and the bowl judgments

"And the 7th angel sounded, and there arose loud voices in heaven,"

The 7th trumpet sounds at Revelation 11:15 and serves as an "announcement" of the final stage of God's wrath on the kingdom of the beast and the unbelievers of the world.

The section, 11:14-19 picks up from chapter 9:21 which is the 6th trumpet.

Revelation chapter 10 is a parenthetical section that reaffirms John's commission to proclaim truth throughout the remainder of his life. But in the middle (at verse 7) there is a reference to the 7th trumpet and the fact that when it sounds, "the mystery of God is finished."

The mystery of God is that which was proclaimed by the prophets. The fact that this revelation is assigned specifically to "the prophets" and not the "apostles and prophets," as at Ephesians 3:5, strongly suggests that Old Testament revelation is in view. In that case, "the mystery of God" refers to God's 6-point plan for the nation of Israel as outlined at Daniel 9:24.

The completion of that plan revolves around the final 7 years of Daniel's 70th week and the end of that 7 year period. It is at that time that the last 3 points of God's plan for Israel will be carried out as the Messiah begins -

(1) His righteous reign and "brings in everlasting righteousness."

(2) Fulfills the Old Testament "vision and prophet."

(3) And "anoints the most holy" in the Millennial temple which temple is described in Ezekiel chapters 40 through 43.

(Refer to discussion on Daniel's 70 weeks in the PROPHECY PERSPECTIVE index.)

Since Rev. 10:7 introduces the end of the week, the vision of John next records that end by focusing on the specific 1260 day ministry of the 2 witnesses who prophesy from the mid-point of the week until its end.

The passage in view (Revelation 11:1-13) is thus, parenthetical as it "back-tracks" to the mid-point of the week and moves to the end, at which time (actually 3 1/2 days later) the 7th trumpet will sound (Revelation 11:15).

The ministry of these two witnesses begins at the 2nd half when the beast begins his reign and they minister for the duration of the 2nd half of the week, exactly 1260 days. The end of the ministry of the witnesses and the "mystery of God being finished" is the same point in time, ie, the end of the 70th week.

Chapter 12 and 13 are also parenthetical and cover the persecution activity of Satan from the midpoint of the week, when he is physically kicked out of heaven and down to the earth. Chapter 12 introduces the two objects of his attack during the great tribulation.

1. The Jewish race as the Messianic people.

In order to identify this "victim" of Satan's oppression, the vision gives us a history lesson in v. 1-5. The lesson covers the history of Israel from the creation of the 12 tribes until the resurrection and ascension of Jesus the Messiah in 30 AD.

Then at v. 6, it reveals the final period of persecution which is the last half of Daniel's 70th week, during which time the "orthodox" Jews in the land, who refuse to take the mark of the beast, flee into the mountainous wilderness for protection. This corresponds with the warning that Jesus gave to "THOSE (not 'you') who are in Judea" to flee into the mountains at Matthew 24:16.


2. At verses 7-17, the vision relates the reason for the more intensive persecution that takes place at this time. It results when Satan is physically defeated and kicked out of heaven by God's angels. Therefore, "knowing that he has only a short time," he intensifies his aggressions not only against the "orthodox" of Israel (verses 13-15) but also with any church age believers he can "get his hands on" as indicated at verse 17, those "who keep the commandments of God and hold to the testimony of Jesus."

This refers to the persecution against the church "before" the rapture and not against the 144,000 after the rapture. The main reason is that the 144,000 are clearly identified as Jewish and that identifying factor is significantly NOT used in Revelation 12:17 in reference to those who trust in Jesus.

The two groups in view are the "physical" nation of Israel and a body of believers known as those who "hold to the testimony of Jesus."

Since the "woman" is clearly contrasted with those who trust in Jesus, she represents the nation of Israel in unbelief, and not the 144,000 Jewish converts of Revelation 7.

Furthermore, the activity of the beast is unrestricted which is characteristic of his reign "before" the Day of the Lord. Whereas, after the Day of the Lord, the activity of the beast will be much hindered by the administration of the Day of the Lord judgments.

Chapter 13 refers to the same period of time as that which is in view at chapter 11:6-17 but amplifies the persecution by telling of the religious and economic controls the beast seeks to institute. It also provides insight about the beast's "right hand man," the false prophet or "beast out of the land." This "2nd beast" is a Jew ("out from the land") and represents and promotes the policies of the 1st beast, basically testifying with words and miracles that the 1st beast is indeed the promised Messiah and should be worshiped as God.

Chapter 14, then gives us a summary of the high points of the 2nd half of the week beginning with the "sealing" of the 144,000 Jewish "servants" of the Lord after the rapture and concluding with the gathering of the nations to Armageddon which is the 6th bowl.

Chapter 14 does not begin with the mid-point of the week, but later, after the tribulation has been cut short and the 144,000 "servants," begin their evangelistic function as representatives of the nation of Israel. However, this chapter concludes just beyond the end of the 70th week, at the end of the 30 day time of "final" wrath which immediately follows the end of the week. Ie, the battle of Armageddon (Verse 14:20).


The 7th trumpet is not the "last trumpet" spoken of by Paul.
They should not be equated but are separate and distinct.
Paul's use of "last trumpet" refers to the call to assembly in the context of the Roman games; or even in a military context. Either of these would be Paul's frame of reference. In both of these cases there was a preliminary trumpet (sometimes 2) and then the last one which was a call to assembly. This is the call to assembly for the gathering of the saints.

He would have no knowledge of John's vision and the 7 trumpets.
Even though the Holy Spirit "melds" all of scripture, it is not advisable to interpret Paul's use in any other way than the cultural context of the day which speaks of the "call to assembly."

That is what will occur at the rapture. It is called THE trumpet of God at 1 Thessalonians 4:16, because it is at this time that he will "call" for the gathering of his people to meet Him in the clouds of the sky. Nor does it require the "actual" occurrence of one or two trumpet blasts before it, for the image in Paul's mind is simply focusing on the final blast which is the "call to assembly."

The 7th trumpet, on the other hand, is an announcement of judgment and not a call to assembly.

The 7th trumpet, on the other hand, is an announcement of judgment and not a call to assembly.

The 7th trumpet is the INDICATOR that the 70th week has concluded and the mystery of God’s personal reign on the earth has begun as I discussed earlier in reference to Revelation 10:6-7.

Thus, when we get to the end of the 70th week and the blowing of the 7th trumpet in heaven, we have the announcement of Messiah’s reign, the response on the earth, and the events that will now occur through His reign.

"And the seventh trumpet sounded; and there arose loud voices in heaven, saying - The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of His anointed one, and He will reign forever and ever."


As seen at Revelation 10:7, The Mystery of God is finished.

This refers to the fulfillment of the Old Testament revelation about God's plan for the nation of Israel before Messiah's kingdom is established. The mystery of God in this case is the restoration of Israel to the place of "true" evangelistic activity as the 144,000 Jews trust in Messiah and become "servants of God."

This is the mystery that Paul mentioned at Romans 11:25-29 which relates two primary issues:

(1) a "partial" hardening of Israel

(2) "all Israel will be saved"

This begins with the conversion of the 144,000 Jews immediately after the rapture of the church which is when "the fullness of the Gentiles" comes in.

At Revelation 11:15 we see the two announcements of the Messiah's reign.
The voices are recognizing something that has HAPPENED.
We see nothing directly stated in the context that indicates such a CHANGE of authority. It occurs because of divine mandate.
1. The ENDING of one mandate: The reign of the beast which was given to him, and was to last for 42 months (Rev. 13:5). “And authority to act for 42 months was given to him.”
Daniel 7:25, “and they will be given into his hand for a time, times and half a time (3 1/2 years).”
Daniel 7:26, “and his dominion will be taken away, annihilated and destroyed forever.”
His reign ended because the time expired. God said, “time’s up.”
But he is still alive on the earth and it is for the new KING to physically depose him and prepare the earth for God’s righteous reign.

2. And the BEGINNING of another mandate: The reign of the Messiah which is an everlasting dominion (Dan. 7:14, 27; Psalm 2:7-9).
Upon the successful first advent of Jesus the Messiah (His sacrifice and resurrection) He was invited and accepted to sit at the right hand of the Father in heaven. Psalm 110:1
“Yahweh says to my Lord, sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet.”
Jesus will SIT at the Father’s right hand in heaven as His official location until IT IS TIME for the change in mandates.
“But He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, sat down at the right hand of God, waiting from that time onward until His enemies be made a footstool for His feet,” (Hebrews 10:12-13).

The issue is TIMING. When the TIME comes to make his enemies his footstool, then He will “leave” the seat of the right hand and descend to the earth in the clouds of the sky with power and great glory. This is the second coming PROPER that is prophesied at Matthew 24:29-30 and Revelation 6:12-17 as the 6th seal. He then BEGINS to take control through the trumpet judgments as he executes divine justice on the unbelieving earth dwellers. At the conclusion of the 6th trumpet, the 70th week has come to an end, the dominion mandate of the beast has been removed and Jesus will accept the dominion mandate that is handed to Him.

This is recorded prophetically at Daniel 7:13,
“I kept looking in the night visions,
And behold, with the clouds of heaven
One like a Son of Man was coming,
And He came up to the Ancient of Days (in heaven)
And was presented before Him.” (in heaven)

This is NOT the second coming but the ascension of Jesus to the right hand of the Father after His resurrection.
Dan. 7:14,
“And to Him was given dominion, glory and a kingdom
that all the peoples, nations, and of every language
might serve Him.”

Upon the ascension of Jesus to the right hand of the Father, the Father says, “Ask of me and I will surely give the nations as your inheritance,
and the very ends of the earth as your possession.” (Psalm 2:8)
Upon the success of Messiah’s first-advent ministry, a strategic victory is accomplished over Satan. The Father ASSIGNS all authority to the Son at that time. Ephesians 1:20-22,
“which He brought about in Christ, when He raised Him from the dead, and seated Him at His right hand in the heavenlies, far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this age, but also in the one to come. And He put all things in subjection under His feet.”
But this authority is not PHYSICALLY given to Him until the end of the 70th week, when the authority of the beast is removed (Dan. 7:26-27).

Thus, Psalm 110:1 and Hebrews 10:12-13.

The distinction between the SPIRITUAL decree and the PHYSICAL reality is seen at Hebrews 2:8-9,
“YOU HAVE PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET.” For in subjecting all things to him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him.
But we do see Him who has been made for a little while lower than the angels, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor.”

Then, with the beast and a world of unbelievers still present on the earth, Jesus takes possession of the kingdom and is told to “rule in the midst of your enemies” (Psalm 110.2).
That is why at Psalm 2:9, it is necessary for him to
”break them with a rod of iron and . . . shatter them like pottery.”

Thus, at Daniel 7:14, after many years of waiting, “to Him was given dominion.” In between verse 14 and 15 is the lengthy period of time from 30 AD to the end of the 70th week. The issue here is not to give us the details, but to give us the two HIGH points; the ASCENSION of Jesus after His successful first advent ministry, and the REIGN of Jesus which begins at the end of the 70th week.

Returning to Revelation 11:16-18, we have the worship and proclamation of the 24 elders who apprise us of the situation as of the end of the week. Remember, they are mentioning things that occur as of this point in the chronology, that is, the end of the 70th week, and
they are responding to the future vision that John is seeing rather than this being part of that future vision.
Through the Spirit, John is having a vision of heaven (Revelation 4-5) in which he sees what is actually IN heaven at the time of the vision in 96 AD. Then, from the "vision" location in heaven, he is shown a series of "future" visions (like on a movie screen) and those beings who are in heaven are observing them as well.

The "future" visions begin in chapter 6 and when the 24 elders and the living creatures are mentioned again (Revelation 11:16-17 and 19:4) they are shown to be giving a response to the same thing that John is seeing.

My point is that the 24 elders and the living creatures are not part of the "future" visions but are in the audience with John as the future is previewed before them.

This is the basis for translating the aorist tense of REIGN, as an ingressive aorist, “begun to reign.”

PROCLAMATION ONE: The reign of the Messiah

"You have taken your great power and have begun to reign."
As mentioned above, there is a change in dominion mandates.
The beast’s mandate is removed and the Messiah’s is established.
Two verbs are used to indicate the establishment of the Messiah’s reign.
(a) you have taken: This is a perfect active indicative of lambanō.
The perfect tense indicates something that has occurred in the past, and the results will continue on into the future. The word POWER, is dunamis and refers to FUNCTIONAL power. The “past,” from the perspective of the elders is the 6th seal descent of Jesus in the clouds of the sky with POWER (dunamis) and great glory (Mat. 24:30). He TOOK this POWER from the Father, and exercised it on the earth dwellers through the 6 trumpet judgments. (b) has BEGUN to reign. This verb is an aorist active indicative of basileuō. The context indicates that this is an INGRESSIVE aorist, which is very commonly used to indicate the beginning of the action in view. This BEGAN when the beast’s mandate was removed and the Messiah’s mandate was established. The preparation for that was the administration of POWER (dunamis) through the first six trumpets.

However, that "official" kingdom does not occur until 75 days later. It is preceded by the 7 bowl judgments recorded at Revelation 16:1-21; AND the removal of all unbelievers from the earth. Mat. 25:31ff; Ezek. 20:33-38.

According to Daniel 12:11-12, it will not be until 30 days later that the "defilement" of the temple is cleansed.

"And from the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished (at the mid-point of the week) and the abomination of desolation is set up (at the same time), there will be 1290 days."

This is 30 days more than the designated 1260 days (3 1/2 years, 42 months) of the 2nd half mentioned at Daniel 12:6-7.
And then not until 45 days later that the blessing of the kingdom will actually be realized. "How blessed is he who keeps waiting and attains to the 1335 days."

"and the nations have become enraged:"
The elders are acknowledging what has happened BECAUSE of the judgments from God that have been falling on the world. The nations HAVE BECOME enraged. This is an aorist passive indicative of orgidzomai, and indicates a CONDITION that exists because of prior events. At the arrival of Jesus in the clouds of the sky, the earth dwellers will express great fear and worry (Mat. 24:30; Luke 21:26; Rev. 6:15-16). But once the initial shock of His arrival has worn off, they will return to their characteristic thoughts and actions of rebellion as is indicated at Revelation 9:20-21. This statement by the elders is making an observation about the nations in view of Messiah’s actions over the last several months via the trumpet judgments. They would not say, You have begun to reign and the nations WERE angry. They are talking about a condition that has been developing and has reached a climax. Thus, not “were angry” but “have become angry is the way the elders would express it.
This also shows us that AFTER the 70th week has ended, there are still nations on the earth who are rebellious against God. Remember, when the Messiah begins his reign, it is “in the midst of Your enemies,” (Ps. 110:2). They are present on the earth, in fact, physically POSSESSING the earth, and Jesus must first WREST that possession from them before He can establish His 1000 year reign of righteousness.

"and your wrath has come":
The aorist active indicative of erchomai indicates, AGAIN, what occurs in view of the end of the week and the elders are making an observation. Thus, once again, not “wrath came,” but “wrath HAS COME.”
That is, this wrath has NOW arrived; it is TIME for this wrath to be expressed. This WRATH is different from the judgment of the 6 trumpets because that administration of justice occurred BEFORE the end of the week. The elders here are recognizing that NOW, as of the end of the week, an additional expression of God’s wrath has come. The focus is not on what has occurred IN or DURING the 70th week, but AS OF the end of the week. The idea is the same that is seen at Revelation 6:17, where the same construction is to be translated as, “wrath has come.” That is, it is NOW time for this wrath to be expressed. There, the initial wrath of God via the first 6 trumpets is in view. Here, the FINAL wrath of God is in view via the 7 bowls. The Greek word, orgā, is used because it is still Divine anger that is about to be expressed. But when the administration of that wrath is described, the more intense Greek word, thumos, is used.
This wrath is explained more specifically at Revelation 15:1 and 7 as the 7 last plagues through which “the wrath (thumos) of God is completed,” and at Rev. 16:1, “Go and pour out the 7 bowls of the wrath (thumos) of God into the earth.”
Both are used at Rev. 19:15 for God's action at the battle of Armageddon. "The intense wrath (thumos) of His anger (orgā)."
See study on wrath

"and the time has come for the dead to be judged":
They are NOT saying that the dead will NOW be judged immediately. But they make a special point in saying that THE TIME has come.
The verb COME, is not present in the text, but is understood based on its previous occurrence and still refers to what has NOW ARRIVED at this juncture in the chronology.
It refers to the unbelieving dead who will be judged at the end of the 1000 year reign of the Messiah according to Revelation 20:11-15.
But it is the end of the 70th week that precipitates this final judgment on the unbelieving dead. Thus, it is TIME NOW for the events leading up to that final judgment to take place.

"and (the time) to give their reward to Your bond servants the prophets and to the saints and to those who fear your name, the small and the great":
This amplifies the previous proclamation by focusing just on believers, who will have their works evaluated and rewarded at sometime between the initial arrival of Jesus in the clouds of the sky, and the physical descent of Jesus at Armageddon.
It refers to the evaluation of the believer's works which were done here on earth as is described at 1 Corinthians 3:10-15 and 2 Corinthians 5:10 as well as Mat. 16:27.

The believing dead will undergo their SPECIAL judgment; the evaluation of their deeds, sometime prior to Armageddon, for they are already seen as rewarded and dressed in white at Rev. 19:7-9. This is the result of the reward seat of Christ/God.

It is possible that these "personal" rewards are meted out as soon as the church gets to heaven at the time of the rapture. However, it is also possible, that there is a delay of the "evaluation of works" until just before Christ's descent at Armageddon. I do not think that such a "delay" of the Justice seat of Christ violates the language which indicates that the church receives her rewards at the arrival of Jesus.

There are many things that are initiated at the "Day of the Lord" arrival of Jesus which do not take place until some time later. And yet they are certainly described as taking place upon His arrival. Furthermore, the language here, at Revelation 11:18, indicates that the reward will not be meted out until after the 7th trumpet sounds.

Although EACH individual believer will certainly receive PERSONAL rewards based on their faithfulness here on earth (2Cor. 5:10), it seems probable that since Revelation 11:18 uses "reward" in the singular, that it refers to the ONE reward that they all share in common. At Rev. 19:8-9, the mention of the bride "having made herself ready," indicates a "cleansing" through evaluation so that all that remains of one's earthly production will be a "pure" garment of good works shared in common by all who are in the body of Christ. This, I would think could qualify as "reward" in the singular.

However, this could refer to the ONE general reward that is assigned to each and every believer based on the fact that they all have trusted in Christ as Savior. That would be the general reward of EVERLASTING LIFE itself. Romans 2:5-10.


The recipients of this reward are mentioned in three categories. The intent seems to be to include believers from Adam until Armageddon.

Accordingly, I suggest that the first two words refers to the body of Christ, known as the bride, and would include all believers from Adam until the rapture. The word prophets refers to all of God's communicators from both the Old Testament times and the church age.

The word, saints, probably refers to everyone else who is a believer from all PAST generations. This division between the communicators and the "saints" is not foreign to Scripture, as we see such a division at Philippians 1:1, "to all the saints . . . including the overseers and the deacons."

The phrase, "those who fear your name," would refer to the believers from the time period between the rapture and the battle of Armageddon. This third group falls into two categories; (1) those who die between the rapture and armageddon, who are raised up at Revelation 20:4, at the beginning of the kingdom; and (2) the living believers still on the earth from both Israel and the Gentiles, who go alive into the physical kingdom as subjects to King Messiah as He reigns on His earthly throne in Jerusalem. The designation of these believers, using this phrase is based on Revelation 14:7, where the mandate of the everlasting gospel revolves around, "fear God and give Him glory."
Included in this group would be all believers
of the 1000 year kingdom. This group includes those believers who will be alive on the earth after Armageddon, and who go into the kingdom to be subjects of Jesus, the Messiah King. From this group, many children will be born, so that by the end of the kingdom, there will be a massive population of both believers and unbelievers. The resurrection and evaluation of this group of "millennial" believers are not mentioned in scripture, but it is certain that such an evaluation must take place in view of what scripture teaches concerning the activities of people during the kingdom. This group will also contain any believers who died physically during the 1000 year kingdom.

ALL believers are "overcomers" because of their initial faith in trusting in the Messianic promise; either looking forward to the coming of the Redeemer, or looking at the historical fact of the person and work of the Redeemer in the person of Jesus Christ. 1John 5:5, "and who is the one who overcomes the world, but he who believes that Jesus is the Son of God."
Each believer then, is rewarded for His faith in Christ and is given ELEVEN specific "salvation" benefits of being a believer IN CHRIST. These are listed in the letters to the 7 churches at Revelation 2 and 3, and will be fully realized in the eternal estate after the 1000 year earthly kingdom.

#1. Rev. 2:7, Eats from the tree of life in The Paradise of God.
#2. Rev. 2:11, Not be hurt by the second death.
#3. Rev. 2:17, He will get the hidden manna
#4. Rev. 2:17, He will get a white stone with a new name written on it.
#5. Rev. 3:5, clothed in white garments.
#6. Rev. 3:5, name not erased from the book of life.
#7. Rev. 3:5, name confessed before the Father and the angels.
#8. Rev. 3:12, he will be a pillar in the temple of God.
#9. Rev. 3:12, he will have 3 names written upon him.
#10., Rev. 3:21, sit down with Christ in His throne.
#11. Rev. 2:26, I will give him the morning star.
         Christ is called The Morning Star at Rev.22:16.
         The "possession" of The Morning Star refers to the
         believer's ultimate identification with Christ as the
         "light of the world" for all eternity.

"And (the time has come) to destroy those who destroy the earth":
This too is governed by the phrase, “and the time came.”
Now that Messiah has taken control over the earth, He must remove the enemies who have been destroying it. This refers primarily to the beast and the false prophet, but certainly includes all the armies that have assembled in Palestine for “the war of the great God, the Almighty.” Rev. 19:19-21; 16:12-16.
And of course, included in this group of enemies is Satan and his angels. Rev.20:1-3. Satan is chained in the abyss for 1000 years. And his angels are probably thrown into the lake of fire, for we here nothing more of them in Scripture.

This final judgment on His enemies will occur through the 7 bowl judgments which begin immediately on the earth, but are not explained until Revelation 15, 16 and 19:19-20:3.

First, the visions shown to John will fill in some gaps concerning the nature and work of Satan’s plan to destroy the Christians and Jews. Those details are given in the parenthetical chapters 12-14 as addendas to what John has been shown so far.

Now that the TIME for God’s “final” wrath to be expressed on “those who destroy the earth,” John is once again shown the temple in heaven from where will come those final judgments on the earth.

1. And the temple of God which is in heaven was opened:

The first time that John is shown this temple “in heaven” is at verses 6:9-11, where the martyred believers are gathered under the altar.
Rev. 6:9 And when He broke the fifth seal, I saw underneath the altar the souls of those who had been slain because of the word of God, and because of the testimony which they had maintained;
Rev. 6:10 and they cried out with a loud voice, saying, “How long, O Lord, holy and true, will You refrain from judging and avenging our blood on those who dwell on the earth?”
Rev. 6:11 And there was given to each of them a white robe; and they were told that they should rest for a little while longer, until {the number of} their fellow servants and their brethren who were to be killed even as they had been, should be completed also.

The word “temple” does not occur, but THE ALTAR is certainly part of this “temple of God which is in heaven.” The context there is JUDGMENT as the martyrs are beseeching the Lord to judge those who dwell on the earth. Of course, they are told to wait awhile since the authority granted to the beast to kill the saints had not yet been rescinded, and there were other believers who would yet be killed.
And then immediately at verses 12-17, we are shown the Day-of-the-Lord arrival of Jesus who brings “the great day of their wrath” which will be poured out on the earth dwellers.

We learn from Revelation 7 that before God’s judgment begins to be poured out, TWO THINGS will have happened.
(1) the rapture, the EVIDENCE of which is shown to us at vs. 7:9-17 via the great multitude standing before the throne.
(2) the conversion of the 144 thousand Jews who will function as “bond-servants of our God” to serve God on the earth during the months remaining until the battle of Armageddon.

Once these two events occur, God will begin to judge the earth dwellers through the seven trumpet judgments. And this is where John is shown the temple in heaven for the second time as recorded at verses 8:3-5.
Here, once again, the context is judgment as the saints’ prayers for justice begin to be answered.

Rev. 8:3 And another angel came and stood at the altar, holding a golden censer; and much incense was given to him, that he might add it to the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne.
Rev. 8:4 And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, went up before God out of the angel’s hand.
Rev. 8:5 And the angel took the censer; and he filled it with the fire of the altar and threw it to the earth; and there followed peals of thunder and sounds and flashes of lightning and an earthquake.

2. "and the ark of His covenant appeared in His temple:" the appearance of the ark speaks directly of divine righteousness and justice as the key factors for God's interaction with man.

A. Righteousness: speaks of the fact that man is at enmity with God and comes short of God's righteousness.

B. Justice: speaks of the penalty for coming short and at the same time, speaks of the Divine payment of that penalty through the sacrifice of Christ on the cross.

C. The consequences for rejecting the divine provision for salvation as represented by the ark of the covenant is judgment from God.

D. Thus, we have the "storm" to portend the administration of God's final judgment upon the physical earth and those unbelievers who reside there.

Chapters 15-16 then picks up at the end of the 2nd half (at the last trumpet) and the administration of the final wrath of God for 30 days.

3. "and there were flashes of lightning and sounds and peals of thunder and an earthquake and a great hailstorm."
Once again, the SIGNS of great judgment from God occur, just as at 8:5.
God's wrath in justice will be poured out on the earth upon those who have rejected the grace provision from God for adjustment to God, ie, salvation through faith in Christ.

These three can be seen as agendas to the chronological progression of the visions shown to John.
It should be obvious that chapter 12 now BACKS UP in the chronology of events, for it begins at the midpoint of the week by showing us that the dragon will persecute the woman for 1260 days. Chapter 11, however, has already extended to the end of the week.
The same can be said of chapter 13, for it also begins at the midpoint of the week by showing us the inception of the beast’s reign and that it will last for 42 months.
And, of course, we saw the same BACK UP or “parenthetical” passage at verses 11:1-13.
Chapter 14 is considerably different. It does not BACK UP to the midpoint of the week but rather BEGINS after the conversion of the 144 thousand Jewish bond-servants of God. It extends then chronologically, from that event to the battle of Armageddon as seen at verses 19-20. Accordingly it covers the period of the 6 trumpets, the end of the week, and the final wrath of God that is poured out via the seven bowls.

So then, after the “addendas” of chapters 12-14, chapter 15 shows us the seven angels with the seven plagues coming OUT OF THE TEMPLE. And the voice of command for them to pour out their plagues, comes OUT FROM THE TEMPLE (verse 16:1).
Chapter 11 ends with John being shown judgment coming out from the temple, and chapter 15-16 begins with John being shown the SPECIFICS of that judgment coming out from the temple.

Thus, OUT FROM the 7th trumpet will come the bowls.
It is a chronological progression. The bowls are NOT a recap of the trumpets, but will occur separate from the trumpets during the 30 days after the end of the 70th week, and after the 7th trumpet has sounded.

SEE: trumpets and bowls compared


Questions and comments are always welcome

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