These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study
of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions
as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching
from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary
references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before
too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced
and complete theology.
GREEK: Verbal Orientation
Hebrew Verbal Orientation
Return to LETTER bar
The Image of God
IMPUTED SIN THEORY
Righteousness; Links to "J" for JUSTIFICATION
Inspiration of the Bible
Interpretation of the Bible
Covenants, by Dwight Pentecost
discipline (the 5 cycles) Outline
ISRAEL’S NATIONAL DISCIPLINE: EXPANDED
Four Banners of Israel
ISRAELITE and JEW:
ISRAEL: The Divided Kingdom
ISRAEL: The Northern Kingdom
ISRAEL: The Southern Kingdom
ISRAEL: Lost Tribes
1. Idolatry is the channel for expressing creature arrogance and independence
from God. 1 Samuel 15:22-23
A. Rom. 1:18-25 - denies creator honor to God
B. Jonah 2:8 - man forsakes the only provision for his sinfulness and frustrations
1. hebhel: 13 times for idols
2. Their chesed: the personal provision for them from God. Cf. David at
2. There are 3 types of idolatry:
A. Deity oriented: ascribing deity worship to something.
Exodus 32:1-6 (Not authorized by God - Isaiah 42;8)
B. Detail oriented: centering everything around wealth and the physical
things of this life. Covetousness - Eph. 5:5; Col. 3;5
Doctrine of rich mindedness: 1 Tim. 6:9-10, 17
C. Christian oriented: placing religious value on an object or practice
which God has not authorized. symbols, statues, rituals, leaders.
3. All of it begins in the soul as influenced by the sin nature.
A. Mark 7:22; Gal. 5:19
B. Ezek. 14:7; Acts 7:39
4. Deity oriented idolatry is an extension of demon influence.
A. 1 Cor. 10:20
B. Psalm 106:34-39
C. Deut. 32:17
D. Principle of 2 Cor. 11:13-15
5. Accordingly, idolatry is a contact point for all kinds of occult
Deut. 18:9-12; Zech. 10:2 (teraphim - Ezek. 21:21)
6. But the idol itself is nothing and powerless.
A. 1 Cor. 8:4; 10:19
B. 1 Chron. 16:26; Ps. 96:5 (but cf. LXX - daimonion)
C. They are worthlessness: hebhel = vanity, emptiness.
1. Used 13 times for idols
2. Jer. 10:3, 15 and 8b
D. Isaiah 41:29 - breath and emptiness: ruach and tohu
E. Isaiah 45:20 - a god who cannot deliver
F. Psalm 115:4-8
1. v. 4 - work of man's hands - Ps. 135:15; Is. 2:8
2. v. 5 - Can't speak or see - Rev. 9:20
3. v. 6 - Can't hear or smell
4. v. 7 - Can't feel or walk
5. v. 7 - Can't even make a noise
G. Jer. 14:22 - Can't produce rain
H. Jer. 10:14 - Deceitful and no breath in them (ruach).
I. Jer. 10:5 - Can do no harm or good
J. Thus, eliyl: from alal = to be weak, ineffectual, insufficient
16 times translated as "worthless thing."
7. The stupidity of idol worship:
A. Isaiah 44:9-20
B. Isaiah 40:18-22
C. Jer. 10:1-5
D. Jer. 10:8 - idolaters are stupid
1. stupid: baar - qal imperfect = brutish, stubborn, self-centered.
2. foolish: kasal - qal imperfect (verb only)
a. result of being brutish is to operate on creature viewpoint.
b. The root KSL, describes the independence and rebellion of the sin nature,
and the inferior viewpoint that comes from a soul which is controlled by
the sin nature.
3. Jer. 2:26b-27 - total disorientation to reality
E. No benefit: Hab. 2:18
8. And yet, idol influence is powerful and deceptive.
A. 1 Cor. 12:2; Gal. 4:8
B. Produces a fear psychosis: Jer. 50:38; 51:7 with 10:2, 5
C. Example: Deut. 12:31; Ps. 106:36, 38
9. Deity idolatry expresses itself in 2 basic ways.
A. Lasciviousness: the phallic cult - Lev. 18:3-25; Deut. 12:31;
B. Asceticism: 1 Tim. 4:1-3; Col. 2:20-23
10. Since Yahweh worship (True Christianity) is the only basis for relationship
and fellowship with God, any substitute is called spiritual harlotry and
A. Jer. 3:8-10
B. Ezek. 16:1-43
C. Hosea 4:11-13
D. Rev. 17:1-5
11. Consequently, idolatry causes national disintegration and judgment.
A. Jer. 7:16-20; 17:1-4; 44:23
B. 2 Chron. 24;15-22
C. 2 Kings 17:7-23
D. Ezek. 6:1-14; 16:35-43
E. Ezek. 14:12-21
12. Old Testament commands against idolatry.
A. Ex. 20:1-3; 23:24
B. Deut. 4:28; 5:7; 6:14; 7:16; 8:19; 4:15-20
C. Deut. 29:17-18; 27:15
D. Deut. 13:6-16
E. Lev. 19:4; 26:1
13. New Testament commands against idolatry.
A. 1 John 5:21
B. 1 Cor. 10:1-22
C. Apply the doctrine of separation: 1 Cor. 5:6-11
D. 1 Thes. 1:9
14. Protection from idolatry comes through orientation to God's character
A. Isaiah 48:1-5
B. Isaiah 40:12-31 (application of divine essence to combat idolatry)
15. All idols will be removed from the earth at the beginning of the
Messiah's 1000 year earthly kingdom. Zech. 13:2
16. Unbelievers alive at the day of the Lord will recognize the uselessness
of their idols and will initially discard them in fear at the presence of
17. However, during the day of the Lord judgments, idolatry as exemplified
in "beast worship" will be the primary factor for keeping people
from trusting in the divine plan of salvation. Rev. 9:20-21.
18. Comments on pictures:
I do not believe that the 1st commandment can actually apply to a
picture of Jesus. The issue is any "worship" activity that might be associated
with that picture.
A. At the same time, I must also recognize that we have no scriptural
authorization to showcase any pictures of Jesus.
1. Actually we have no truly accurate picture, so those that we
have are speculations at best. And there are a large variety of types;
long hair; short hair; on the cross; off the cross; eye color.
2. The true picture of Jesus that we should focus on is the picture of
His character; his humility, love and righteousness.
This picture can only be seen and imitated by learning Gods word.
3. I am reminded of what the people of Israel were instructed to do.
Deut. 6:8-9, they had "pictures" written all over the household
to focus attention on the importance of divine truth in the soul.
But no authorized attempt to produce an image of God.
4. Every time, they tried to come up with some "image," even though
they were attempting to worship Yahweh, it was condemned.
Ex. 32:5, Aaron's golden calf - "Tomorrow shall be a feast to Yahweh."
This attempt to worship Yahweh on man's terms was unacceptable.
5. And nothing in the NT even hints at any authorization to produce
an image of God (which is impossible anyway) nor of Jesus, the
6. To do so is an arbitrary attempt at worship which is not taught.
I understand and appreciate the attitude of love and worship that
is often attendant with pictures of Jesus, but far too often such pictures
are assigned supernatural qualities and become a source for superstitious
just like the pictures and icons of the Roman Catholic church.
They are carried in cars for protection;
clutched and fondled for vain comfort;
Idols of Mary and various men are stationed in and at churches
and given deity characteristics and prerogatives. And on and on.
So, does that mean we throw out the baby with the bath?
Of course not. But we apply some common sense and some truth and
determine the validity of ALL our activities of worship.
B. The standard God has given to us is the bible.
1. We have no biblical description of Jesus.
Maybe God did not want this to happen.
2. We have many different images of Jesus - which one is accurate.
Which ever one someone "feels" most closely attached to.
3. Any picture would simply serve as a teaching aid to assist us in our
presentation of the life and character of Jesus to our children. As in books and
4. And we must always be on guard that we not become so "attached" to our
pictures that we begin to think them to somehow be holy in themselves.
1. Illusion is an attitude, act or way of life that one thinks is truth
but in reality, is inconsistent with truth as revealed in the bible.
2.We must view illusion from 3 perspectives.
A. Inherent illusion: The sin nature. Jer. 17:9, self-deception and
(Creature illusion: Is. 29:15-16; 45:9)
B. Environmental illusion: What you are raised with such as tradition
C. Acquired illusion: Deception from emotion, tradition, experience
or inaccurate bible teaching.
1. Salvation illusion: John 1:12-13; 1 Cor. 6:9-11
2. Fellowship: 1 John 1:6; 2:9-11; Gal. 3:1-3
3. Growth: 2 Tim. 4:2-4
4. Service: Gal. 6:7-9; Jn. 16:2; Acts 26:9-11; 1 Tim. 6:5
5. Teacher: 1 Tim. 1:7; Rm. 2:17-21; Mat. 23;24; 2 Tim. 3:7, 13
6. Sin illusion: Psalm 73;1-14
7. Temptation: James 1:13-16
8. Separation: 1 Cor. 15:33
9. Denial: Jer. 44:15-18
3. All illusion is error in some area of Bible doctrine.
But it is perpetuated by the individual's own pride and arrogance which
insists on the viewpoint without having any sound biblical basis for believing
Just emotion, tradition and inaccurate Biblical information.
4. The three greatest examples of illusion:
A. Rejection of the Messiah: Is. 53;3-4, 8; Mat. 27:20-25; John 19:6-7,
12-16; Luke 23:34; Acts 2:22-24, 36
B. Paul's persecution of Christians: Acts 7:58 + 8:1-3; 9:1-2; 26:9-11;
22:3-5; Philip. 3:6; 1 Cor. 15:9; Eph. 3:8; 1 Tim. 1:15
C. Success of the Beast: 2 Thes. 2:8-11; Mt. 24;23-26; Rev. 13:1-9,
5. The only reliable protection from illusion is a faithful analysis
of the Bible using the Golden Rule of Interpretation with application of
the original languages. Eph. 4:11-14; 2 Tim. 2:25-26
6. THE GOLDEN RULE OF INTERPRETATION:
When the plain sense of scripture makes common sense, seek no other
sense; therefore, take every word at its primary, ordinary, usual, literal
unless the facts of the immediate context,
studied in the light of related passages and axiomatic and fundamental
truths, indicate clearly otherwise.
THE IMAGE OF GOD
1. God designed and created man in His own image.
A. Gen. 1:26 - AsAh = the design (create out of something, make)
B. Gen. 1:27 - bArA = the act of creation (create out of nothing)
2. The words, "image and likeness" are used to indicate two
different factors concerning the "image" of God.
A. Image is the word, tselem and always indicates a "physical"
or structural image of some kind.
B. Likeness is the word, demuth. The root,
DMH, usually refers to some
kind of "functional" image, likeness or expression.
1. A few times it is used to indicate a "physical" form.
2. This has led some to claim that there is no distinction between the
two words, tselem and demuth, and that one should not be made.
3. However, when all the uses are observed, there is a discernible difference
which certainly needs to be preserved especially when the two words are
used together as they are at Gen. 1:26.
4. Actually, this is not unusual for other words that are close in meaning.
C. SEE detailed word study on these two words
and their derivatives.
3. What is the image of God?
A. Genesis 1:26-27 summarizes the creation of man, male and female on
day six of God's restoration program for the earth (See Topic: The Gap),
and tells us that he is created in the image and form of God.
B. Genesis 1:2-2:3 is a summary of the six days of restoration and new
creation, including day seven.
C. Adam, all by himself, without other members of the human race, is
created in this "image of God." But since all come out from Adam,
they share His image (Gen. 5:3), which is Adam's created image with the
addition of a sin nature.
See Topic: The Sin Nature
D. Adam is a unified being, but is composed of three expressions within
that unity (1 Thes. 5:23). Genesis 2:7 details the mechanics of creating
the man on day six.
1. Nostrils: refers to the physical body.
2. breath of life: neshAmAh which corresponds with spirit
Gen. 7:22 (neshAmAh of the spirit); the human spirit.
3. Living soul: refers to the soul (nephesh).
E. Man's creation in the "image" of God is inferior to angelic
creation, so the "image" does not bestow on man any "structural"
characteristics of angels. (Heb. 2:7; Ps. 8:5).
F. The "our image" of Genesis 1:26 would be the image of the
1. Obviously, the "image" does not include deity characteristics.
2. The image (tselem) refers to the Godhead from the standpoint of His
"physical" structure. However, God is a Spirit being (John 4:24)
and is not "physical" in the same sense that we are.
However, there is a distinct structure to the Godhead in regard to how
He manifests Himself to His creation. This is His "structural"
3. Deuteronomy 6:4 explains this "image" as a unity of divine
personalities. "Yahweh our Gods (elohim), Yahweh, a Unity."
4. The plural structure of the Godhead is:
a. The Father: He is designated as God Most High in the Old Testament
and functions as the planner and ultimate authority within the Godhead.
The "authority" expression of the Godhead.
b. The Son: He is not "officially" designated as the Son in
the Old Testament, but is recognized as the revealed member of the Godhead;
the visible manifestation of the Godhead to the human race. The "visible"
expression of the Godhead.
c. The Spirit: He is the "power" expression of the Godhead.
He is the one who reveals, moves, empowers and inspires.
5. See Topic: Beginnings: Orientation to the Godhead
G. Man's created status, in the image of God, is as a triune being.
1 Thes. 5:23
1. Soul: This is the controller of the unity and corresponds with the
2. Body: This is the visible manifestation of the unity and corresponds
to the Son.
3. Spirit: This is the reflector of the soul; the element that reveals
the character of the soul as personality. It corresponds to the Holy Spirit.
4. The image of God is shared by both male and female. Gen. 1:27 with
A. Adam directly: Gen. 2:7
B. Ishah indirectly through Adam: Gen. 2:21-22
5. Adam and Ishah, both created in the image of God, were designed to
bring honor and glory to God's character and plan.
A. Initially through expressing the natural soul attitudes created by
God. This was evidenced through adherence to the "one-tree prohibition"
in the garden.
B. After the fall, through acceptance of God's salvation provision and
adherence to the light system throughout their lives.
1. Moral truth designed by God for the whole human race.
2. Spiritual truth designed for those in relationship with Him.
6. The image of God was not lost at the fall.
A. At Gen. 9:6, the prohibition against murder has impact because people
who are killed HAVE BEEN CREATED in the image of God with the result that
at the time they are killed, they are in that image.
B. At James 3:9, the indictment on cursing men has impact because those
people who are cursed HAVE BEEN MADE in the image of God, with the result
that at the time they are cursed they are still in that image.
C. At 1 Cor. 11:7, the teaching that the man is not to have his head
covered, is symbolic of his original created status which he STILL possesses
- in the image and glory of God. Here, the word, image, refers to the structural
image of the Godhead, and the word, glory, refers to the functional image
of God (designed to glorify Him).
D. The above passages establish the fact that mankind is still in the
same image with which he was created. It was neither lost nor diminished
when Adam and Ishah sinned. What happened is that their ENTIRE being, body,
soul and spirit, all came under the condition of spiritual death and lost
relationship with God.
7. The bible does not teach that the human spirit was somehow lost or
rendered inoperative after Adam's sin. Quite the opposite, it is clearly
established that all men have a human spirit, fully functional in its original
A. The error occurs through the assumption that the human spirit is
that entity through which man relates to God, but this is not supported
B. There is no part of man that is specifically designated as that which
relates to God. Man relates to God through his entire being (body, soul
C. The "spiritual" death of man is that which permeates his
entire being, not just his human spirit. The reason the word "spiritual
death" is used is not because it has the "spirit" in view,
but because it has in view man's relationship with God on a "spiritual"
plane. God is Spirit, and man has lost his capacity to fellowship with
God, The Spirit, thus, spiritually dead.
D. SEE Topic: The Human Spirit for
a detailed study.
E. See Topic: Spiritual Death
8. The "form" of God, using the word
demuth, deals more with
a "functional" image rather than the structure of the Godhead.
It should be translated as likeness rather than form.
A. Since that "function" can not be deity function, it must
be a reflection of some aspect of deity. The most reasonable is to see
that likeness as a reflection of God's revealed standards for the function
of the human creature.
B. That function can be reasonably suggested as a character format placed
into the soul of Adam and passed on to all his children.
C. Orientation to the natural design in the soul.
Ec. 7:29 (yAshAr).
Man's soul was designed with an "upright" character structure.
1. This indicates a soul function of relating everything in man's environment
to God as the only reference point. God is the center of all existence
and the object of all activity in both areas of life.
a. Spiritual life: relationship and fellowship with God
b. Morality life: fellowship with man. Centered around the issues of
personal freedom and marriage. The other two areas of morality (family
and society) are simply an extension of these two. Gen. 2:18-20; Ec. 7:29a;
2. Self-consciousness and volition were designed to take all knowledge
and experience and relate it directly to God through soul attitudes which
by nature are "God-centered."
3. There are 7 basic attitudes in the soul, all of which directly reflect
God's attitude. In this way, man's person functions as the likeness of
God just as he IS in created status.
When he functions as the image of God it is called being "the glory
of God" as at 1 Cor. 11:7, and is described by the Hebrew word, demuth
(functional form or likeness), at Gen. 1:26-27.
a. RESPECT: God has total respect for and confidence in His own perfection.
The design in man's soul reflects this by having the grace perspective;
the perspective that recognizes the greatness and magnitude of God and
"self" as a creature.
b. LOVE: God loves His own character: Psalm 33:5a He recognizes the
absolute value in Himself and is dedicated to promoting that value in the
Man's soul was designed to reflect that by placing the highest value on
God's character and plan, and by promoting it as the most important thing
c. PRIDE: Pride is God's recognition of His own perfection. It is Divine
self-esteem. Ex. 15:7; Isaiah 46:9
Man was designed to reflect that through placing total confidence in Him;
boasting in Him, which is praise and thanksgiving that shows appreciation
for who He is and what He has accomplished.
d. AMBITION: This is God's perfect desire to promote His character and
plan in the eyes of His creatures and to carry out His plan for the universe.
Man's soul reflects this by seeking to promote that divine plan in everything
he does. The purpose for all of man's earthly activity is to promote that
plan. This then serves as man's motivation for service and fulfills Gen.
1:28, and in the garden it fulfilled Gen. 2:15, "cultivate and guard."
e. HATE: Hate is the natural attitude that comes from perfect righteousness.
God's mentality rejects anything that is contrary to that righteousness.
Man's soul is designed to express that same attitude of rejection whenever
it encounters darkness viewpoint.
f. JEALOUSY: This is God's protectiveness of His divine essence and
plan, Ex. 20:5. Not that God needs protection, but it is the value of divine
essence held by His creatures that is protected since Satan's antagonism
is constantly seeking to discredit God's essence and plan.
Man's soul was designed to promote the cause of divine truth and strongly
oppose any manifestation of darkness viewpoint.
g. ANGER: Anger as a natural expression from hate, is the verbal and
active manifestation of righteousness and justice. Ex. 15:7
Man's soul is designed to express that same disapproval whenever divine
standards are violated.
4. All these attitudes were used to please God and establish rapport
and fellowship with Him. They reflected God's glory by expressing viewpoint
compatible with Him. Thus, the principle of agreement with divine standards
9. After their fall through disobedience to God in the garden, Adam and
Ishah acquired a genetic mutation in their mentality which can be designated
as a "sin nature." See Topic: The
A. This mutation now gives a distorted influence to the original "upright"
design in the soul, but the design is still present in every member of
the human race.
B. The result is that in many cultures, people have an inner conviction
of morality that parallels the standards of the written law that God gave
to Israel in the form of the ten commandments (Romans 2:14).
C. However, that design is seriously hampered from natural expression
because the self- centeredness of the sin nature is now dominant in mankind (Ec. 7:29, "sought out many devices").
D. Moral training helps deter the overt "immoral" expression
of the sin nature and provides a reinforcement to the natural design, so
that a general moral freedom and stability is available to the human race (Prov. 22:15).
E. But such training does not guarantee a deterrent nor does it make
one more receptive to spiritual values.
10. The spiritual side of the natural design (directed toward God) is
dormant until God triggers it through the revealing of his person and work.
A. This is done in two stages:
1. God consciousness: God so uses the phenomena of the physical world
to impress upon the soul of man the existence and magnitude of the creator.
(Rom. 1:19-21; Ps. 19:1-6; Acts 14:17; 17:26-27; Rom. 10:18).
There are a variety of other factors that awaken an awareness of God within
the soul of man, all of which, convict man to seek for God (Acts 17:27)
and pave the way for hearing the gospel.
See Topic: God Consciousness
2. Gospel hearing: God provides specific gospel information to those
who express a "seeking" for God after becoming aware of Him through
the God-consciousness phenomena.
a. This is called the convicting ministry of the Holy Spirit (John 16:9-11).
b. And the drawing of God (John 12:32; 6:44).
B. When a person hears the gospel he must choose either to reject or
accept the promise of salvation proffered therein (John 3:36).
C. When a person trusts in Christ (believes the gospel), he is immediately
given spiritual life by the Holy Spirit and the natural design in the soul
is now able to be cultivated and strengthened through spiritual growth
(1 Pet. 2:2; 3:18; Eph. 4:20-24).
11. After salvation, the functional expression of God's "likeness"
(character reflection) that brings glory to Him, is cultivated through spiritual
A. Accordingly, the believer is exhorted to cease from sin since he
has been delivered from the kingdom of darkness (Col. 1:13) and has become
a new creation (2 Cor. 5:17) and has positionally (in Christ) put on a
new man (Col. 3:8-10).
B. The positional "new man" is experientially being built
up (renewed) through growth according to the image (character standards)
C. At Col. 3:10, the phrase, "have put on" (aorist tense),
refers to the positional status of the new creation. The phrase, "is
being renewed" (present tense), refers to the experiential progress
of growth unto full knowledge (maturity).
D. At Ephesians 4:20-24, the believer is likewise exhorted to "put
on" the new man. Here Paul refers to the experiential reflection of
the positional new man that the believer became at the moment he trusted
in Christ. Paul gives us two ideas: (1) The believer HAS put on the new
man because he is in union with Christ. (2) The believer needs to put on
experientially, a reflection of that new man through fellowship and growth.
The new man that he is exhorted to put on, "is" (not, has
been) created in righteousness and holiness by the truth.
The aorist tense in the participle form does not require a "past tense"
or "completed" idea, but rather, it takes on a time significance
based on context.
In principle, the new man IS created within the soul of the believer,
here on earth, as he learns and utilizes the knowledge standards of God's
E. This is what is in view at 2 Cor. 3:18, "being transformed into
the same image (glory). ."
1. Reference to the growth process which produces in the believer a
reflection of God's glory (His "integrity" attributes).
2. This then is not a reference to the original "structural"
image of God, but a reflection of and fulfillment of the "functional"
image of God (His righteousness and love).
3. It refers to character reflection through knowledge and application
of Bible truth.
See Topic: Spiritual growth
12. There is a third aspect to sharing God's image, or more specifically,
the image of the Son, and that is when through resurrection, the believer
will possess a physical body exactly like Christ's resurrection body. This
is called, "conformed to the image of His Son," at Romans 8:29.
The term, first born among many brethren" refers to physical resurrection.
See Topic: CHRIST: The Beginning of
the Creation of God
1. Imitation refers to the production of the character of Christ in
the life of the believer through the control of the Holy Spirit and the
word of God in the soul.
2. But there is another character the believer can imitate in his Christian
The character of the unbeliever. 1 Cor. 3:3, "walking as men."
3. Every believer remains here on earth for the one purpose of bringing
honor and glory to God. 1 Cor. 10:31; Col. 3:17; 1 Pet. 2:9; 4:11
4. He is commanded to glorify God in his Christian life. 1
5. This one of the purposes for the indwelling Holy Spirit. 1
6. The Holy Spirit produces the character of Christ in the life of the
believer by using the word of God which is in that believer's soul. 2 Cor.
3:18; Gal. 5:22-23;
7. We must understand the contrast between position and experience as
indicated at Ephesians 5:8.
A. For you were "formerly" (as an unbeliever) darkness.
Indicates the position and function of rebellion against God.
B. But "now" (as a believer) you are light IN the Lord.
Indicates our new position IN CHRIST where we are set apart (sanctified)
as perfectly righteous in the eyes of God.
C. Walk as children of light.
This is the command to live here on earth in your Christian walk, AS you
are in your positional relationship IN CHRIST.
1. You are a saint: act like a saint
2. You are a child of God: act like a child of God
3. You possess the righteousness of God: live like it.
8. The Imitation of the unbeliever's character is accomplished by the
control of the sin nature. 1 Cor. 3:1-3; Gal. 5:19-21; Mark 7:21-23; Rom.
9. So the issue in the Christian life here on earth IS - Who will control
A. The Holy Spirit: Gal. 5:16, 25; Eph. 5:18
B. The sin nature: Rom. 8:8; 6:12-13
10. The consistency of the Imitation of Christ.
A. The Holy Spirit is the means of producing Christ's character so
He must be in control.
B. But the basis for it is the word of God in the soul.
C. They are both necessary. Each dependent on the other.
D. Sin is the opposite of the character of Christ.
E. The frequency or infrequency of sin depends on the standards that are
in your soul. The more of God's word you know and use, the less you will
sin. Psalm 119:9-11
F. The consistency of the character of Christ depends on the same thing.
2 Cor. 3:18; Eph. 5:14-18; 2 Pet. 1:3-4
G. The often repeated desire of God's communicators for the believer
is expressed in this greeting, "grace and peace to you."
H. Basically, this expresses God's desire for the believer to utilize
God's grace provisions (The word + the H.S.) and experience the inner peace
and joy of the abundant life which results from using those grace provisions.
11. Commands for Imitation:
A. Eph. 5:1-2, 18
B. Philip. 2:5
C. 1 Pet. 2:21-23
D. Imitation of Christ through Imitation of Paul.
1. Principle: 1 Cor. 11:1
2. Mental attitude: 1 Cor. 4:16
3. Moral standards; 2 Thes. 3:6-10
4. His doctrinal teachings and application. Philip. 4:9
E. Imitation of your leaders: Hebrews 13:7
1. Man qualifies for a spiritual inheritance through entrance into the
family of God.
A. Entrance by faith: John 1:12; Gal. 3:26
B. Sons of God and heirs: Galatians 4:7
C. Joint heirs with Christ: Romans 8:17
1. Christ is the heir of the universe. Hebrews 1:2
2. We are IN CHRIST: Gal. 3:26-28
D. The new birth provides the inheritance: 1 Pet. 1:3-4
E. Through transfer from darkness to light. Col. 1:12-13
2. Our inheritance is based on the pre determined plan of God.
Ephesians 1:11; Titus 3:4-7; James 1:18
3. It is made available through the work of Christ on the cross.
Titus 3:4-7; Hebrews 9:15
4. 1 Peter 1:3-4 describes the character and security of our family
A. It is imperishable: aphthartos = incapable of rotting
B. It is undefiled: amiantos = unpolluted
C. It is unfading: amarantos = unable to lose its brilliance
D. It is reserved in heaven: tāreō - perfect passive participle
(Based on salvation security - guarded by the power of God)
E. The Holy Spirit is the seal of guarantee of our inheritance. Eph.
5. As heirs of God, every believer is given a personal guardian angel.
6. God has determined in His plan to use the church (the body of Christ)
both here on earth and throughout eternity, to bring ultimate recognition
of His glory to the entire universe. Eph. 1:11; 2:7; 3:10
7. On this basis, our inheritance is viewed as a participation or sharing
in His glory. Rom. 5:2; Col. 3:4; 1 Thes. 2:12; 2 Tim. 2:10; Heb. 2:10;
1 Pet. 5:10
8. The eternal phase of our inheritance begins at the rapture, when
all believers "to date" will receive a resurrection body. 1 Pet.
1:3-5; 1 Thes. 4:13-18; 2 Cor. 5:1-5; 1 Cor. 15:49-53; Rom. 8:16-25, 29-30
9. Unbelievers have no part in this inheritance. John 3:36; 1
Gal. 5:16-21; Eph. 5:1-8; Rev. 20:15
10. Knowledge of our inheritance should be a motivation for dedication
and service while here on earth. Fulfillment of ambassadorship. 1 Pet. 1:13-25
11. The experiential or "temporal" aspect of our inheritance
involves earthly blessings to be enjoyed from the moment of salvation.
A. Blessings through consistent obedience. 1 Pet. 3:9-12
B. The abundant life of peace and joy: John 10:10; 15:11; 17:13
C. Blessings from being on the positive side of the law of sowing and reaping.
1. Proverbs 11:3 - The integrity of the upright will guide them.
A. The integrity: tumAh = completion, character consistency.
1. From tAmam: to be complete, finished, mature
2. Adjective = tam: Job 1:1 = complete, mature
3. Adjective = tAmiym: complete, mature, having integrity.
4. Noun = tōm = integrity.
B. Of the upright: yAshAr is used to indicate moral character which
is the seed pod for spiritual maturity and the channel for its expression.
1. The one who recognizes and accepts God's standards of morality is
in the right frame of mind to respond to spiritual value.
2. And as spiritual value becomes of greatest importance in his life
(spiritual integrity), there is greater capacity to follow God's moral
3. Thus, spiritual integrity is the basis for making right decisions
in every area of life.
4. To clarify: spiritual integrity is the character that expresses
a consistent desire and follow through for honoring the viewpoint and policy
of God as it is revealed in the Bible.
C. Will guide them: nAchAh - direction and insight for facing every
issue and circumstance in life. Prov. 11:5 with 3:5-6
D. Thus, the best preparation for facing life is moral and spiritual
character growth. The idea is to be "inwardly" mature by the
time you reach physical maturity.
1. Prov. 1:1-5, 33
2. Prov. 2:1-11 (v. 7 = tōm)
3. Protection: Prov. 2:12-16
4. Social stability: Prov. 2:20-22 (v. 21 = tAmiym)
5. Prov. 4:10-13
6. Prov. 6:20-23
7. Prov. 8:32-36
2. Point of observation: The man of integrity has a future. Psalm 37:37,
A. Destiny in time: abundant life blessings - John 10:10; 14:27; 15:11;
16:1; Rom. 14:17
B. Social blessings: 1 Pet. 3:8-13
C. Taking hold onto the quality of life which is eternal: 1 Tim. 6:11-12;
D. Exaltation (promotion) in this life: 1 Pet. 5:5-10
3. God's desire for the believer's walk.
A. His attitude: Prov. 11:20
B. Abraham: Gen. 17:1
C. Related to the occult: Deut. 18:9-14
D. Joshua generation: Josh. 24:14
E. Solomon: 1 Kings 9:4
F. Basis for fellowship: Psalm 15:2
1. walks with tAmiym
2. works righteousness
3. Speaks truth in his heart
G. Reflection of God's character: Mat. 5:48
4. God deals with us based on our capacity to relate to Him on His terms. Psalm
A. Humility: chAsiyd
B. Character consistency: tAmiym
C. Soul content: pure
D. Perverted: (iqāsh) rejection of creator viewpoint and policy.
5. Therefore, divine approval of the believer's walk is based on righteousness
and integrity. Psalm 7:8; 26:1; Job 8:20
6. Spiritual maturity is determined by the character standards that
God builds in the soul through the growth process. Psalm 18:32
A. Psalm 19:13
B. Proverbs 13:6
C. James 3:2
7. Integrity is demonstrated by consistent application of divine truth.
This is the subject of the entire psalm.
8. Understanding mature love
A. Keeping His word: 1 John 2:5
B. Expression to others: 1 John 4:12
C. Fellowship and rapport with God: 1 John 4:17
D. Love casts out fear: 1 John 4:18 (2 Tim. 1:7)
9. Principle of value: Prov. 19:1; 28:6
A. Benefit: Psalm 84:11
B. Happiness: Psalm 119:1
C. No shame: Psalm 119:80
D. Social stability: Psalm 37:18; Prov. 2:21
E. Soul stability: Psalm 25:21
1. God is a shield: Prov. 2:7
2. God's way is a stronghold: Prov. 10:29
3. Waling in security: Prov. 10:9 based on v. 8a
4. Confidence: Job 4:6
10. Principle of blessing through association with a mature believer.
11. Orientation to the persecution potential: 2 Tim. 3:12
A. Psalm 64:1-6
B. Proverbs 29:10
C. Amos 5:10
12. Examples of maturity.
A. Abraham: Gen. 17:1 with 26:5 which results in James 2:21-23
1. Statement: Job 1:1
2. God's recognition: Job 1:8; 2:3
3. Attack: Job 1:9-11; 2:4-5; 2:9; 4:6-8
4. Expression: Job 31:1-37 (v. 6)
1. Statement: Psalm 78:70-72
2. Attitude: Psalm 101:2-8
3. Summary: Psalm 18:20-24
4. Man after God's own heart: 1 Sam. 13:14; Acts 13:22
D. Paul: Philip. 3:7-14; 4:11-13
E. Example of Jesus:
1. Isaiah 50:4-9
2. Luke 2:40, 52
3. Hebrews 5:7-9
4. 1 Peter 2:21-23
5. 1 Peter 4:1-2
13. Service capacity:
Psalm 26:1-12; 78:70-72; Rom. 15:13-14; Philip. 2:14-16a; Col. 1:22; 3:16
14. The issue of spiritual growth.
A. 1 Cor. 14:20, in understanding, be mature.
B. Goal of growth: Eph. 4:13 (The job of the communicators)
C. Col. 1:28, The goal of the communicators: to present every man "mature"
D. James 1:4 - patience under pressure
E. Pray for the maturity of others: Col. 4:12
F. The knowledge capacity of the mature: Heb. 5:14
G. 1 Pet. 5:10 - the 4 grace provisions for establishing integrity in the
The interim body view suggests that in the after
life, prior to resurrection, the soul is "housed" in some kind of physical
body which provides for both physical sensations and physical expressions.
The view explains several passages where
it appears that such sensations and expressions occur.
At 1 Samuel 28:11-19, God allowed Samuel the prophet to
come out of paradise in Hades in order to communicate God's message of divine
discipline to King Saul. Saul did not see Samuel but he appeared to the
witch who was allowed to see him.
Necromancy has never been acceptable to God and has always
been condemned as demonology (Deuteronomy 18:10-12). This incident with
Samuel was not necromancy. Necromancy is the practice of calling upon a
yiddoniy demon to imitate the form and voice of a dead person in order to
give special knowledge and advice for making future decisions.
Samuel is the first of only three to have ever come back from the
dead in this manner. Our concern is whether the form he manifested was given
by God just for this occasion or whether it was his interim body. One thing
is certain. He appeared with the very physical features recognizable by
the witch and identified by Saul (1 Samuel 28:14).
The other two who appeared after they had died is Moses and Elijah.
MOSES AND ELIJAH
There are two others who, after having died, were made
visible to living men on the earth. They are Moses and Elijah and the incident
occurred as recorded at Matthew 17:1-9. Again, based on the facts already
stated, this appearance by these two men was not a resurrection body and
probably not a resuscitation. Although it is possible to ascribe to these
men the possession of an interim body, or simply a soul resemblance that
continues after death. See option 2 below.
COMFORT AND TORMENT
I have already established as fact, the incident recorded
at Luke 16 regarding the after death experience of the rich man and Lazarus.
Here we find three men (Abraham, the rich man and Lazarus)
existing with some kind of physical form which allows physical sensations
such as "comfort" and "torment" as well as personal
recognition via physical features. Clearly, the experience of at least 3
physical senses (sight, sound, touch) is demonstrated by this incident as
well as some manner of communication.
SEE: Luke 16:19ff
SOULS UNDER THE ALTAR
Revelation 6:9-11 tells of the martyrs who are under the
altar in heaven awaiting Divine timing for the administration of God's justice
on the unbelieving world. They are not yet in resurrection body, for according
to the pre-wrath view of the rapture, the Lord's gathering of his saints
will not occur until the 6th seal which is related at Revelation 6:12-17.
And yet, we see these "souls" wearing white robes.
This suggests some kind of physical form and agrees with what has been noticed
24 OLD MEN
Revelation 4:4-11 tells us about the 24 "old men"
whom John sees in the heavenly scene before God's throne which is probably
in the New Jerusalem which is located in heaven at this time (Hebrews 12:22).
I have previously discussed these "old men" and
determined that they must be representative of the saints in heaven. Accordingly,
once again, we see these saints prior to resurrection, with some kind of
physical "body" or structure which allows for physical interaction
and sensations. We see them seated, wearing robes and crowns, holding harps
and bowls, bowing to the ground and speaking.
It seems reasonable therefore to view the theory of the
interim body as having substance although the reality of it one way or the
other does not affect any area of doctrine. It is simply a device to assist
us in understanding the passages in question.
However, the language involved, although certainly suggestive
of the possession of some kind of physical body for the soul after death,
does not demand it.
The actual "substance" of the soul is totally
unknown to any of us. The human soul has never been seen by anyone physically
alive except the witch of Endor, since it seems that Saul was not allowed
to see Samuel, and the three disciples who witnessed the presence of Moses
and Elijah. We really have no idea what "substance" it possesses.
Point being, that the "physical" characteristics observed by scripture
of souls in the afterlife, might very well be the actual structure of the
soul, and all the interaction, sensations and expressions are normal for
that soul structure.
A factor that might negate the idea of an interim
body is found at 2 Corinthians 5:3. Here our soul is
in a condition of "naked" since it is not in the promised resurrection
body. If there were an interim body, it seems likely that the term "naked"
would not apply. However, it is possible that "naked" refers to being without
the actual new immortal body since that resurrection body is what is in view at
2 Cor. 5. "eternal in the heavens." Verse 4, "mortal" vs. immortal as at 1 Cor.
Having thus considered all of these issues, I prefer the idea that there is an
interim body. Since no major doctrinal issues are affected by this, one is free
to consider the second option.
Option 2: At death, the soul leaves the physical body
and remains in a "naked" condition until resurrection. In that
"naked" condition, souls interrelate, experience physical sensations
and manifest physical expressions, but this is all normal for the function
of the soul in that spiritual environment.
DISCIPLINE: National discipline on Israel, the 5 cycles
1. The nation of Israel was appointed by God as the evangelistic agency
during the age of Israel. (From the Exodus until the Cross). Ex. 19:5-6;
Rom. 9:4-5; Isaiah 41:8-9; 43:7; 49:3; Deut. 5:1-3; 7:6; 28:9-10; Psalm
2. Included in this appointment was discipline for failure.
A. Leviticus 25:55 - 26:46
B. Deuteronomy 28:1-68
C. Principle: The greater the responsibility, the greater the discipline
D. The issue of failure is related to violating the sabbatical year. Lev.
For details see Israel's national discipline
3. Outline of the five cycles of discipline. Lev. 26:14-33
A. Cycle #1: Lev. 26:14-17
General identification: PLAGUE
V. 14-15 - failure to follow the divine mandate for the nation.
V. 16 - economic recession, health problems
V. 17 - crime, war, border disputes, enemy invasion.
B. Cycle #2: Lev. 26:18-20
General identification: FAMINE
V. 18 - intensification of discipline when failure continues.
1. "7 times" is idiomatic to communicate the principle of
2. Each cycle incorporates the characteristics of the previous cycle
and adds its own.
V. 19 - 20 - failure of the economy; severe economic depression.
Uses terminology for an agricultural economy.
C. Cycle #3: Lev. 26:21-22
General identification: ENVIRONMENT
V. 21 - Intensification
V. 22 - beasts of the field represents the encroachment of nature upon
society which causes hardship and death. Fear restricts travel.
There is the possibility that "beasts of the field" could
speak of society running amok through the increase of crime.
D. Cycle #4: Lev. 26:23-26
General identification: FOREIGN OCCUPATION
V. 23-24- Intensification
V. 25-26- Military defeat with the plague and famine attendant.
E. Cycle #5: Lev. 26;27-33
General identification: NATIONAL DESTRUCTION
V. 27-28 - intensification
V. 29, cannibalism that results from extreme famine conditions during foreign
V. 30 - destruction of worship heritage.
V. 31 - destruction of cities
V. 32 - Natural and material resources are desolated
V. 33 - Population captured and scattered outside the land.
4. Administration of cycles 1, 2 and 3 during the time of the Judges.
The periods of servitude carry out national discipline on Israel. Judges
5. Administration of the 5th cycle of discipline on the Northern Kingdom
of Israel during the period 736 to 673 BCE. 1 Kings 11:38 + 13:33-34; 2
Kings 17:5-18; Amos 4:6-11
6. Administration of the 5th cycle of discipline on the Southern Kingdom
of Judah for 70 years (605 to 536 BCE). 2 Kings 24:1-2; 25:1-12
7. Prophecies of the 5th cycle and restoration had a double import.
A. It looked to the ultimate administration of the 5th cycle in 70 AD
as a result of the nation's rejection of their Messiah.
B. It looked to the ultimate restoration of the nation at Messiah's
return and the establishment of His earthly kingdom.
8. The 5th cycle of discipline results in removal of the nation's evangelistic
A. In 721 to 719 BCE for the Northern kingdom: Hosea 4:6
(It was never fulfilled anyway with them)
B. in 605 to 586 BCE for the Southern Kingdom: removal by cessation
of function, although they still had the responsibility.
C. In Messiah's generation (30-70 AD): Removal by replacement. A new
evangelistic agency is established in the place of Israel until, in God's
perfect timing, He again turns to Israel to fulfill the promises given
Deut. 32:21; Is. 65:1-16; Ps. 118:22-24; Mat. 21:33-45; Luke 20:9-19
9. The baptism of the Holy Spirit is the actual mechanics of building
a new priestly body; the church as the replacement evangelistic agency until
after the rapture. Eph. 2:13-22; 1 Cor. 12:13; cf. Ex. 19:5-6 with 1 Pet.
Built on the fulfillment of righteousness and justice through the work
of the Messiah. Isaiah 28:17a
10. After the Day of the Lord return of Jesus, the 5 cd is removed from
Israel and her evangelistic responsibility is restored via the 144,000 "servants"
who are converted right after the rapture of the church. Rom. 11:25-29;
11. The prophetic signs of the 5th cycle of discipline on Israel.
A. The advent of Messiah through 3 specific signs:
1. Virgin birth: Is. 7:14 through 8:8
2. Rejection of the Messiah: Isaiah 8:12-18; Psalm 118:22-24
3. Betrayal of the Messiah by an associate: Zech. 11:1-14
B. The gift of tongues: Is. 28:9-22; 1 Cor. 14:20-22
ISRAEL: The divided kingdom
1. The divided kingdom refers to the fact that Israel was divided physically
and geographically into 2 separate nations.
2. This occurred in 982 BC at the death of Solomon, when the political
faction belonging to Jeroboam, rebelled against the established rule of
the house of David.
3. This was permitted by God as personal discipline on King Solomon.
1 Kings 11:9-10
4. The prediction of the division: 1 Kings 11:11-13
5. The preparation for the division: 1 Kings 11:26-37
6. The occurrence of the division: 1 Kings 12:1-24
A. The Northern Kingdom is called: Israel, Affirm and Samaria.
B. The Southern Kingdom is called: Judah and Jerusalem.
7. The divine intention for the division was to have 2 separate political
entities which both still observed divine standards for worship and service
as it was centered in Jerusalem.
The promise to the Northern Kingdom is recorded at 1 Kings 11:38.
8. The failure of the Northern kingdom: 1 Kings 12:25-33
A. The promise of blessing was never fulfilled. 1 Kings 13:33-34
B. Not even one leader of the N. Kingdom did good in the sight of God during
its entire history.
9. The failure of the Southern kingdom: Isaiah 5;13-17
10. When this spiritual rebellion took place, those of all the tribes
who wanted to continue serving God, and valued such service above political
differences, reunited with Judah.
This kept the 12 tribes still united under God.
2 Chron. 11:16-17; 15:9; 2 Chron. 30:1-12
11. The time period of the division:
A. From 982 until 605 BC = 377 years
B. N. K. from 982 until 719 BC = 263 years
C. S. K. from 982 until 605 BC = 377 years
D. Both kingdoms were united in captivity within the Chaldean Empire.
E. They returned together as one nation in 536 BC and remained as such
until 70 AD when they were taken captive by Rome and dispersed throughout
12. The Northern Kingdom never recovered and so remained always politically,
geographically and spiritually separated from Judah. 1 Kings 13:33-34
13. But because of spiritual dedication, the nation of Judah contained
members of all the tribes of Israel. 2 Chron. 34:5-6, 33.
(there are no Ten Lost Tribes. 2 Chron. 35:18)
14. Prophets sent to the divided kingdom:
A. To the N. K: Hosea, Amos (Isaiah)
B. To the S. K: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Joel, Habakkuk, Zephaniah
C. To both: Micah
D. Both during the Chaldean captivity: Daniel and Ezekiel
E. Both after the captivity: Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
15.The nation restored: 2 Chron. 36;22-23
A. The term "all Israel" at Ezra 2:70.
B. Used consistently all throughout both Ezra and Nehemiah.
16. The N. Kingdom was destroyed by God in 721-719 BCE by Assyria and
placed permanently under the 5th cycle of discipline.
A. There was never any promise of restoration given to the N. Kingdom
as there was to the Southern Kingdom.
B. Restoration was promised to both of them but only on the basis of
physical reunion of the two groups.
1. partially fulfilled in 536 BC (spiritually and politically)
2. Totally fulfilled when the Messiah gathers Israel and uses them
as the center of proclaiming divine truth during Messiah's kingdom.
ISRAEL: The Northern Kingdom
1. Simply a political entity that rebelled against the kingly line of
David for political reasons and took on a separate identity as an independent
2. Two fold purpose: Divine design - 2 Chron. 11:1-4
A. Discipline on Solomon: 1 Kings 11:1-13
B. Fulfills to Ephraim the promise of Gen. 48:16; 49:22; Deut. 33:13-17
1. 1 Kings 11:26
2. Ephraim as a title for the N. Kingdom used by Hosea and Jeremiah.
3. Potential blessing on Jeroboam as the first ruler.
A. based on perpetuation of spiritual heritage, which is centered in
Jerusalem. 1 Kings 11:36-38
B. It is a separate political dynasty from Judah (the Southern Kingdom),
but not separate from spiritual life
requirements. "As my servant David."
C. If he is faithful: then -
1. I will be with you: Personal blessing
2. Build you an enduring house: Family blessing
3. I will give Israel to you: National blessing
D. But he was never faithful. 1 Kings 12:25-33; 13:33-34
E. So, the promises were never carried out except to the extent that
the Northern Kingdom flourished for 264
years. (982-719 BCE; 3143-3406 AH)
F. And that 264 year period plus the size of the nation's land mass,
was the fulfillment of the promises
to Ephraim found in Genesis.
4. When the N. Kingdom expressed rebellion against divine design for
spiritual life, the remnant of believers living in the Northern Kingdom
who remained faithful to God, moved to Judah. 2 Chron. 11:14-17; 15:9.
5. So the N. K. was now not only politically and geographically separate
from Judah, but also spiritually separate.
6. The spiritual heritage of the people of Israel was preserved in the
Southern Kingdom of Judah solely and completely.
7. The discipline on the N. K. is viewed as a complete destruction without
any chance of recovery.
1 Kings 13:34; Hos. 1:4-6
8. Future restoration is viewed only through a total reunion of the
N.K. with Judah as a political unit. There was never really a spiritual
division of the 12 tribes of Israel.
A. Before 719 BC: 2 Chron. 11:14-17; 30:11
B. Before 586 BC: 2 Chron. 34:5-7, 33; 35:16-18
C. After 536 BC: Ezra 3:1; 2:70
D. The issue in re-joining Israel and Judah as one nation is simply a mending
of the political division and a
restoration of spiritual life to both. Hos. 1:10-11; Jer. 31:1-6, 27
9. During the captivity from 736 to 536 BC (200 years total), the people
of Israel are represented as being of Judah
and not of Ephraim.
A. The people of the N.K. as a political body are never dealt with
B. The people in Babylon maintain a political body throughout the captivity.
Ezek. 8:1; 14:1
C. The people in Babylon are a composite of all 12 tribes as indicated
in Point 8, A and B above.
"Elders of Israel and Judah"
D. So basically, the division of the kingdom is a human viewpoint issue.
God always viewed the spiritual seed or remnant as being represented totally
in the Southern Kingdom.
E. The restoration of the two kingdoms is a restoration politically
and geographically as fulfillment of the
10. The discipline on the N.K. was because of apostasy in that political
entity from 982 to 719 BCE (264 years).
11. The discipline on the S. K. was for failure to fulfill priestly
representation from the beginning of the monarchy in 1101 BCE until 605
BCE (496 years). 3023 to 3520 AH.
12. The national discipline on the N. K. is summarized at Amos 4:6-13
ISRAEL: The Southern Kingdom
1. The true national remnant is preserved in Judah. Therefore, discipline
on Judah reflects the failure of the entire nation from the beginning of
the monarchy at Year 1 of Saul.
(1101 TO 605 BCE and 3023 to 3520 AH) 496 years.
2. 2 Chron. 36:20-23; Jer. 25;1-13; 29;10; Lev. 26:33; Is. 44:28; 45:13
3. From 3024 to 3521 AH there are 70 sabbatical periods of 7 years each
that have been violated. 490 years with 6 years extra.
The 6 extra years are not included because they refer to the 6 year period
when Athaliah usurped the throne from 892 to 886 BCE (3234 to 3240 AH).
4. So the 70 years captivity to Babylon is to make up ofr the nation's
failure to observe the sabbatical years during that 490 year period. 1 Year
for each of the 70 sabbatical periods.
5. After the 70 years captivity, the nation is restored to fellowship
with God and given a new 490 year period to fulfill its national purpose.
This is the subject of the 70 weeks of Daniel recorded at Daniel 9:24-27.