1 Cor. 2:7-10
2. Ephesians 3:5
E. See Topic: INSPIRATION
7. exhorting you: parakaleō as a present active participle.
This is a motivation and encouragement word.
It is designed to motivate the believers to be pro-active in their defense of the Christian faith.
8. to contend earnestly: one word in the Greek. Epagōnidzomai as a present middle infinitive. It is a combination of the preposition “epi” (upon) and the verb agōnidzomai, which means to struggle intensively in competition or combat. The addition of the preposition intensifies it even more and thus brings us closer to the English, “agonize.” Accordingly, we have some INTENSE spiritual combat involved.
At 2 Tim. 4:7, "I have fought (agōnidzomai) the good (kalos) fight (agōn)."
Jude gives us SEVEN combat factors to accomplish this in verses 17-21.
9. For THE FAITH: pistis with the definite article is a technical term to refer to the whole realm of Christian doctrine or the Faith (divine) Value System or system of belief.
In addition, I suggest that the use of the term THE FAITH
in the following places, also refers to the Faith Value System as it is
represented by the established body of divine truth.
uses the word, "faith" at verse 20, but with the possessive pronoun "your" he
has in mind
the functional faith by which we live the Christian way of life after
Every believer is in the spiritual conflict from the moment of salvation. He needs to prepare for combat through spiritual growth. However, the believer can choose NOT to fight. If the believer fails to prepare and function as a Christian, he has deserted the faith and becomes a casualty with no spiritual impact or influence in the world. As such, he can actually be used by the enemy to discredit Christianity. This is what Paul has in mind at Col. 1:23, “if you continue IN the faith.” And what we see at 1Tim. 1.19; 4:1; 5:8; 6:10 and 6:21.
Being “in the faith” is functioning as a growing, obedient ambassador for Christ, maintaining sinless consistency. Failure to function in this manner constitutes NOT continuing in the faith and is spiritual desertion. Thus, we have the ministry of Paul at Acts 14:22, “strengthening the souls of the disciples, encouraging them to continue in the faith.”
And Paul's exhortation to the Corinthians at 2Cor.13:5-6. This is a functional issue and not a salvation issue.
At this point it is imperative to remind my readers that the believer cannot lose his salvation. The issue is function or non-function; blessing or no blessing while here on earth.
10. which was once: hapaxz can indicate a “one time” idea or “once for all” (and does not need to be repeated) idea. In this case “the faith” was once and permanently delivered to the church through the apostles and prophets.
11. delivered to the saints: paradidomi as an aorist active participle.
This refers to the historical point of time that THE faith was established and committed to the “church” through the apostles and prophets.
Thus, this “point of time” covers the apostolic period specifically embracing Peter, Paul and James. Paul describes this “body of doctrine” as “the mystery of Christ . . . which has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets through the Spirit.”
Thus, at the time of Jude’s writing, there is an established absolute and uncompromising standard of spiritual truth provided by God in writing and circulated among the churches.
Romans 16:17-18; 1Cor 11:2; Gal. 2:5; Philp. 3:17-19; Col. 2:8; 2 Thes. 2:14-15; 1 Tim. 6:3-5; 1 Tim. 6:20-21; Titus 1:9; 1 Peter 5:12.
The doctrinal foundation has been established. through inspiration, Jude is used by God to supplement that foundation, but not alter it.
12. THE STANDARDS OF THE FAITH
1. Our teaching: 2 Tim. 4:15
2. Words of Jesus: 1 Tim. 6:3
3. Our instruction: 2 Thes. 3:14
13. The spiritual conflict
1. 2 Cor. 10:3-6
2. Eph. 6:10-18
3. 2 Tim. 2:1-3; 6:12
See Topic: Angelic Conflict
THE INFILTRATION OF THE CHURCH
1. For: explanatory gar to introduce the reason why believers should be diligent to fight for the faith. It is not just that the “world” is in opposition to the Christian world view, but the assemblies of believers have been infiltrated.
2. certain persons (men – anthropos): reference to the false teachers
2. have crept in unnoticed, “secretly infiltrated”: The verb is pareisduō as an aorist active indicative. Triple compound verb: para (beside) + eis (into) + duo (go down, as the sun setting).
Thus, to go down INTO to the side of. The idea of "down" indicates an entrance different than the normal one. A. T Robertson says "as if by a side door."
The arrival and influence of the false teachers. They infiltrate under false pretenses and then begin to spread their own false doctrine that is clearly contrary to the established standard of THE FAITH. 2 Peter 2:1, "there will also be false teachers among you, who will secretly introduce destructive heresies, even denying the Master who bought them."
A powerful system of sensuality that was starting to gain steam at this time was Gnosticism.
Gnosticism had a two pronged philosophy and attack on Christianity.
(1) the total pursuit of physical and soulish pleasures and
(2) the denial of the true Godhead and the only true savior, Jesus Christ.
See Topic: GNOSTICISM
3. the ones marked out: prographō as a perfect passive participle. Written about before. And then, “from of old” (adverb, palai) indicates a judgment that had been “previously” proclaimed. It does not necessarily mean “ancient,” but simply previously, formerly. It is used this way at 2 peter 1:9, "previously committed sins."
Jude mentions both the ancient prophecy at verses 14-15 given by Enoch, and also to the more recent writings of the apostles at verses 17-18, such as what Paul wrote at 2Thes. 1:7-10.
4. Unto this judgment: krima can refer to an evaluation or a punishment. Although Jude certainly exposes the character and intent of these false teachers, I think the focus from this word, krima, is the ultimate judgment that will come upon them at the second coming of Jesus.
5. ungodly persons: the description continues with asebās. The negative “a” indicates no godly reverence, respect or character. It revolves around the idea of WORSHIP. Thus, with the negative, there is no worshipful attitude toward God.
In contrast, the word eusebeia, indicates a respectful, worshipping expression toward God. This word group should not be translated as “godly” or “ungodly,” but as reverent or irreverent. Such ones do not follow any divine viewpoint or moral standards, but are dedicated only to their owns lusts and emotions and material profit. Titus 1:11; Romans 16:18
6. who turn: metatithāmi means to alter or distort. This is one aspect of their teaching. It takes TRUTH and then distorts it. In this case it takes the freedom that comes from God’s grace, and turns it into a license to sin. It takes the established standards of THE FAITH and adds or subtracts in order to promote their own agenda.
7. The grace of God: the focus is on God’s grace that gives us freedom to enjoy the many pleasures of life without being restricted by legalism and unbiblical, man-made regulations. Gal. 5:1, “Into freedom Christ set us free. Therefore, keep standing firm and stop being loaded down again with a yoke of slavery.”
Grace is DIVINE MOTIVATION to govern one’s life
1 Cor. 6:12, ”all things are lawful for me but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered (controlled) by anything.”
Col. 2:16, “Therefore let no one judge you in regard to food or drink, or in respect to a festival or a new moon celebration or a Sabbath day.”
8. into sensuality: aselgeia refers to a total abandonment to one’s own senses and emotions; lusts and desires. Warning against this at Galatians 5:13, "For you were called to freedom brethren;
only do not use your freedom as an opportunity for the flesh." (1 Peter 2:16)
Sensuality is actually a philosophy of SELF GRATIFICATION.
The philosophy of sensuality centers around four factors:
(1) lust for physical gratification
(2) lust for praise
(3) lust for money
(4) lust for power
See Topic: Sensuality
9. and deny: rejection of the person and work of the Messiah.
The issue with denial here is a rejection of Christ’s deity – the incarnation and the hypostatic union. This was a key factor with Gnosticism. That is what John addressed so perfectly in 1 John 1:1-4; 2:22-23 and 4:1-3.
10. our only master: the word, despotās focuses on the JESUS who deserves unlimited and unquestioned obedience and service.
A. At 2Peter 2:1, It is "the MASTER who bought them," Greek verb is agoradzō.
B. At Rev. 5:9, speaking of Jesus, "and you purchased for God with your blood people from every tribe and tongue and people and nation." Greek verb is agoradzō.
c. Technically, the word "only" does not challenge the sovereignty of the Father, for the word "despotās" recognizes earned authority (Eph. 1:20-23); equal honor (John 5:22-23); equality of power (John 10:27-30); equality of function (John 14:9-11); and equality in deity (John 20:28-29).
11. and Lord: kurios focuses on the deity of the Messiah.
12. Jesus Christ: As seen above at verse 1, the focus is on “savior” and “Messiah.”
INFILTRATION OF CHRISTIANITY
1. Jesus: Mat. 7:15-23
2. Paul: Acts 20:29-30; Gal. 2:4-5; 2 Tim. 3:1-7; Titus 1:10-14
3. Peter: 2 Peter 2:1-3, 12-22
4. John: 1 John 4:1-6
THE FIRST FACTOR OF SENSUALITY
Reminder of historical apostasy and the attack on God’s system for sexual morality.
1. Now I desire: boulomai as a present mid indicative.
The union of a dedicated character and divine inspiration.
2. to remind you: hupomimnāskō as an aorist active infinitive.
This reviews both Old testament writings and the teachings of the apostles.
A key factor in "learning" Christianity is to learn the Old Testament.
3. though you have known: oida as a perfect active participle indicates knowledge gained in the past and is now a part of the mentality of the soul.
For a long time in the early church the only Scripture they had was the Old Testament.
When Paul taught and wrote, he practically communicated in Old testament quotations.
4. once: hapaxz can indicate a “one time” idea or a “once for all” (and not needed again).
Jude recognizes that these things have been commonly taught throughout the church.
5. all things: This indicates that the Old Testament body of truth provided by God HAS BEEN adequately circulated and taught among the churches. It does not necessarily mean that ALL believers have learned and retained the information. However, he is not implying that anyone has forgotten. He is simply using these “commonly known” truths as a springboard to focus on the present danger of apostasy that has infiltrated so many of the local assemblies.
Verse 5b: first example of moral apostasy – the exodus generation – apostate BELIEVERS.
1. That the Lord: This is a reference to the pre-incarnate Christ, who is the one who was proactive in dealing with the Exodus generation.
1 Corinthians 10:1-4; Isaiah 51:5, 9-11
2. after delivering a people out from the land of Egypt: sōdzō is the common word for “save” or “deliver.” But salvation is not in view here. This is talking about the PHYSICAL deliverance out of Egypt.
3. subsequently destroyed: apollumi as an aorist active indicative. This refers to the time period of the wilderness wandering during which all who came out of Egypt died except Caleb and Joshua. These disobedient believers were judged by God because of maximum failure to trust God’s character and plan. Numbers 14:22-30.
4. Those who did not believe: persistent failure to trust in the character and plan of God. This is not a salvation issue.
5. There are many expressions of apostasy committed by the Exodus generation (summarized at 1 Cor. 10:5-10; Heb. 3:7-13; 4:11; Psalm 95:7-11), and by the false teachers Jude has in mind. However, the primary incident in Jude's mind is probably the sexual immorality mentioned at Numbers 25:1-9 and referenced by Paul at 1 Cor. 10:8.
I believe this is the focus instead of the GENERAL rebellion and disbelief that occurred over the 40 years of wandering.
A. The reference to the angels deals with sexual immorality.
B. The reference to Sodom deals with sexual immorality.
C. The comparison to the false teachers at Jude 8 deals with sexual immorality.
See Topic: SIN UNTO DEATH
5. Principle: If God judged believers who rebelled against divine design, He will do no less than judge the unbelieving false teachers who have rebelled against Him.
Verse 6: SECOND example of sexual immorality – The angelic infiltration
Although this incident of the angelic infiltration is presented in the apocryphal book of Enoch, Jude's use of similar language does not validate that book as inspired. The book of Enoch records the traditional account of what happened in Genesis 6. Both Peter and Jude, through inspiration, validate that account.
1. The angels: This refers to a group of FALLEN angels. It refers to an event that occurred AFTER the fall of the angels. The angelic revolt occurred before the creation of the human race. The event in view here occurred before the flood, over a period of 120 years from 1536 AH to 1656 AH.
2. who kept not their own domain: archā means “beginning.” But in the context of Genesis 6, it refers to their own “sphere of existence” or created physical boundaries.
3. but abandoned their own dwelling: oikātārion refers to one’s physical realm of living.
4. Study topic: Angelic Infiltration
and commentary on Genesis six.
5. He has kept: tāreō as a perfect active indicative. He has preserved in the past with the result that the condition of that action remains in effect until the doer of the action or someone greater than the doer reverses it. In this case, no one can reverse the judgment that God has placed upon these angels.
6. in eternal bonds: desmos refers to something that TIES something down.
Eternal is the word, haidios. Only used here and at Romans 1:20. There it is used of God, referring to His eternal power.
This refers only to this specific group of fallen angels. The other fallen angels are quite active operating under Satan’s administration. Eph. 6:12; 1 Tim. 4:1
7. under darkness: dzophos refers to darkness or gloom. The idea is both a physical and a functional experience. The location of this judgment is in tartarus.
1 Peter 3:18-20; 2 Peter 2:4
This is a place IN hades, probably to be identified as the great chasm that existed between “torments” and “paradise.”
See Topic: Physical death
8. For the judgment of the great day: This refers to the final judgment placed upon Satan and his angels which will occur in two stages.
A. Immediately after the battle of Armageddon: Revelation 20:1-3
B. At the end of the millennial reign of Jesus: Rev. 20:7-10; Mt. 25:41; Zech 13:2.
C. It does seem likely that these fallen angels are released for a short time to oppress the citizens of the beast's kingdom during the Day of the Lord judgments.
See discussion at The 6 Trumpets.
9. Principle: If God judged the angels who rebelled against divine design, He will do no less than judge humans who rebel against divine design.
Verse 7 The third example of sexual immorality: Sodom and Gomorrah
1. Just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them:
A. Refers to the five cities of the Jordan valley. Gen. 13:11,12; 14:2
Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, Bela (which was later called Zoar).
B. These people were involved in gross immorality. Deviation from divine morality in every area. Gen. 13:13
C. Each of these cities were destroyed except Bela (Zoar). Gen. 19:19-25
D. Hosea 11:8; Jeremiah 49:18
2. since they in the same way as these (the angels of verse 6).
3. having indulged in gross immorality: exporneuō as an aorist active participle.
From the word group, pornos, and refers to PHYSICAL immorality.
4. and having gone after flesh of a different kind: aperchomai as an aorist active participle. Refers to sexual activity with a person that is contrary to divine design. God’s design is one man and one woman.
This then refers primarily to homosexuality (Gen. 19:4-5) but includes bestiality.
Description at Romans 1:24-27.
5. are exhibited: prokeimai as a present mid indicative means, are publicly displayed. The word is used for bread or a corpse which is on display.
In this case, universally displayed through the judgment pronounced by the scriptures.
6. as an example: deigma – illustration, example, lesson
7. by undergoing: hupechō as a present active participle.
A. the punishment: dikā refers to an expression of justice.
B. everlasting fire: This refers specifically to the PHYSICAL “fire and brimstone” that rained down on the cities (Gen. 19:24-25), but it typifies the ETERNAL “burning” of torments (Luke 16:23-24) and the lake of fire
(Rev. 14:9-11; 20:10-15).
C. The “physical” judgment came because of their immorality, but the ultimate judgment in the lake of fire is because of failure to trust in Christ as the Savior.
See Topic: Lake of fire
Comparison to the false teachers who have infiltrated the churches
1. Yet in the same manner: the particular expression of apostasy committed by the fallen angels of Genesis 6 and by the cities of the plain.
2. these dreamers: enupniadzomai as a present middle participle.
What they think and believe is delusion rather than truth. The force of this is not simply the idea of “dreaming,” but it is on the NATURE of the dreaming. Thus a more accurate understanding is “these dreamers of delusion.”
3. FIRST EXPRESSION of apostasy. (sexual immorality)
defile the flesh: miainō (present active indicative) means to pollute or defile. Flesh refers to the human body in the overall context and has in view sexual immorality as mentioned in the examples above.
4. SECOND EXPRESSION of apostasy. (Lust for power, money and praise)
reject authority: atheteō as a present active indicative plus kuriotās.
Authority IN GENERAL. They are SELF-governed, rejecting anything that seeks to put any kind of limitation on what THEY want to do.
This is amplified at 2peter 2:10 with the words, “daring” and “self-willed.”
A. daring: tolmātās means brazen, arrogantly impudent.
B. self-willed: authadās indicates the basic inclination of the sin nature.
It is totally and solely interested in seeking that which brings pleasure to SELF.
5. THIRD EXPRESSION of apostasy. (wrong side of the angelic conflict)
revile majesties: blasphāmeō (present active indicative) – malign, ridicule, disrespect, and even BLAME.
The word majesty is the plural of doxza, which basically means “glory” but in the plural refers to God’s angels. Used this way at 2 Peter 2:10.
The primary function of the elect angels is to represent and promote the GLORY of God – His character and plan.
Even the fallen angels once functioned in this capacity and should not be arrogantly confronted. They should be faced with Boldness and confidence certainly, but not with pride and self-righteousness, as the example of Michael in verse 9 indicates.
These false teachers are used by Satan to revile God’s angels as an attack on the character and plan of God. This reviling of the elect angels discredits them and elevates the fallen angels as being “right” and unfairly treated by God. For these people to be used this way indicates their disorientation to the spiritual conflict and is evidence that they are clearly “on the wrong side.”
As verse 10 indicates, “these men revile the things which they do not understand.”
1 Timothy 1:7, “they do not understand either what they are saying or the matters about which they make confident assertions.”
Verse 9 is a parenthetical statement to show how utterly arrogant and brazen these false teachers are who dare to malign God’s higher creation.
Even Michael does not stoop to arrogant accusations against the angelic creation.
1. But Michael the archangel:
A. Hebrew: miykAāl - has 3 parts.
1. Interrogative pronoun, miy = who?
2. preposition, ke = like or as.
3. el (āl) = God
4. Result: Who is like God?
5. Communicates God's uniqueness in character and essence.
6. Gabriel's name communicates that he is God's "right hand man."
B. Daniel 10:13, "one of the chief princes." Notice, NOT the chief prince.
1. Cf. New Testament archangel in Jude 1:9 and 1 Thes. 4:16
2. Jewish tradition indicates that their are 7 archangels, but the bible indicates there is only one.
3. The term describes the rank with regard to his special function in God's plan.
C. Daniel 10:21 and 11:1, indicate that Michael is in a subordinate position to Gabriel.
D. Daniel 12:1, describes Michael as the "guardian angel" of the nation of Israel.
Daniel 10:21. In 1 Thes. 4:16, Michael participates at the rapture because this is also the time for the restoration of Israel as the evangelistic agent).
E. Rev. 12:7, does not contradict this position. Michael is still functioning as the guardian of Israel, even though he has temporarily "stepped aside" as indicated at Daniel 12:1.
F. Michael is very high in rank, if not number 2, but he has specific function in connection with Israel while Gabriel's function is to "stand in the presence of God."
See topic: Gabriel
G. At Jude 9, Michael had the responsibility of putting the body of Moses in a "safe place" after his death , to await his role in the tribulation as one of the 2 witnesses-heralds of Rev. 11.
H. Michael is NOT the pre-incarnate Christ, ie, the "Word" of John 1:1.
1. Michael is "one of" the chief angels, not THE chief. Dan. 10:13.
2. Michael and the Christ "appear" in the same historical context as
two different beings at Rev. 12:
3. Christ is identified via 1 Cor. 10:1-3 as the Rock who delivered and followed Israel throughout the wilderness (Deut. 32). And the Rock is none other than Yahweh God Himself (the second member of the Godhead).
4. Michael is NOT the angel (messenger) of the LORD. The angel of the Lord is clearly identified as Yahweh Himself (the second member of the Godhead).
2. when he disputed with the devil: diakrinō as a present middle participle
3. argued: dialegomai as an imperfect mid indicative (continuous action in past time). This simply indicates that there was a confrontation as Satan tried to prevent Mike from securing the body. It did not last very long, for Mike just appealed to the authority of God and argument over.
It was not emotional. Michael did not take it "personally."
That is one thing we can never do when dealing with people who differ - never take it personally!
CT: “And Michael the archangel while he was disputing with the devil, arguing about the body of Moses, did not pronounce against him a maligning judgment.”
4. THE BODY OF MOSES:
Moses received a special, private burial by God. Deuteronomy 34:5-6.
“So Moses the servant of Yahweh died there in the land of Moab, according to Yahweh’s word. And He buried him in the valley in the land of Moab, opposite Beth-peor; but no man knows his burial place to this day.”
God’s plan called for a special future assignment for Moses (one of the two witnesses of Revelation 11), in a RE-ANIMATED/resuscitated human body (not resurrection). That is the reason for this huge angelic dispute between Michael and Satan. The only reason Mike could win this dispute was by appealing to the character and plan of God, for he could not over power Satan, and certainly would not be arrogant enough to revile him.
There is no record of this
dispute in the Old Testament. Jude references oral and written tradition as
found in the apocryphal book The Assumption (or Testament) of Moses. Through
inspiration, Jude's reference validates the incident and complements the
three facts we know about the future of Moses.
Jude's reference does not
however, validate the apocryphal book that records the oral tradition.
The soul of Moses went into paradise, known also as Abraham’s bosom, where
he experienced great peace and joy along with every other BELIEVER of the
Old Testament time period (See Topic: Physical death)..
All of these believers remained in paradise, in the heart of the earth until
Jesus took them to the third heaven with Him at His resurrection and
5. did not dare: tolmao (aorist active indicative). Do to so, would be to show arrogance and self-righteousness – personal mental attitude sins that would indicate a disregard for the plan and character of God.
6. to pronounce against him: epipherō (aorist act. Infinitive) indicates a VERBAL expression, which in this case would be arrogant and self-righteous.
7. a judgment of revilement: krisis plus genitive of blasphāmia.
To do this would be taking matters into his own hands and expressing personal feelings of hatred, arrogance and self-righteousness.
8. but said (legō, aorist act indicative) the Lord rebuke you: epitimaō (aorist act. Optative).
The word means to censor someone’s behavior. But Mike is appealing to the character and plan of God for this censorship.
Mike simply appealed to the authority of God. Basically, “this is NOT between you and me, buddy, but it’s between you AND GOD.” It was not emotional and Mike did not take it personally.
That is one thing we cannot do when dealing with people who differ from us. NEVER take it personally!
A similar situation can be seen at Zechariah 3:1-2, and needs to be addressed so that there is no confusion.
At Zechariah it is the Angel of Yahweh who does the rebuking saying, "Yahweh rebuke you."
This is the second member of the Godhead functioning in a "servant" capacity to the Father (the Most High),
rebuking Satan basically in the name of the Father by saying, "Yahweh rebuke you."
So, it is Yahweh (the "son") saying to Satan, "Yahweh (the Father) rebuke you."
See the three persons of the Godhead at Isaiah 48:12-16.
For details on the Godhead see topic: The Godhead
9. Not only does this condemn the arrogant activity of the false teachers who dare to revile angelic authorities, but it also gives US an example how to handle those we encounter who are in opposition to us.
It should also provide a guideline for us when we encounter demonic activity and/or demons themselves.
Attempts at exorcism can be quite dangerous but a verbal rebuke in the name of Jesus Christ by a believer who is functionally "right" with God (I.E. in fellowship) will provide sufficient protection if not alleviation from the spiritual crisis that is being faced.
10. Never takes things personally or let pride and self-righteousness determine your actions.
The principle of “rebuke” in such cases is found at Titus 1:9-13; 2 Tim. 2:24-25; 4:1-2; and of course later here at verses 22-23.
1. But these men on the one hand: the false teachers of v. 4 and 8
2. Revile: blasphāmeō (present a indicative) in contrast to Michael’s knowledge and attitude.
3. the things they don’t understand: oida plus the negative (perfect a indicative).
Basically, the whole nature of the angelic conflict. They are ignorant dupes being used by Satan to undermine spiritual truth by their teaching. Not only do they teach error, but they criticize, ridicule and even deny THE truth.
4. and on the other hand, the things which they know by instinct:
A. Know: epistamai (present mid indicative) to be aware of something, to know about.
B. by nature: phusikōs (adverb), by instinct or through the natural order of things. This word is used at Romans 1:26-27 to refer specifically to sexual immorality.
C. Paul teaches that in the soul (heart) of everyone, there is a "natural" instinctive knowledge of what is morally right and wrong (Rom. 2:14-15). People can embrace or reject that natural design, but it is there to establish the divine standard for morality within the human race.
D. See Topics: MORALITY
continues with the fact that these false teachers are teaching and
practicing physically immoral activity as mentioned in verse 8.
6. like unreasoning animals: alogos (2 Peter 2:12). Animals have no REASONING ability. They operate entirely on INSTINCT – the instinct of doing only what is “comfortable” to self. Instinct can be “directed” or trained, but it is still doing only what is physically beneficial to the animal.
(A good example is when a dog “humps” a person’s leg, trying to find physical gratification)
This animalistic behavior is mentioned quite often in the Old Testament to describe the senseless human.
Hebrew: beiyr = animal. baar (noun) = senseless person; Ps. 92:7; 73:22; Prov. 12:1; 30:2.
Verb, bAar = to be brutish, animalistic (stupid like an animal): Jeremiah 10:8, 14, 21; 51:17; Is. 19:11
7. in these things they corrupt themselves: phtheirō (present mid indicative).
This has in view the physical corruption of sexual immorality, but through it their soul is even further corrupted and distorted. First the soul chooses to sin and then the body follows and then the soul is further corrupted.
Paul describes this at Romans 1:24-27
(1) first comes the “lusts of their hearts.”
(2) then “their bodies might be dishonored among them.”
(1) dishonorable passions
(2) exchanged natural function for that which is unnatural.
Verse 11 THE THREE OTHER FACTORS OF SENSUALITY
1. Woe to them: pronouncement of personal and judicial consequences
2. They have gone the way of Cain: This embraces both the LUST FOR PRAISE factor, and a works-system for salvation. It also leads to the many sinful practices that stem from it. (Gen. 4:1-12; 1John 3:12 )
The Way of Cain
3. abandoned themselves into the error of Balaam. This is the lust for money factor, which likewise leads to many other sinful practices. Numbers 22-24. Although Balaam was a believer who fell into the error of lust for money, these apostate unbelievers are likewise motivated by lust for money.
The way of Balaam
4. and perished in the rebellion of Korah: This is the lust for power factor.
This is a category of apostasy that rejects divine authority in both spiritual and moral living through verbal and overt opposition. Numbers 16:1-40
The Rebellion of Korah
FIVE ILLUSTRATIONS from nature to expose the corrupt character of the false teachers.
1. These are (hidden reefs or stains): The word is spilos. Its original meaning is “hidden reef.” But later came to mean a spot or stain that mars something’s outward appearance.
Either meaning can apply to these false teachers, but Jude probably has in mind the meaning “hidden reefs” because it is the first of the five illustrations from nature (reefs, clouds, trees, waves, stars).
These false teachers have actually SECRETLY infiltrated the churches (v.4), so in many cases their true nature and intent will be unknown by many of the members.
They thus, become a HIDDEN danger as they fellowship with you and slowly woo you into listening and accepting their false teachings. This will cause both internal and external problems. INTERNALLY, it will cause conflicts and divisions within the assemblies. EXTERNALLY, it will produce the STAIN effect, as Christian values are distorted and compromised, thus MARRING the testimony within the society.
2. However, we can give fair consideration to “stain” because of Peter’s 2nd letter, where he uses the word in a very similar context. 2Peter 2:1-17
At 2Peter 2:13, “these are stains (spilos) and blemishes (momos), reveling in their deceptions as they party with you.” A stain is that which mars something’s outward appearance, and thus diminishes from true value. They produce a conflicting “image” or testimony as they claim to be Christian and yet teach and live contrary to Christian values.
Jude has communicated the problem of “fellowshipping” with the false teachers focusing on a different factor – the factor of HIDDEN danger, rather than the STAIN danger. However, at the same time, THAT hidden danger includes the deception that produces a stain on their image, message and testimony.
3. in your love feasts: agapā in the plural refers to the fellowship suppers where the members would provide food for the needy, visit and celebrate Christian values. This use of the word occurs only here. The celebration probably includes the communion service, and is probably what Paul has in mind at 1 Cor. 11:17-34.
This “love feast” is not commanded by the Lord, nor is it ever mentioned in a positive light in the three places it is referenced (Jude 12; 1 Cor. 11; 2 Peter 2:13). It appears to have been something started with “good intentions” but quickly deteriorated into a source for conflict and division.
4. while they feast with you: suneuōcheomai (present mid participle).
Same word used at 2Peter 2:13.
5. without fear: aphobōs indicates they are arrogant and confident that their true character and intentions are “hidden” from the members.
5. caring for themselves: poimainō (present act participle), constantly shepherding themselves. They interested only in satisfying their own motives and desires at the expense of the feelings, needs and protection of others.
They want to "collect" the victims for they need them on their side, but they really don't care about them.
Jude’s intentional use of this “shepherding” word indicates that the false teachers totally reject the pastor’s authority and the truth as represented in the written word of God.
The false shepherds who care only for themselves is reminiscent of the false shepherds of Israel in the days
of Jeremiah and Ezekiel. Ezekiel 34:2-10; Jeremiah 23:1-2.
CLOUDS without water blown around by winds
Second illustration from nature.
1. They should provide irrigation for the crops to promote growth.
2. If the cloud shows up without water, it has nothing to contribute for the benefit of the crops.
3. These false teachers represent themselves as authorities on spiritual matters.
Titus 1:6, "they profess to know God."
4. But they have nothing in the soul to pass on to the people.
Instead, they have only empty emotionalism and falsehood as described above.
5. What they should provide for others is illustrated at Deut. 32:1
"My teaching shall drop as rain, my speech shall distill as the dew, as the droplets on the fresh grass and as the showers on the herb."
6. carried along by winds: present passive participle of parapherō indicates that these "useless" teachers RECEIVE an influence that controls and motivates them.
A. They are under the power of their own emotions. Romans 16:17-18, "for such men are slaves not of our Lord Christ, but of their own emotions (koilia)."
B. They themselves are being deceived: 2 Tim. 3:13, "deceived and being deceived."
7. Same principle at 2Peter 2:17, "springs without water."
AUTUMN TREES without fruit
WILD WAVES of the sea:
Fourth illustration from nature
6. However, Jude could have
in view meteorites which likewise have no pattern or directional benefit to the navigators. Keeping in mind that Jude most likely
has before him the book of Enoch, which interestingly enough has language concerning false teachers
that resembles a meteorite.
3. has been reserved: tāreō
as a perfect passive participle indicates action that was established in the
past and continues into the future.
2. Enoch, the 7th from Adam:
According to Genesis 5:1-18, 1 Chron. 1:1-3 and Luke 3:37-38,
3. prophesied: prophāteuō
as an aorist active indicative. It means to FOREtell or to FORTHtell.
4. saying: legō
as a present active participle to indicate a genuine quotation from Enoch.
Translated from the Ethiopic
by Richard Laurence.
Simon J. Kistemaker in Baker
Books New Testament Commentary provides a different translation which he
ascribes to Isaac, I.
There seems to be no definitive translation of the book of Enoch. Suffice it to say that the words are similar enough to justify the conclusion that Jude certainly had that book in mind as he wrote about the second coming of Christ. But as mentioned earlier, this simply validates a very early prophetic teaching from Enoch that has been preserved from the time of the flood via oral tradition (most certainly) or by written tradition (less likely), and does not indicate that the book of Enoch or ANYTHING in it should be considered as inspired.
5. Behold the Lord came:
erchomai as an aorist active indicative. The use of the past (or completed
action) tense is a prophetic device that indicates the certainty of the
event that is in view.
6. with His holy ten
thousands (literal): The NASB, "with many thousands of His holy ones," in
not literal as the marginal note indicates.
1. to execute judgment: verb
as an aorist active infinitive plus the noun, krisis.
2. and to convict: elegchō
(elengko), aorist active infinitive, expose, convict and rebuke.
3. The order of judgment:
See many studies in Prophecy for complete
3. finding fault:
mempsimoiros, plural adjective to describe the nature of the grumbling.
4. following their own
lusts: poreuomai as a present active participle.
5. and their mouth speaks:
laleo as a present active indicative.
2. soulish: psukikos -
functioning without spiritual insight for they do not have the Holy Spirit's
control through biblical spirituality. 1 Corinthians
(2) SPIRITUAL GROWTH
(4) FILLING OF THE HOLY
(5) BENEFICENT LOVE
2. for the mercy: eleos is
Jude's vocabulary of GRACE which emphasizes the manifestation/expression
(7) AMBASSADORSHIP - in
three categories (verses 22-23)
Verse 23a - EVANGELISM -
ministry to unbelievers
Verse 23b - EXHORTATION -
ministry to believers.
Verses 24-25 Closing focus on the character and
plan of God
2. who is able: dunamai as a present middle
participle. Indicates divine ability to provide everything we need to help us succeed here on earth. 2Peter 1:3.
5. and to present you: verb
- put, place, stand. NASB has, "make you stand."
- no fault or blame. Since this is clearly referring to our arrival into the
C. This has
nothing to do with the STATUS of salvation. The believer is secure
regardless of function during his life. The issue will be
reward vs. little or no reward. (1 Cor. 3:10-15).
3. be glory: doxa -
recognition of His character
7. From before every age:
9. and now: It does not seem
that this refers to "this age" as the time of human history in contrast with "the age to come" since there are ageS (plural) that
follow the "now."
©Ron Wallace, http://www.biblefragrances.com.
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