2 PETER 1:1-11  


Pronunciation guide:
The letter
ā indicates the Greek letter, eta, and indicates a long "A" sound.
The letter
ō represents the Greek letter omega, and indicates a long "O" sound.


1. Simon Peter: Slave and apostle (doulos and apostolos)

2. To those who have received: aorist active participle of lagchanō, which means to obtain something by lot or by commission, or by divine DESIGN. It is used at Acts 1:17 of Judas, who had received his SHARE or PORTION in the ministry given to the disciples. This share was given to him based on the selective choosing of Jesus (John 6:70), and on that basis explains the use of this particular verb. It is also used at Luke 1:9 in the passive voice in reference to the casting of lots to choose which priest would offer incense on the altar for that particular day. It was assumed in that context that God controlled the choosing, and in that incident specifically, at least, we know that God did.

At John 19:24 it is used of the soldiers who cast lots to see which one would take possession of the robe that Jesus had worn.

In the passage before us, there is certainly no aspect of chance or casting of lots involved with receiving faith. Nor is there any direct implication that it is God who gives the faith.

We are of course challenged at this point with the Calvinist doctrine that God actually gives saving faith to those whom He has specifically chosen, and that all others are unable to be saved because God chooses NOT to give faith to them. But this violates all that the bible teaches about the existence of volition and the volitional responsibility that all have to either accept or reject God's message of salvation, as is expressed at Acts 17:30, "God is now declaring to men, that all everywhere should repent."

3. A faith, equal in value as ours: The adjective, isotimos, indicates that the FAITH in view has the same benefit as what was received by the apostles. There are two choices as to the nature of this faith. It could refer to the FUNCTION of faith that results in salvation, and is then extended into Christian living, or it could refer to the possession of THE faith, which is the organized body of revealed truth pertinent to and based on the historical person and work of Jesus the Messiah. However, this is not likely since the "type" faith of verse 1 (FUNCTION) is the same "functional" faith that is mentioned in verse 5 as the basis for the advance and function in the 7 spheres of light outlined there.

This "functional" saving FAITH does not arise from man's own intent or desire, but it is GIVEN based on divine design and action. However, the MEANS by which this faith is given is not a matter of divine CHOICE, but rather a matter of divine enablement that comes from the power inherent in the gospel message, for the word of God is living and energizing (Hebrews 4:12). Romans 10:17 tells us that faith comes through HEARING and hearing through the WORD of truth. We learn from several passages that the Holy Spirit convicts the unbeliever after hearing the message of truth, and this elicits in him a response of acceptance (faith) or rejection of the message (John 16:8-11; Acts 2:37; 5:30-33; 7:54).

Peter here describes this faith in this manner, not because he sees it as a direct gift from God, but rather to emphasize the fact that he is writing to those who are believers in Jesus, and who share a common factor for success in the Christian life.

The statement here that faith is received indicates that SOMETHING happens that results in faith. It does not mean that God GIVES the faith. Nor does it mean that when that "something," happens it will automatically result in faith. God reaches out and has reached out to the unbelievers all throughout human history through the process of DRAWING (or conviction), and has given all people what they need to understand and choose to adjust to God. But just because people hear and are convicted by the Spirit, does not mean that they will choose to accept.

The only other places that can be appealed to in support of faith being selectively given by God are Ephesians 2:8-9 and Romans 12:3, but in each case there is no basis for claiming that saving faith is a gift from God. At Ephesians 2:8-9, the GIFT that is in view is the gift of salvation which faith claims as God's grace provision apart from works.
And at Romans 12:3, the word faith is used to refer to the spiritual gift that God has given to each believer. Since the function of faith-thinking is necessary for the proper operation of the spiritual gift, that is what Paul has in view by using the word, faith, and he is not referring to saving faith.

For details see Topic: FAITH for salvation: NOT A GIFT OF GOD.

4. By means of the righteousness: This is the preposition EN with the instrumental case of righteousness. Is accurately translated in the NASB, "by means of," in which case it further establishes GOD's character as the source of our salvation; that is, providing us the opportunity to trust (faith) in His salvation.
But to WHAT does righteousness refer?
   A. It cannot refer to imputed righteousness (justification) since
       saving faith is not BY MEANS of righteousness, but rather faith
       results in righteousness.
   B. It refers to the CHARACTER of the Father and of Christ
       with emphasis on justice. As with Wuest, R.H. Strachan (from
       the Expositor's Greek New Testament), Simon Kistemaker
       (Baker Books' NEW TESTAMENT COMMENTARY), and
       A. T. Robertson. Robertson says, "The O.T. sense of dikaiosun
       applied to God."

   C. God is righteous: Is. 45:21; Deut. 32:4; Ps. 119:137; 129:4; 11:7.
        Righteous Father: John 17:25.
        And Jesus is righteous:
Acts 3:14; 7:52; 22:14; 1 John 2:1

   D. Thus, at Romans 1:17 we are told that "in" and through the
       gospel, the righteousness of God is revealed.
       Thus, it seems appropriate to see that our saving faith comes
       to us based on, because of and "by means of" the righteous
       character of both the Father and the Son.
       This is further reflected at Romans 5:18, speaking of Christ's
       character and work on the cross,
       "by one act of righteousness (dikai
ōma)." And at verse 19,
       "through the OBEDIENCE of one, many will be made righteous."

5. The SAVING faith that is expressed based on the convicting ministry of the Holy Spirit is the basis for living the Christian life after salvation. Such faith is the foundation upon which is built the love structure in the soul, as is summarized at 1 Timothy 1:5, "the goal of the instruction is LOVE, out from a cleansed heart, and a good conscience and an un-hypocritical faith. Faith is the system by which the believer not only perceives the things of God, but also utilizes them. This is the focus of Peter at verse 5, where he writes that we should "supply" to our faith; that is, perpetuate the function of our "salvation" faith into the experience of growth and imitating Christ's character.


6. Of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ: The next issue is to establish that we have TWO persons in view as possessing the righteousness that is mentioned; our God (the Father) AND our Savior, Jesus Christ, rather than just one, which is commonly believed.

7. It is commonly held that this construction is an example of what is called the Granville Sharp Rule, which states: "When the copulative kai connects two nouns of the same case, if the article, ho, or any of its cases precedes the first of the said nouns or participles, and is not repeated before the second noun or participle, the latter always relates to the same person that is expressed or described by the first noun or participle; i.e., it denotes a farther description of the first-named person." (Dana and Mantey Grammar, page 147).
See Topic: Granville Sharp rule which also contains most of the discussion below.

This is illustrated by Titus 2:13, where "the Great God" is joined by kai to "our Savior Christ Jesus," and equates the two as referring to one and the same person. Also at 2 Peter 2:20, "our Lord" is joined by kai to "Savior, Jesus Christ," and equates the two as referring to one and the same person.

Here, it is suggested, that "Our God," is referring to the same person as "Savior" because the definite article precedes God, is followed by KAI, and is thus connected to "Savior, Jesus Christ," which does not have the definite article.

However, the rule may be suspect because its application to 2 Peter 1:1 cannot be upheld by a detailed analysis of the context.

Furthermore, at 2 Peter 2:20, it is the context that makes the two words (Lord and Savior) refer to the same person and it does not depend on any grammatical construction.

And at Titus 2:13, the translation, "Looking for the blessed hope, that is (kai) the appearing of the glory of The Great God and OF our Savior Christ Jesus," does not NEED to equate the words "God" and "Savior" for the second advent context makes it clear that TWO things APPEAR at the second coming; (1) the GLORY of the Great God, Matthew 16:27, AND (2) the person of Jesus.

The claim that this RULE "still proves to be true," (Dana and Mantey Grammar, page 147) is forced rather than cut in stone. A perfect example is our passage here at 2 Peter 1:2, where it is claimed that, "Our God," is referring to the same person as "Savior" because of the construction and the Granville Sharp Rule. As I attempt to find the true meaning of Peter's words here, I cannot be restricted by a grammatical "rule" that seems to be more wishful thinking than accurate fact.

However, let me be quick to add that this in no way threatens the deity of Jesus Christ, for that fact is clearly established in the New Testament, and does not depend on the Granville Sharp Rule to establish its veracity.

Now, concerning the passage before us, there is no basis for equating the word, God, with either savior or Jesus in either First or Second Peter, and both the immediate context as well as the over all context will demonstrate this. Starting in 1 Peter 1:1-3, Peter consistently makes a distinction between "God" and Jesus, and it is clear that when he mentions God, he has in mind God, the Father. In fact, so consistently does Peter make this distinction, that it is hermeneutically unwise to use the Granville Sharp Rule at 2 Peter 1:2 as justification to depart from his pattern.

In 1 Peter chapter one, theos is used 6 times, and the first two are identified as God the Father, which sets the pattern for its usage in the rest of the book.

In chapter two, theos is used 9 times and the distinction between GOD and Jesus Christ is continued at verse 5 and preserved through the rest of the chapter.

In chapter three, theos is used 8 times, with the distinction being indicated at verses 18 and 22.

In chapter four, theos is used 11 times, with the distinction being indicated at verse 11 and 14.

At chapter five, theos is used 5 times, with the distinction being indicated at verse 10.

In 2 Peter, God is used 7 times (1:1, 2, 17, 21; 2:4; 3:5, 12) with a clear distinction indicated at verse 1:21 and "God the Father" actually used at verse 1:17.

Accordingly, at 2 Peter 1:1, in spite of the construction of the words, "The God of us and Savior, Jesus Christ," it is best to keep the two persons separate, and the possessive pronoun would do double duty as in, "the God of us and Savior (of us), Jesus Christ."

In verse 2, we have another mention of both of the Divine persons as Peter writes, "in the knowledge of the God and of Jesus our Lord."

And then at verse 3, the focus is on God the Father as the one who has provided us with all things through His full knowledge as the one who has called us by His own glory and integrity. This is not a reference to both the Father and the Son, nor is it a reference to the Son. It is the Father who is consistently described as the one who has called the believer into salvation (Romans 8:30; 9:24; 1 Cor. 1:9; 7:17; Galatians 1:6, 15; 5:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; 5:24; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; 2 Timothy 1:9; and especially 1 Peter 1:15; 2:9 and 5:10).


Verse 2 gives us the standard apostolic greeting and desire for all believers, and serves as an exhortation to experience abundant life blessings.

1. Grace to you: the noun, charis, refers to both the principle and the provision of the resources that man needs to find fulfillment in life. Whether it is grace for salvation (Titus 2:11; Ephesians 2:8-9) or grace for living the Christian life (James 4:6; 2 Peter 3:18), God freely provides exactly what man needs, and all he needs to do is reach out in faith and take it.

This is not a bestowal of grace provisions upon the believers, but a desire of the apostle that the believer USE the provisions that God has already made available. The availability of these grace provisions is based on Romans 8:32 and 2 Peter 1:3-4, but the believer must CHOOSE to use them (Hebrews 4:16; 1 Peter 5:12, stand firm in it). The utilization of God's grace provisions will result in growth progress as summarized at 1 Peter 5:10, and as detailed here at 2 Peter 1:5-8.

Although there are many aspects to character growth and the experience of abundant life blessings, the word PEACE is usually used to sum up that experience. Thus, peace became the standard counterpart to grace in this greeting to summarize the result of using God's grace provisions.

2. The word for peace is eirānā, and it refers to perfect soul relaxation which is free from disruption and conflict. This means the absence of all mental attitude sins such as worry, fear, doubt, anger, bitterness, hatred.

A. This refers to the peace of the abundant life which Jesus promised at John 14:27 and 16:33.

B. It is what Paul referenced at Philippians 4:6-7.
C. It is coupled with joy at Romans 15:13.
D. Even in the Old Testament the reality of peace was available to
God's people. Psalm 119:165; Proverbs 3:2; Isaiah 26:3;
E. See topic: The PEACE OF GOD

3. Be multiplied: this is the verb plāthunō as an aorist passive optative, which communicates the strong DESIRE on the part of the writer that the factors in view become a reality. The passive voice communicates the idea that these things are received by the believer as he responds to the authority, viewpoint and policy of God. At 1 Peter 5:5, Peter indicates that the availability of these grace resources are for the functional believer only, as he writes, "God is opposed to the proud, but gives GRACE to the humble."

Now, while there are a variety of FORMS that this greeting takes by the apostles, it is only here that Peter gives the basis for experiencing grace and peace, which is by means of God's word residing in the soul.


4. By means of the full knowledge: the Greek word is epignōsis. The NASB translates this as TRUE knowledge, but this is inaccurate. The preposition at the beginning of the word, epi, means UPON, and indicates an advance in degree or quality on basic academic knowledge (gnosis). The translation, "true," implies that gnosis is false, but this, of course is wrong. In fact in just a few sentences, Peter exhorts the believer to pursue GNOSIS as one sphere of progress in spiritual growth (notice at 2 Peter 3:18, "grow in the . . . gnosis").

A better translation is to use the word FULL in front of knowledge to indicate an advance upon the basic academics. Epignōsis, then, refers to the knowledge of light viewpoint and policy (Bible truth) that has taken up residence in the soul as what is truly believed and appealed to as absolute truth. It is no longer simple FACTS but truth that has been cycled through the soul and is now usable as fully understood divine viewpoint that produces character transformation and gives insight into all the issues of life. This is what is accomplished when we fulfill Colossians 3:16, "let the word of Christ abundantly DWELL within you (enoikeō, take up residence on the inside, reside in)."

5. This FULL knowledge is OF or ABOUT both God (the Father) and Jesus our Lord. The issue is not SOURCE but rather content. Again, there is attempt to equate the two words, God and Jesus through application of the Granville Sharp Rule, but this is not accurate as we have seen.

A. Knowledge about God: This refers to the character and plan of the Godhead as it has been revealed throughout the Old Testament and to the New Testament apostles and prophets.

B. Knowledge about Jesus: This refers to the details of Christ's person, work and present status and function at the right hand of God.

C. John 16:12-15; 1 Corinthians 2:9-10, 12-13, 16; Ephesians 3:2-7.

D. This full knowledge is amplified by verse 3 as Peter gives us the FORMAT and the EXTENT of God's knowledge resources.

Verse 3

1. Seeing that: the adverb, hōs, means as or in view of, and indicates the means by which the full knowledge of God produces both grace and peace, and as such, amplifies Peter's desire. In other words, the utilization of God's grace resources and the resultant experience of peace, CAN occur BECAUSE God's power has provided everything for US through His full knowledge.

2. His divine power: the adjective, theios explains the quality of the power (dunamis). The nature of what it is that His power has provided, indicates that Peter has in mind a supernatural provision that supersedes normal human activity and resources. It is a reference to God the Father as the provider of these spiritual ASSETS which equip the believer for success as a priest and ambassador for God.

3. Has granted us: The verb is dōreomai as a perfect middle participle which functions as a main verb of a genitive absolute. The literal translation would be confusing, but can be properly smoothed out by bringing it into English as a main verb. However, it needs to be recognized that the use of the perfect participle in this way indicates that the resources have been provided in the past and remain universally available to all believers who will access them on God's terms.

The use of the middle voice gives emphasis to the unique source of these provisions, as it draws attention to the subject (divine power), so that we have, "His divine power ITSELF, has provided."

4. Everything: this is the adjective, pas, as an accusative plural, and indicates that every issue is covered by this divine provision, and we can find insight and guidance for anything that we encounter in this life.

5. Pertaining to: This is the preposition, pros, which means to the face of something, and thus communicates very direct and relevant assistance in the two areas mentioned.

6. Life: the noun, zoā, is used for normal human existence. Although we are in the family of God, and our citizenship is in heaven (Philippians 3:21), we still remain here on earth to represent God in the context of normal human life activity. We are restricted by this world's physical environment and under the authority of the human morality system that God designed for all mankind. God has provided everything we need for understanding and succeeding in this sphere of existence.

7. And godliness: The noun is eusebeia, and although most translations consistently render it and its derivatives as, godliness (godly, ungodly, ungodliness), it does not literally mean that but rather communicates the idea of proper WORSHIP activity. The prefix, eu, means good, and the noun, sebeia, comes from the verb, sebō, which means to bend the knee in recognition and worship of someone. In this case it refers to the whole realm of GOOD (right and proper) worship activity directed toward God. This term indicates the second sphere of existence for the believer here on earth. It involves all aspects of "religious" activity (thrāskeia as at James 1:27), which includes good works, bible study, rituals, witnessing and prayer.

The believer has been transferred from darkness into light (Col. 1:13: Acts 26;18); from the family of Satan into the family of God, and as such he has a new focal point or purpose and priority for his existence, which is the worship and service of God (1 Timothy 4:7; 2 Peter 3:11). The reason that this word has been translated as godliness, is because the one who consistently recognizes the divine priority in his life, is going to be reflecting a "godly" character, that is, a character that reflects the righteousness and love of God as at Ephesians 5:1-2.

And of course, God is faithful to have provided everything the believer needs to fulfill that new purpose.

These two spheres of existence are referenced by Paul at 1 Timothy 2:2 as good worship (godliness) and dignity (moral integrity), and summed up by the term LIGHT, at Ephesians 5:8-9. The believer's function (living) in the kingdom of light in general, revolves around goodness, righteousness and truth, and specifically is outlined by the seven spheres of light function listed at 2 Peter 1:5-7.

However, although the provision is universally available to all of God's people, it is accessed only through the FULL knowledge of God, and that requires fulfillment of the growth imperative (1 Peter 2:2; 2 Peter 3:18; Col. 3:16).

8. Through the FULL knowledge: epignōsis again to indicate divine truth that has been perceived and embraced so that it resides in the soul as that which gives discernment and insight in reference to good and evil.

A. Knowledge of truth that goes beyond general information.
Ephesians 3:19; 2 Timothy 3:7; Romans 1:28; 10:2

B. Only epignōsis can produce the character qualities of the love complex and the abundant life.
Philippians 1:9; Colossians 1:9; 2:2; 3:10; Philemon 6; 2 Peter 1:2

C. In verse 2, the epignōsis is related t both the Father and the Son, but here the emphasis is on the Father as the planner and provider of everything.

9. Of Him who called us: the verb kaleō as an aorist active participle refers to the invitation to and status of election after the invitation is accepted. Thus, it indicates a completed state of election - which is the status of being in God's grace plan for the possession of eternal life. As we saw above, it is the Father who is the one who initiates this call and completes it when the person trusts in Christ as Savior. Romans 8:30; 9:24; 1 Cor. 1:9; 7:17; Galatians 1:6, 15; 5:8; 1 Thessalonians 2:12; 5:24; 2 Thessalonians 2:14; 2 Timothy 1:9; and especially 1 Peter 1:15; 2:9 and 5:10.

10. By means of: This is en plus the instrumental case to indicate the means by which our calling (election) is accomplished.

11. It came as an expression of God's perfect character.

A. His own: this word (idios) indicates personal attributes possessed by none other in the universe.

B. Glory: doxa refers to the divine essence in general.

C. and virtue: This word is aretā, which is translated in verse 5, as "moral excellence." There needs to be the same meaning assigned to this word, whether it is referring to God or to the believer. Moral integrity or integrity alone, is fine for verse 5, but here it refers to some aspect of God's character. Actually, it is the functional expression of God's essence in the area of divine JUSTICE. Thus, integrity is a good translation, and that makes the connection with verse 5, where the believer is exhorted to build integrity, or the expression of JUSTICE in his social interaction with other members of the human race.

At 1 Peter 2:9, we are exhorted to proclaim the aretā (plural) of God, which would be the proclamation of the gospel with emphasis on the workings of the JUSTICE of God.

D. We are saved because of the workings of His JUSTICE in judging sins upon Jesus Christ on the cross, and in accomplishing for us the three positional factors of reconciliation of 1 Corinthians 1:30; (wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption).

E. And of course, it is this status of election that is the basis for the experiential provision for living out that election in the Christian life.

Verse 4 - Experiential provision from God's character.

1. Through which things: This is dia plus a plural relative pronoun, which refers back to glory and integrity.

2. He has granted: this is a perfect middle indicative of dōreomai and corresponds with the "granted" in verse 3 which gives us everything we need for life and worship.

3. To us: this is a dative plural of egō, and refers to everyone who has already become a part of God's plan. This provision is useless to the unbeliever as per 1 Corinthians 2:14.

4. Promises: epangelia in the plural refers to all the promises of provision, protection and production; promises that enable us to experience the abundant life.

A. Precious: the word is timios and should be rendered, valuable.
This indicates the WORTH of these promises to the believer.

B. And magnificent: megistos is a superlative of megas which indicates the greatest degree (only used here in the New Testament). The adjective, megas, means great or large and therefore this communicates the idea of MOST magnificent.

C. This indicates the QUALITY of these promises; there is none better and one that can provide for our spiritual needs.

D. All other sources that attempt to fulfill the divine priority for the believer fall short and totally fail.

5. In order that: hina + the subjunctive mood indicates the reason we have the promises.

6. Through them: dia + the genitive case of houtos (demonstrative pronoun).
This indicates that we must USE the promises; we must learn them, make them a part of our soul; and put them into practice.

7. We might become: The verb ginomai occurs as an aorist middle subjunctive to complete the purpose clause of hina.

A. the potential depends on our response to the promises. Hebrews 3:14; 4:1; 2 Corinthians 7:1

B. The aorist tense indicates the ultimate result of the growth process. A point of time when the LOVE becomes consistent in our life.

8. Partakers: the noun koinōnos means a sharer, a partner or one who has fellowship with another. In this case the fellowship or sharing is through the imitation of Christ's character as at Ephesians 5:1-2.

9. of the divine nature: the word theios refers to that which pertains to God. Exactly what is in view depends on the context. At verse 3, we see it with the word POWER, and it very clearly refers to the kind of power that only comes from God. Here the word modifies nature, which is phusis, and refers to the inherent character of someone. In this case, it refers to that aspect of God's nature that is functional toward His creatures and can be imitated by His creatures. It is exemplified by the life of Christ and summarized by the word LOVE, which in turn is explained by the 15 virtues listed at 1 Corinthians 13:4-7.
2 Corinthians 3:18; Romans 13:14; Galatians 4:19

However, before there can be an imitation of God - a reflection of His love, there must be an experiential defeat of the sin nature.

10. Having escaped: This is the word apopheugō, as an aorist active participle, and indicates an experiential reality that must take place before the believer can reflect God's character. This occurs in two stages.

A. The positional stage: This occurs at the moment of salvation when we are given a positional deliverance from the sin nature.

1. Through the new birth we change our status and become a new creation IN Christ (2 Corinthians 5:17).

2. Paul calls this being DEAD to the sin at Romans 6:1-2 and 11.

3. Transferred from kingdom of darkness into light (Acts 26:18).

4. Jesus said that we are not of the world since He has chosen us out of the world (John 15:19).

5. But we can still be influenced by the evil that is in the world (John 17:15).

B. The experiential stage: This occurs when we use God's resources - the word and the filling/control of the Holy Spirit, to resist the inclination (lust) of the sin nature and avoid personal sin (Galatians 5:16).

C. Both must take place in order for the believer to experience a sharing in God's character of love.

11. the corruption: the Greek word is phthora and means decay and pollution. It indicates decay from what is normal; a distortion of what is right.
The believer makes contact with this corruption in 3 ways.

A. Darkness viewpoint from Satan: Luke 8:12; 2 Corinthians 4:4; 2 Timothy 2:26; Ephesians 4:27; 6:10-16; 1 Timothy 4:1

B. Darkness viewpoint from other people: 1 Cor. 15:33, phtheirō
Acts 15:1; Gal. 3:1; 5:7-8; Eph. 4:14; Col. 2:8; 2 Tim. 3:6-7, 13; Titus 1:10; 2 Peter 2:1-3; 1 John 2:18-19

C. Darkness viewpoint from the sin nature: James 1:14; 2 Peter 1:4 1 Peter 2:11; Romans 6:12-16; Galatians 6:7-8, reap phthora; Romans 7:18, nothing agathos (good).

12. That is in the world: the word kosmos, here, refers to the physical world in which we live. Corruption resides in this world through the influence of the sin nature. The believer can escape the evil influence that is in the world without having to LEAVE the world (John 17:15).

13. Through lust: The word, epithumia, refers to the lust of the sin nature that attacks the soul of the believer (Romans 7:23; 1 Peter 2:11), seeking to take it captive for the purpose of promoting unrighteousness (Romans 6:13-14).

A. We have escaped relationship corruption in the world through positional sanctification. Col. 2:20a; 3:3, 9; John 15:19

B. But we need to maintain our freedom from the corrupting influence of the world. Gal. 5:1, 13; Col. 2:20b; 3:1-2

C. There are two things that must be done to perpetuate our positional escape from corruption into our experience here on earth.

1. Doctrinal intake: John 8:32; 17:17; Romans 12:2
2. Filling/control of the Holy Spirit: Gal. 5:16; Rom. 8:1-8, 12-16.

D. As these two things are maintained, we partake of the divine nature. We not only experience fellowship with God, but character conformity (imitation) to His love and righteousness.

Verse 5

1. Now for this very reason: Because of the provision of verses 3-4.

A. The following PROCESS is the means by which we become partakers of the divine nature.

B. The ultimate expression of the divine nature is love, and it is the goal of the following process.

2. Applying: This verb, pareispherō, is a triple compound word that means to bring (pherō) something in (eis) along side (para). The verb occurs as an aorist active participle, the action of which precedes the action of the main verb or attends the action of the main verb. This means that the action of this verb must occur FIRST before the action of the main verb can occur. The main verb is the command to SUPPLY various ingredients to your faith as the means to accomplish spiritual growth.

Accordingly, something must be brought to the side of the soul in order to proceed and succeed in spiritual growth. That factor is the principle of DILIGENCE.

3. All diligence: pas spoudā

A. the adjective, pas (all), indicates degree. The ALL factor then expresses the idea of total dedication, no holding back, no half-heartedness; no divided interests; no distractions; no hypocrisy; making every effort within your means.

B. The noun, spoudā, indicates the practice of total dedication based on an attitude of love and respect.

C. It is the natural activity that results from true humility.

1. At God consciousness: Seeking in Acts 17:27
2. At gospel hearing: groping in Acs 17:27
3. After salvation, humility-diligence seeks to learn divine viewpoint and policy, and then put it into practice.

4. Diligence in growth: 2 Timothy 2:15
5. Diligence in application:

a. In general: Hebrews 6:9-12; Ephesians 4:3; Romans 12:11
b. Faith rest: Hebrews 4:11; 2 Peter 3:14

D. Humility recognizes that God is the source of everything for life and worship.

E. Humility expresses proper respect to towards the character and plan of God so that His viewpoint and policies are given priority.

F. This is called PHOBOS (the fear of the Lord), and is the required attitude for the believer in order to fulfill spiritual life activity (1 Peter 1:17).

G. Diligence then, is the overt expression of humility/respect toward God after salvation. This is called TREMBLING at Philippians 2:12.

I. And so, the fear of the Lord is the true basis for success in spiritual growth (Proverbs 1:7).

J. It is this humility/respect that actually motivates the self-consciousness to apply every effort in pursuit of growth.

K. The inner expression of humility is faith; the acceptance and trust in revealed truth.

1. Faith is first expressed at the point of salvation, and becomes the launching pad for progress in Christian growth and application.

2. Colossians 2:6
3. 2 Peter 1:5, supply to your faith.

4. In your faith: This is en + the locative of faith (pistis).
This can be rendered either as "in the sphere of" or "by means of" faith

A. Faith refers to the function of the self-consciousness in accepting the issues and details of divine policies.

B. It refers to the faith of verse 1, which was first expressed as trust in the gospel message, and is now the foundation for experiencing growth and the blessings of the abundant life.

C. Salvation faith is an expression of humility and love toward God by obeying salvation policy (Romans 1:5; 6:17; 2Thessalonians 2:10).

D. Then immediately after salvation, that same humility and love will desire more knowledge about God. Humility/respect keeps us oriented to our needs and to the only provision for them. James 1:21

E. This perpetuates salvation faith into growth faith and begins building the character structure in the soul (Colossians 2:6-7).

F. When humility is lost, the creature begins to elevate himself beyond his status. He takes his eyes off of the source and pursues religion and/or philosophy instead of truth.
1 Timothy 1:5-7, 19; 2 Timothy 4:3-4

G. The most important part of growth humility is fellowship. If the believer does not understand the issues of spirituality or does not apply them, there is no true growth humility and there be no significant progress.

1. Therefore, 1 John 1:9 must be applied constantly and especially during the perception stage of growth. 1 Peter 2:1 and James 1:21

2. Two things provide growth humility:

a. orientation to salvation status. What God did for us: 1 Peter 2:3; 1:18-19
This is the initial motivation.

b. Orientation to what God can do for us in time. The abundant life - John 8:28-32; Romans 15:13

c. Advanced motivation for growth is experienced when the abundant life is a reality in the soul.

H. But there are many obstacles to humility and faith. Luke 8:11-15 with Matthew 13:18-23

1. All of these attack the principle of humility by making details of life more important than divine truth. Details of life attack spoudā (diligence).

2. So when the believer is positive to truth and recognizes that it is more important than anything else, he will pursue the growth process at every opportunity. This is diligence building on faith (Matthew 4:4; Romans 14:17-19).

3. Faith is a mental attitude dedication to divine policies (the inner expression of humility).
Diligence is overt dedication (overt expression of humility).

4. So when you apply diligence, you put faith to work and growth progresses into consistent application. This is called, "working out your salvation with fear (inner humility) and trembling (overt humility - diligence).

5. Supply: the verb is epichorāgeō as an aorist active imperative, is the main verb. It means to furnish or provide something so that some other action might take place. It was used of the benefactor who financed the expenses of the theater so that the play could go on.

The aorist tense indicates the many specific points of time involved with pursuing the learning of the word of God.

A. This word indicates a progress in spiritual growth that builds on the foundation of salvation faith.

B. Spiritual growth is a process of building spiritual standards and character qualities in the soul by the very use and definition of the word growth (1 Peter 2:2; 2 Peter 3:18).

C. The process of growth very clearly begins with your salvation faith and arrives at THE love.

D. Some portions of scripture view this LOVE from its completed status such as 1 Corinthians 13:4-7; Romans 12:9-13; Galatians 5:22-23.

E. But other passages make it clear that this status of love is developed in the soul through learning divine truth. 1 Timothy 1:5; 1 Peter 1:22; Ephesians 4:20- 5:2; Ephesians 3:16-19; Philippians 1:9-11; 2 Corinthians 3:18.

F. And of course, this passage indicates the specific progress that is made by the use of the word, SUPPLY, and by the order of the virtues.

G. The process is not to completely master one virtue and then advance to the next one, but to be building in all of them progressively.

H. That means that progress is made in the following virtues by degree based on progress in the previous one. To illustrate -

1. Salvation faith must be present first. The unbeliever cannot grow up spiritually.

2. Next, morality consistency as an expression of creature humility is necessary before knowledge can benefit the soul.

3. All the following virtues are built based on how much knowledge is in the soul.

4. To the degree that you have self control over the details of life, to that degree endurance in pressure will be expressed.

5. And endurance determines the consistency of good worship (godliness), which is the worship capacity that comes from spiritual integrity.

6. This spiritual integrity promotes family loyalty or a Christian "esprit de corps" that seeks to establish Christian unity through doctrinal purity.

7. And all these together reflect THE love (agapā) of Christ. To the degree that these virtues are expressed, to that degree, love is expressed.

6. The first application of diligence is called moral integrity.
The Greek word is aretā plus the definite article (THE moral virtue).

A. Aretā is the overt expression of one's true motivation.

1. For the Creator, it is JUSTICE providing what His creatures need for proper function in this life (verse 3).

2. For the creature, it is obedience to Creator policy in the area of divine morality.

B. Morality standards are both learned and present from the natural design in the soul.

1. The natural design of morality in the soul is taught at Ecclesiates 7:29 and Romans 2:14.

2. A dedicated creature will follow this inherent IMPULSE.

3. An arrogant creature will follow the impulse of the sin nature and make his own policy for relating to people and the world.

4. The issue here is always simple OBEDIENCE, not growth.

5. The creature is obligated by his creature status to follow the moral design of the Creator.

6. The believer is motivated further because of his new spiritual relationship with the Creator.

C. This character quality is first because it perpetuates creature humility into normal human existence.

D. For the believer, the entire growth process depends on basic acceptance of divine morality policy and the practice of that policy.

E. If morality violations are not corrected and proper standards maintained, progress in growth will be limited to that degree.

F. If you are practicing a moral violation, your attitude is rebellious against divine policy. The sin nature is in control, and your perception of truth will be distorted.

G. This is the principle of 1 Peter 1:2 and James 1:21.
Confession and cessation of sin in order to offset the distorting influence of the sin nature. IN the church age, this place of fellowship with God is directly related to the filling/control of the Holy Spirit and His function as teacher of the mystery doctrines of the church.

H. Without moral consistency, growth will be hindered, if indeed, the process is even engaged. Immorality erodes the desire to learn truth; the motivation to line up with God's viewpoint and policy.

7. The second application of diligence is the pursuit of knowledge.

A. The word, gnosis refers to general data about God's character and plan that is found only in the bible.

B. Knowledge is broken down into TWO primary categories and THREE secondary categories.

1. Mystery truth: Divine viewpoint related specifically to the historical appearance and work of Jesus the Messiah.

2. Non-mystery truth: Divine viewpoint not dependent on the historical arrival of the Messiah (Romans 15:4).

3. The three secondary categories are listed at 1 Cor. 14:3 as edification, exhortation and comfort.

4. These are amplified at 2 Timothy 3:16 as instruction, reproof, correction and character training in righteousness.

C. Then there are 3 areas of mystery knowledge as mentioned at Ephesians 1:18-19

1. that you may know: oida as a perfect active infinitive + eis.

2. What is the confidence of His calling: This refers to salvation details based on the resurrection, ascension and session of Jesus, and involves all the doctrines of salvation culminating in the doctrine of salvation security.

3. The glory of His inheritance: Details based on union with Christ.

4. Greatness of His power: Christian life details based on the indwelling and filling of the Holy Spirit.

D. Non-mystery details of knowledge include the books of the Old Testament (Romans 15:4) and much of what Jesus taught (Matthew 5:17-48, "but I say to you").

E. The scope of knowledge is one of sufficient completion. Ephesians 3:18; 2 Peter 1:3 (pas); John 14:26 (all things); John 16:13 (all truth); Romans 12:2 (sufficiently complete).

F. The teachings of Jesus reflected both mystery and non-mystery truth and must be evaluated by context.

G. The more divine truth we put into the soul the more consistent will be the character qualities that build the love structure in the soul. Psalm 119:9-11, 130; Proverbs 6:20-23; 24:3-4; 1 Timothy 1:5

H. There are 4 basic qualities that spiritual life centers around (function in light), and together they constitute various degrees of expressing the character of love.

I. The 15 virtues of love as listed at 1 Corinthians 13:4-7 simply amplify the four we see here. But the structure (house in the soul) is based on progress in the FOUR areas plus moral integrity and knowledge.

Verse 6

1. The first character quality is SELF-CONTROL. This relates directly to humility application to the details of life, and specifically involves the control of emotions.

A. The Greek word is egkrateia, which only occurs two other times (Acts 24:25; Galatians 5:23).

B. The verb, egkrateuomai occurs only two times (1 Corinthians 7:9; 9:25). Compare 2 Timothy 2:3-5

C. The adjective occurs only at Titus 1:8 in a list of qualities.
D. Compare with akrasia, which means lack of self-control (1 Corinthians 7:5; Matthew 23:25).
And akratās at 2 Timothy 3:3, in a list of negative qualities.

E. So the issue with this word group is very clearly control of the details of life (Compare with 1 Corinthians 6:12).

F. But it is a growth issue: 1 Timothy 6:5-10, 17

G. Detail control is necessary before you can endure the pressures of an antagonistic environment.

1. Details is where the attack will come. Job; Christ, Matthew 4:1-10. Matthew 13:22; Luke 8:14

2. If you are not the master of them, they will master you, and you can only serve one master (Matthew 6:24).

2. The second character quality is endurance. The Greek word is hupomonā, and it means to remain standing up under pressure.

A. It depends on control over pressure attacks in the area of detail attacks because that is usually where the attacks begin.

B. If you cultivate humility factors toward details of life, developing all the facets of self-control, endurance will fall right into place. Job 1:20-22; 2:10

C. Endurance is an issue of growth and is dependent on knowledge of God's word (Romans 15:4).

D. Endurance goes hand in hand with patience to indicate soul stability.

E. Endurance enhances further growth and promotes development of spiritual integrity which is the next character quality of the love structure. SEE Romans 5:3-5.

3. The 3rd character quality is the capacity for advanced worship integrity.

A. The word godliness, is eusebeia in the Greek and it means to bend the knee in recognition and respect toward someone. It thus speaks of an expression of worship that consistently honors God's authority, viewpoint and policy.

B. This refers to advanced dedication to divine design to the point of total agreement with all His policies. This goes beyond moral obedience and places the divine priority over everything else in life.

C. It indicates spiritual consistency and character stability as is developed at Romans 5:4.

D. This is an advance on the motivation issue, as well.

1. Initial motivation for growth and worship is salvation.
1 Peter 2:3; the basic love of Ephesians 3:17b.

2. Now motivation is based on recognition of all He has provided for us in time as well as well as character stability. Ephesians 3:17b, Christ dwelling in the heart as a result of basic love.

E. Eusebeia, the leads to greater capacity to understand God's plan. Ephesians 3:10.

F. And ultimately, to the advanced experience of THE love (agapā). Ephesians 3:19 and 2 Peter 1:7

G. And this experience provides peace, joy and confidence. Romans 5:5; 15:13

H. Eusebeia (good worship) is not the final stage in the growth process, (love is), but it indicates character progress that is able to discern between spiritual values and kosmic (worldly) values.

1. This is reaching the point of Hebrews 5:14

2. The result is that the plan of God is put first in every area of life, which is TRUE WORSHIP.

3. Worship LOVE: seeks to benefit the character and plan of God through praise and service.

I. Other references concerning eusebeia: 1 Timothy 3:16; 4:7-8; 5:4; 6:3; 2 Timothy 3:5, 12; Titus 1:1; 2:12; 2 Peter 2:9

Verse 7

1. The 4th character quality of the Love Structure is Christian loyalty.

The Greek word is philadelphia, which means to have rapport and affinity with the brothers. The brothers in view here are those who are in the family of God through having received and expressed the same quality of love. I.E., they have trusted in Christ as savior.

A. This character quality is an extension of worship integrity, as it re-directs the devotion to God back toward those who are God's people here on earth.

B. It is devotion based on having a certain quality of rapport with fellow believers.

C. But this rapport is not based on CHARACTER compatibility, but rather on positional compatibility. That is, since all believers are united together into one body IN CHRIST, there develops an understanding that seeks to work together for the glory of God.


2. The 5th character quality of the love structure is beneficent love.

A. And to brotherly love, THE love. The word agapā is a summary word for the total expression of Christ's character, and as such becomes our guideline and example.

B. This is the ultimate in creature conformity to the design of the creator. Imitation - Ephesians 5:1-2; Matthew 5:48; Luke 6:36

C. This is really the fulfillment of 2 Peter 1:4, partakers of the divine nature.

D. The specific 15 virtues of love are described in I Corinthians 13:4-7. It is this description which establishes the principle of the love structure; a building in the soul.

Verse 8

1. For when: the explanatory gar explains the production results of having success in the growth process. The "when" idea here comes from the two PRESENT TENSE participles, existing and increasing.

2. these two words communicate the idea of progression as one advances within the love structure. It indicates that you can possess degrees of each one of these factors as you advance in growth. but the language of the previous verses makes it clear that the advance in each area is respective to progress in the area that comes first.

A. Existing is the word huparchō as a present active participle, and indicates that it is possible for a degree of progress to exist in each factor.

B. Increasing is the word pleonadzō as a present active participle, and indicates that these factors can and indeed, should, be developing in degree of understanding and of expression.

3. It establishes you: the verb is kathistāmi as a present active indicative (3rd person singular - he or it), and indicates the stability of production that results from success in this growth process.

4. Neither useless nor unfruitful:

A. the word useless comes from argos plus the negative (neither), and means unemployed, idle and useless.

B. with the negative, it obviously means the opposite.

C. without progress in these areas of growth, the believe will be as though he were unemployed. Our employment to be successful, depends on the learning and application of God's word.

D. The word unfruitful comes from akarpos, which means to be without fruit, and thus communicates zero or ineffective production.

5. In the FULL KNOWLEDGE of our Lord Jesus Christ.

This is epignōsis again, and refers to functional knowledge residing in the soul. This knowledge revolves around the character reflection of Christ's love. The goal of the instruction is love, and as progress is made toward love, the result is usefulness and production in the promotion of the plan and character of God.

Verse 9, failure in the growth process

1. For: repeat of the explanatory GAR, in order to point out the negative results of the one who fails to grow.

2. He who does not possess these things: This is a present active indicative of pareimi plus the negative, mā, and clearly indicates the opposite of huparcho (exist within). Literally, it reads, "for in whom these things are not present."

3. He is blind, shortsighted: First the adjective, tuphlos, communicates inability to see, however, the following adjectival participle explains this blindness as a LIMITATION in perception ability rather than a total physical blindness. The second word is a present active participle of muōpadzō, which means to be near-sighted, and unable to see beyond what is right in front of him.

Peter continues to explain this blindness as directly related to the person's forgetfulness of previously understood spiritual truths.

The Scripture gives us two images of this kind of blindness:

(1) What Jesus taught at Matthew 6:22-23

(2) The concept at Colossians 3:2, "set your mind on things above, not on the things that are upon the earth." WITH Philippians 3:18-19, "whose god is their belly, and whose glory is in their shame, who set their minds on earthly things."

4. having forgotten: this is the verb lambanō, as an aorist active participle, which means to receive. It has the noun, lāthā, which only occurs here and means forgetfulness. Together we should read, "having received forgetfulness," which of course describes a retrogression or reverting situation concerning previously learned truths. Peter specifically focuses on salvation truth.

5. purification from his former sins: the word purification refers to the fact that cleansing from past sins is accomplished at the very moment of time that a person trusts in Christ as Savior. The provision for such cleansing was accomplished by Jesus on the cross (Hebrews 1:3). But it is not actually applied to a person until they trust in Him, as is stated at Acts 15:9, "having cleansed their hearts by faith." This cleansing then results in eternal forgiveness of those sins, as well as all future sins, in reference to spiritual death and and eternal punishment (Ephesians 1:7; Romans 5:8-10).

What happens when a Christian fails to grow in grace and knowledge (2 Peter 3:18), is that he loses focus on both grace and knowledge. Peter tells us that the person can actually lose sight of what Jesus did on the cross and the purification provision that was accomplished for each and every member of the human race. He thus, forgets the very basics of Christian truth, and this leads him down the road of misery and frustration as well as loss of reward (verse 11, no ABUNDANT entrance).

Verse 10, repeated exhortation for diligence

1. Therefore brethren: Peter is addressing those who have trusted in Christ as Savior and are therefore in the family of God and considered brethren.

2. Be all the more diligent: Actually, the order in the Greek places the emphasis on MORE, as the word, mallon, follows "therefore," so that we have, "Therefore, MUCH MORE, brethren, be diligent. The emphasis in on the urgency of pursuing the growth process in view of both experiential and eternal results, both negative and positive.

The verb is spoudadzō as an aorist active imperative, and corresponds with the noun, spoudā, that we saw in verse 5.

The diligence is amplified by describing WHAT success in growth accomplishes rather than the actual pursuit of growth.

3. to make certain: The is the verb poieō (make), as a present middle infinitive, plus the adjective, bebaios, which means firm, stable, certain. This means for them to stabilize the reality of their salvation in order that they might function effectively as ambassadors for Christ.

It does not mean to SECURE their salvation, as in KEEPING it, but rather to the idea of making their salvation status functional.

4. Your calling and choosing: This is two nouns and the possessive pronoun, your. There is no pronoun, "his," and the nouns should not be translated as verbs. The NASB translation is not accurate here, "about His calling and choosing you." The KJV is correct at this point as it renders it, "to make your calling and election sure."

This is a very valuable passage because it teaches us that there are two different factors involved with our salvation relationship.

A. The word calling: This is klāsis, and is used to refer to the function of the believer's election in this life on earth, but with emphasis on the grace invitation that was extended to all members of the human race because of the work of Christ "who gave himself as a ransom for all," (1 Timothy 2:6).

1. The word group kaleō (klāsis, klātos) is used to refer to our election with both the invitation and the acceptance by God in view.

2. All are invited, but not all are accepted (Matthew 22:14). The reality of this grace invitation is UNDERSTOOD with every occurrence of the word, but the focus is on the new kind of life that is now the privilege and responsibility of the believer.

B. If only the STATUS of election is in view, then the word group eklegō (eklogā, eklecktos) is used (Colossians 3:12; Titus 1:1; Ephesians 1:3-4; Romans 8:33; 1 Thessalonians 1:4).

C. When both words are used, then both the function and the status are in view (Revelation 17:14; 2 Peter 1:10; 1 Peter 2:9), but the issue of an offered invitation, that usually has been accepted, is always inherent in the use of the kaleo word group.

5. Our CALLING focuses in on both the POSITIONAL and the FUNCTIONAL aspects of our salvation, but always with a reminder of the initial grace invitation from God.

A. The SCOPE of election: This is positional in focus

1. Hebrews 3:1, a heavenly calling
2. 2 Timothy 1:9, a holy calling
3. 1 Peter 2:9, out of darkness into light
4. 1 Peter 5:10, unto his eternal glory
5. Romans 8:29, to be conformed to the image of His Son (resurrection)
6. 1 Thessalonians 2:12, into His kingdom and glory
7. 2 Thessalonians 2:13, for salvation
8. 1 Timothy 6:12, unto eternal life
9. 1 Corinthians 1:9, into fellowship with Christ

B. The LIFE of election: This is experiential in focus

1. 1 Peter 3:9-12, to inherit a blessing
2. 1 Thessalonians 4:3-7, not for impurity, but sanctification
3. 2 Thessalonians 2:14-15, to glorify Christ
4. Colossians 3:15, unto the peace of Christ (John 14:27)
5. Galatians 5:13, for the purpose of freedom
6. 1 Peter 2:21, to share in Christ's sufferings (Philip. 1:29)
7. 1 Corinthians 7:15, to live in peace with one another
8. Ephesians 4:1, walk worthy of our calling

6. For as long as you practice these things: the word practice is the verb, poieō, as a present active participle, which should be rendered, "for WHILE doing." These things, of course, refers to the 7 spheres of walking in the light that are listed in the previous verses.

7. you will never stumble: the verb here is, ptaiō, which in Christian literature is only used figuratively for committing error, making a mistake or committing sin. The issue here is that AS LONG AS the believer allows these 7 things to control the soul, that believer cannot sin. This is similar to what John taught at 1 John 3:9, concerning His SEED, which is the word of God, that abides in the believer and prevents personal sin. Of course, the believer can choose to ignore the divine viewpoint influence that is in the soul, and this will result in personal sin.

John's desire expressed at 1 John 2:1, "I write these things to you SO THAT you might not sin," is a valid, realistic and possible desire. It is fulfilled through growing in grace and knowledge, and through using the standards learned as the basis for every decision in life. It is this volitional resolve that keeps the Holy Spirit in control (unquenched), and active in shutting down the negative influence of the sin nature, for if we walk in the Spirit, we will not carry out the lusts of the flesh, (Galatians 5:16).

Verse 11, the eternal benefit of consistent faithfulness

1. For: repetition of gar to give further explanation for the urgency of pursuing the 7 spheres of walking in the light.

2. in this way: that is, through the consistent growth and application in the sphere of the love structure.

3. the ENTRANCE into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ: The word for entrance is eisodos, and it means a WAY (hodos) INTO (eis). But this is not referring to SALVATION access, for that is acquired at the very instant of trust in Christ, for "he who believes in the Son HAS everlasting life," (John 3:36), he who has believed has been sealed (given a guarantee) by the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 1:13-14).

This INITIAL entrance is described at Hebrews 10:19-20, "Since therefore, brethren, we have confidence for the entrance (eisodos) into the Holies by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh."

Paul describes it with the word prosagōgā, at Romans 5:2, "through whom (Christ) we have obtained our access into this grace in which we stand." and at Ephesians 2:18, "for through Him, we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father."

But here, Peter is looking beyond that STATUS of access and entrance into the kingdom and is referring to rewards that are merited through faithfulness during one's Christian life as is explained by Paul at 1 Corinthians 3:10-15, "If any man's work which he has built upon it remains, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work is burned up, he shall suffer loss; but he himself shall be saved, yet so as through fire," (1 Corinthians 3:14-15). At 1 Peter 1:7, Peter describes reward in 3 categories, " that the proof of your faith, {being} more precious than gold which is perishable, even though tested by fire, may be found to result in praise and glory and honor at the revelation of Jesus Christ."

Here, Peter describes this reward as abundantly supplied.

4. might be supplied: This is the verb epichorāgeō, which is the same word used for making the progress in growth that is described in verses 5-7. As we supply to our soul the various standards needed to reflect Christ's love, so also God will supply back to us based on our progress and consistency in application, recognition and reward.
The quality of this entrance is described by the adverb, abundantly.

5. The adverb is plousiōs, and indicates a quality of entrance different from the initial SALVATION ACCESS into the kingdom of God.

6. See Topic: REWARDS

7. Now because of the urgency for spiritual growth that Peter has discussed here, he continues his exhortation by using the doctrine of repetition to stress that urgency.


See Commentary: 2 Peter 1:12-21

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İRon Wallace, http://www.biblefragrances.com. Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
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