|2 PETER 1:12-21||
Pronunciation Guide for Greek Words:
Verse 12 Peter's primary concern in view of his own physical death
1. Therefore (dio = because of which): This goes back to the content of verses 8-11, where the focus is on the experiential and eternal benefits of learning and living God's word.
2. I shall always be ready: the word mellō is used to indicate that something is on the verge of some kind of action. The adverb always, is aei, and together indicates continuous intent on the part of Peter for as long as he is able to carry it out.
3. To remind you: the verb hupomimnāskō as a present active infinitive communicates the specific intent of Peter as he has opportunity to minister to others - either in person or by writing.
4. Concerning these things: Specifically, the information about growth and application taught above. If the believer does not place himself into the growth process and allow it to accomplish its natural progression in his life, then that believer will be clouded in his spiritual insight and unfruitful in spiritual production (verses 8-9).
5. Even though you know them: this recognizes that the information is not NEW to them, but it also recognizes the NEED to repeat information.
The urgency of growth does not allow for TAKING CHANCES, but one should apply all diligence (verse 5) trying to maintain sinless consistency, and meditate on the word day and night (Psalm 1:2).
6. And have been established: this is stāridzō as a perfect passive participle, which indicates that they have received consistent SUPPORT from God concerning the validity and benefit of His word. In other words they KNOW with confidence that this truth is vital and the growth process is urgent, with the result that they have mental stability in the face of any attacks on that truth. This word refers to the function of SUPPORT GRACE that comes from God in order to solidify truth that has recently been learned. The result of support grace is that the believer has a settled confidence in what he has been taught so that he knows it is reliable and beneficial in every area of his life.
SEE TOPIC: SUPPORT GRACE
7. In the present truth: This is the word alātheia + the present participle of pareimi, which simply means to exist. Thus, the existing truth is in view, and it applies to all that has been revealed by the apostles and prophets as that which then supplies the believer with everything he needs for life and worship (verse 3).
1. And I consider it: The verb hāgeomai (present middle indicative), means, first, to lead, and then to hold a particular thought pattern based on the LEADERSHIP of the soul. It is rational thought in strict contrast with emotional thought (diokō).
2. Right: the adjective, dikaios (righteous) refers to the standard in the soul that is leading Peter in his thoughts and the expression of those thoughts. This is the RIGHTEOUS thing to do, that is, it is what will accomplish or FULFILL righteousness (Matthew 3:15) in both his life and the lives of those who will obey him.
3. As long as I'm in this earthly dwelling: This refers to the physical body, just as Paul used the expression at 2 Cor. 5:1, 4. Peter thinks that this is the RIGHT and PROPER thing to do as long as he is alive.
4. To stir you up: This verb is diegeirō as a present active infinitive, and means to stir up to activity, sometimes from sleep. In this case, AND at verse 3:1, it does not mean that they have been failing, or are ASLEEP, but Peter wants to perpetuate within them the attitudes and actions that have characterized their Christian life so far.
5. by way of reminder: the noun hupomnāsis means just as it is translated - something someone does or says in order to REMIND.
The idea here is a motivational reminder of what they know to be the right thing to do, but often need a subtle, non-confrontational reminder in order to CONTINUE or maybe, in some cases, to begin anew the particular activity in view.
Verse 14, the reason for Peter's urgency
1. Knowing: the perfect active participle of oida, indicates knowledge of what is certain or reasonably certain. In this case, Peter has put two factors together to determine what is REASONABLE to occur.
2. that the laying aside of my earthly dwelling: This simply refers to physical death as it is described when one understands that the soul leaves that body at death. The word used here is the noun, apothesis, which comes from apo (from) and tithāmi (to put). Thus, a putting away from self. The SELF or the REAL YOU is the soul, and at death, the soul leaves the body, thus putting it off, and as Paul wrote, the SELF (I) goes to be with Christ (Philippians 1:23).
See Topic: DEATH: Physical
3. is soon: The word, tachinos means impending, shortly, near at hand.
This assessment is based on adding up two factors. (1) what Jesus had previously told him, and (2) the fact that he was now an old man.
4. Just as also our Lord Jesus Christ has shown me: This refers to a specific block of information that Peter received from Jesus some 48 years earlier (2 Peter was written c. 68 AD), and is recorded at John 21:18-19. Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were younger, you used to dress yourself, and walk wherever you wanted; but when you grow old, you will stretch out your hands, and someone else will dress you, and bring you where you do not want. Now this He said, signifying by what kind of death he would glorify God.
1. And I will also be diligent: the word spoudadzō communicates dedication of effort, just as seen at verse 5 and 10 in reference to the growth process and application of truth to one's life. Peter uses this word here to amplify his READINESS mentioned in verse 12 because of the urgency of the situation. His diligence is necessitated because of the closeness of his death. Based on verse 3:1, this present letter fulfills his concern and the urgency, as the Holy Spirit has used him to provide some vital Christian truth which will become permanent additions to the canon of scripture.
2. So that at any time after my departure: This refers to his physical death. The word departure is, exodos, which means a WAY out from, and indicates that his soul, will LEAVE the body. But Peter does not want to leave them without something that will keep them focused on God's character and plan. The PURPOSE idea (so that) is indicated by the infinitive of the verb echo, which means to have. The words, at any time, translate the adverb, hekastote (only here) which has the idea of ALWAYS.
3. you may be able to call these things to mind: Literally, this should read, "you may have these things so that a remembrance may be made."
Verse 16 The RELIABILITY of this ONE PROMISE of His Second Coming
1. For: This explanatory gar is used to focus on the dependability of the second coming promise, not only as Peter saw and witnessed, but also through the inspired revelation given to the prophets and apostles.
2. We have not followed (not having followed): The verb is exakoloutheō as an aorist active participle + the negative (ou) to indicate the BASIS for a particular action, which in this case, is the action of teaching (made known). The verb means to follow something as a guide or authority on some subject. In this case, with the negative, it indicates that WE did NOT follow some imaginary or superstitious myth or humanly reasoned explanation. As a participle it modifies the main verb (made known) and would literally read, "not on the basis of having followed sophistical myths."
3. cleverly devised fables: the word fable is the Greek word, muthos, for the idea of fable, or myth, or even a simple story. The adjective describing myth is participial from the verb, sophidzō, which is only used twice; once in a good sense at 2 Timothy 3:15 (able to give you wisdom), and then here, in a bad sense. Here, it means to use human viewpoint and reason (sophistry) to reach to various facets of humanly manufactured religious philosophies, that look forward to a future apocalypse. With the negative, Peter is saying that the truth about the SECOND COMING of Jesus is NOT based on human reason.
4. (When) We made known to you: the verb gnoridzō as an aorist active indicative refers to both the verbal and written revelation communicated to all the people whom Peter ministered to. This is the main verb and the two adverbial participles modify it explaining the BASIS for the communication. It should be translated, "For we made known."
5. The power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ:
The word power, is dunamis, and refers to the manifestation of supernatural activity at the time of His second coming.
The very arrival of Jesus will be a manifestation of power as is recorded at Matthew 24:30; 26:64; and Mark 13:26 and 2 Thes. 1:6-10.
The word coming is parousia and is the standard word to
describe His arrival back to the earth, when He comes in the clouds of
the sky to gather his church out from the earth. Matthew
24:3, (30) 27, 37, 39 and 1 Thes. 4:15.
6. But were EYEWITNESSES of His magnificence: The word, but, is alla to indicate a strong contrast with the idea of MYTHS. That is, this is not a myth, but we actually witnessed the way Jesus would look at His second coming.
The eyewitness aspect is explained in the next verses. The word magnificence is megaleiotās and is used only one other time (Luke 9:43) for the power of God demonstrated in casting out a demon. It thus speaks of some aspect of divine power, and in reference to the second coming of Jesus, it refers to His coming IN POWER, as already mentioned. The verb WERE is ginomai as an aorist passive participle, and is the second adverbial participle modifying MADE KNOWN. It should literally read, "but on the basis of having become eyewitnesses of His magnificence."
1. For: explanatory gar to amplify the claim to eyewitness information in verse 16.
2. when He received honor and glory from the Father: Peter uses the aorist active participle of lambanō to indicate the bestowal of honor upon Jesus at the time of this special revelation. It could be rendered either as, "when He received," or "having received." This participle also begins a sentence that is not completed, but instead is simply interrupted by Peter's own writing as he very dramatically proclaims that he too heard the voice of God.
3. honor and glory refers to the public promotion of Jesus in the eyes of the three disciples (Peter, James and John) as the Father announces that Jesus is indeed the Son of God. The word honor (timā) refers to the placement of value in a human context, and thus recognizes the benefit that the Son can provide to them as the Messiah-Savior. The word glory (doxa) refers to a more specialized focus and recognizes Jesus as the God-man, thus deity equality with the Father.
4. such a voice: the word, toiosde, only occurs here and focuses on the uniqueness of something, thus the idea of "such a unique voice."
5. was made to Him: the verb here is pherō as an aorist passive participle to indicate that the voice was CARRIED to Him, which of course refers to the transmission from one place to another. In this case, from a heavenly source (the majestic glory) to an earthly source - the God man Jesus as He was standing on the mountain.
6. by the majestic glory: megaloprepās is another word that is used only here, although it occurs several times in the LXX. It refers to the DESERVED or PROPER magnificence of someone who is a sovereign authority in the human realm. Of course, in this case, God is the only sovereign, so the word is used to describe the majesty of His authority in connection with his deity glory - thus, majestic glory, as a nominative construction further describes God the Father.
7. This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased -:
And we ourselves heard this voice, carried out from heaven, when we were with Him on the holy mountain.
This identifies the event as what is recorded at Matthew 17:1-9; Luke 9:28-36 and Mark 9:2-8.
This statement recognizes greater value in the written revelation of God than on the experiential revelations given to individuals.
1. And we have: the verb echo as a present active indicative to indicate the possession of something that surpasses Peter's experience.
2. The prophetic word: This is the word, prophātikos - an adjective that refers to that which has been prophetically revealed. It describes logos, and refers to the revelation of God that He wants preserved for His people in writing. In the specific context of Peter's letter, according to verse 3:2, it refers to the END TIMES teachings given by the prophets and the apostles.
3. made more certain: this is the adjective, bebaios, in the superlative form that comes from the verb bebaioō, which means to be or make stable or secure.
The superlative adjective should be rendered, MORE dependable, more certain, more stabilized. It is describing the prophetic word as being more secure or stabilized than what was experienced by Peter, or by anyone else. Thus, the written revelation of God is more dependable than ANY kind of experience - especially when such experiences contradict or undermine the clear teaching of the written revelation.
Again, in this context, the prophetic word given to the prophets and the apostles AFTER the visitation on the mountain, is more dependable than that visitation because the visitation is personal and restricted. But once it is provided in written form through inspiration, it becomes public and universal, and more dependable - based on KNOWING the doctrine of divine inspiration as Peter relates in verses 20-21.
4. To which, by embracing, you do well.
The word do well, is a present active indicative of the verb, poieo plus the adverb kalōs, which indicates not only that which pleases God, but also that which will be beneficial to the believer as he orients to the doctrine of the second coming. The present tense indicates a continuous activity. The word of God on this subject must be continually embraced by the believer's heart in order to keep oriented to the truth about Christ's coming, especially in view of the many false teachers who will come on the scene throughout history (Verse 2:1; Matthew 24:4-5).
In verses 2:1-3 and 12-19, the principle of adherence to the more dependable written revelation from God is applied to general Christian truth and not just second coming truth.
5. By embracing: the verb here is prosechō, which literally means to have something close to the face (pros), thus the idea of paying close attention or focusing on. As a present active participle, it has an instrumental emphasis so that we translate it, BY embracing. If one can see the idea of a mental embrace, then that is what is exhorted here. By mentally embracing, which entails both acceptance and observance of God's word, the believer is doing well - that which is beneficial to him personally and which is pleasing to God.
6. in your hearts: This completes the mental application of the word prosechō. This phrase is separated from the main sentence by a parenthetical illustration of how important it is to embrace God's word, AND a temporal clause to indicate how long this embracing will be necessary in the believer's life. Most commentators do not accept this parenthetical insert and understand the phrase, "in your hearts," to refer to the place where the day star arises.
7. AS: This introduces a parenthetical analogy to illustrate the importance and impact of embracing the written revelation of God.
8. As to a lamp that shines in a dark place: In the same way that a lamp brings light to a dark place so that one can see his way without bumping into things, so also, the word of God (the more certain word of prophetic teaching) is the only light that can expose and guide the believer through the spiritual darkness of this present evil age.
In an END TIMES context, only God's written revelation provides the light we need to wade through all the darkness of theory and human viewpoint that is out there.
9. UNTIL WHEN (temporal adverb, heos + the relative pronoun, which time, + the subjunctive mood of the verb): Once the analogy is established, then the length of time is mentioned during which the believer will live dependent on the revealed word of God. This probably refers to the length of time that the the CHURCH AGE believer is here on earth. Since the primary focus is on END TIMES truth, it is obvious that once the DAY of the Lord arrives, there will no longer be a need to carry the LAMP of this prophetic knowledge.
10. Until which time when day dawns: In the analogy, this refers to the natural light that comes in the morning and makes the use of the LAMP no longer necessary. The second COMING context was previously established at verse 16, "when we made know to you, the power and COMING of our Lord Jesus Christ." To fulfill the contextual analogy, the word day can be viewed as DEFINITE and thus insert the word THE, for when THE day dawns. This refers to the future COMING of Jesus at day of the Lord, which is the time of deliverance for the believers alive on the earth at that time as taught by Paul at 2 Thessalonians 1:6-10. It would be the same day of the Lord and day of God that Peter mentions in chapter 3:9-13.
11. And the morning star arises: This is the word, phōsphoros, which only occurs here in the New Testament, but secularly it was used quite often for Venus, or the morning star.
The morning star is a term that communicates a great reflection of LIGHT. This light can refer to CHARACTER or to the glorious revelation of Jesus at the Day of the Lord.
There is another term used for the morning star (ho astār ho prōinos), which is used in turn for Jesus Christ at Revelation 2:28 and 22:16.
In this context, the basis for applying it to the return of Jesus, is the context that Peter has initiated here in chapter one, and completes in chapter three.
As mentioned above, most commentators do not recognize a parenthesis between "embrace" and "in your hearts," but actually see it as, "the morning star rises in your hearts." This opens an entirely different thread and requires that one symbolizes the day star as something that shines in the heart of the believer. But this seems inconsistent with the context which has in view the actual, physical second coming of Jesus at the Day of the Lord.
Verse 20-21 The Doctrine of Divine Inspiration
1. Knowing this: ginoskō as a present active participle communicates the present possession of knowledge that is functional for providing specific orientation to the plan of God.
2. first: prōtos is used to indicate a priority factor for understanding the plan of God. Before we can have any kind of confidence in the content of the bible, we need the assurance that it is indeed the inspired word of God. Thus, the information in this passage provides that assurance.
3. that ALL prophecy of scripture: every word that is recognized as being the inspired word of God, Old Testament and the writings of the apostles and prophets prior to Peter's letter, and by way of application, everything that came from the hands of the apostles and prophets after that up until the final revelation from God through John the apostle in the book of Revelation.
4. did NOT ORIGINATE: this is the verb ginomai plus the
5. From ones own disclosure (viewpoint): The pronoun, idios, indicates that which is of or belongs to or comes from the individual, with the idea that each individual has his own viewpoint.
6. The word disclosure is epilusis and does not mean interpretation, but that which is loosed from self out upon others. It thus refers to one's own viewpoint, insight, imagination. It should be clear that once we recognize the meaning and use of ginomai for origin, that the idea of interpretation does not fit at all.
1. For: Explanatory gar to amplify the fact that the origin of scripture is not from men, but THROUGH men as the Holy Spirit breathes God's word into them, as we saw with theopneustos at
2 Timothy 3:16.
2. not by the will of men: negative ou, plus
3. was scripture formerly brought: the verb is pherō as an aorist passive indicative, which means to bear or carry and here refers to the origin of scripture as not taking place through the will of man. Formerly (pote) focuses on Old Testament revelation, but since Peter is discussing the revelation received from Jesus at
Matthew 17, it applies to that, as well as to the revelation given to the New testament apostles and prophets.
4. BUT: alla is the particle of strong contrast to indicate the opposite of human revelation, which is divine revelation.
5. But men: anthropos is used again, but this time to indicate the utilization of men as the instrument by which God provided his revelation to the human race through the Holy Spirit.
6. carried by the holy Spirit: The verb, pherō, occurs again, but this time as a present passive participle to indicate that men were influenced by the Spirit. The word, by, is the preposition, hupo, and indicates - under the authority of.
Thus, men carried along under the authority of the Holy Spirit are the ones used by God to communicate His revelation.
7. spoke: the verb laleō means to communicate, and refers to both verbal and written communication. It occurs as an aorist active indicative to describe a past occurrence in the process of God providing His revelation to man.
8. From God: the preposition, apo, describes that which comes from the ultimate source of God. This means then, that the information spoken by these people came directly from God and not second hand from some other man. Just as at 2 Timothy 3:16, it is that which has been breathed out by God into man, and then through men spoken or written as God's specific and direct revelation to the human race.
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