These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced and complete theology.

Pronunciation Guide

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Hebrew Verbal Orientation


Palestine: Belongs to Israel

The Palestinian Covenant

PARADISE: See Physical Death

Honoring Parents1: audio
Honoring Parents2: audio



Pastor-Teacher: Spiritual Gift

PATRIOTISM: The Believer's national faithfulness

PAUL: Personal and religious background

Paul's Sins

PEACE: 7 kind of peace in the Bible


PEACE: Social peace

PEACE: Unity Peace



1 Peter 3:21 by K. Wuest






The poor

POSITION in Union with Christ



PRAYER: Summary

Prayer: Detailed

Prayer and the second coming

Prayer conversion




PRIORITIES: The Divine Priority

Problem Solving Devices/Spiritual Defense Maneuvers


Pronunciation Guide

PROPHECY: BIBLE: The only revelation from God today

Prophet: Spiritual Gift


THE PROVOCATION: The Trials in the Wilderness

Pseudo Ephraim

Return to LETTER bar

PATRIOTISM: The Believer's national faithfulness

1. Recognize the bona fide existence of nationalism: Gen. 1:7-9; Acts 17:26-27

2. The believer is on loan from the kingdom of heaven to represent truth in a world of darkness.

A. Transfer from darkness to light in position: Col. 1:13
B. New citizenship: Phil. 3:20
C. Ambassadorship: Eph. 5:8; Phil. 2:14-15; Mt. 5:13-16; 2 Cor.5:20
D. Alien status: 1 Peter 2:11-12 with 1:17

3. But God's plan has assigned to each believer a particular national location which comes under the doctrine of status quo. 1 Cor. 7:17-24

4. Therefore, faithfulness to the assigned leaders of your nation is required of believers.
1 Pet. 2:13-15; Titus 3:1; Rom. 13:1-7; Prov. 24:21

5. Our "alien" responsibility is illustrated by believers of Israel in captivity to Babylon. Jer. 29:1-14

6. However, national laws do not have Priority over spiritual laws.

A. Religious context: Acts 4:13-20; 5:26-29
B. Daniel: Dan. 6:1-22

7. The teaching of Jesus: Mt. 22:15-22
Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's and to God the things that are God's.

8. The example of Jesus: Mt. 12:14-21, Verse 19,

"He will not quarrel nor cry out;
nor will anyone hear His voice in the streets.

This refers to revolution and sedition.

A. His kingship: Jn. 6:14-15 with verses25-36
B. His kingdom is not of this world: Jn. 18:36-37

9. Example of Paul: Acts 23:1-5

10. What about warfare:

A. bona fide national threat involves the believer.
B. National security preserved by warfare in other lands. World wars I and II.
C. Warfare in other lands that does not involve national security.
D. The believer must determine if the War should involve him or not.
E. See Warfare in Archive W.
F. Apply Luke 3:14

11.Basically then, for the believer, patriotism involves---

A. Faithfulness to Divine morality
B. Respect for the existing rulers.
C. Dedicated prayer on their behalf. I Tim. 2:1-4
D. But no political activism: Your zeal must be in a spiritual context of promoting Bible truth without compromise.

E. But no violence or overt revolution.
Only speech, writing and peaceful demonstrations

12. See Topic: Nationalism


PAUL: Personal and religious background

1. Saul was a citizen of Tarsus, the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia. Acts 21:39; 22:3.

2. He was a Jew from the tribe of Benjamin. Phil. 3:5 (Considered the warrior tribe)

3. His father was a Pharisee (Acts. 23:6) and a Roman citizen. Acts 22:28

4. Saul was therefore born a Roman citizen. Acts 22:28

5. There must have been a great influence on Saul's life from this town in many different ways.

A. center of commerce
B. timber
C. goat hair: tent making
D. transportation
E. and probably the greatest of the the three principle universities of that day. (others in Athens and Alexandria)

6. As was the custom of Jewish families, Saul was taught at a very early age, a trade that would support him through his life. In this case it was tent making. Acts 18:3

7. He was also taught the religious standards of a very strict Jewish home. In addition, at about the age of 13, he went to Jerusalem to study in the rabbinic school of Hillel under the great teacher Gamaliel. Acts 23:3

8. His training was intense:

A. It was involved entirely with the scriptures and the comments on the scriptures by the sages and masters.
B. Memorizing of the entire Old Testament AS WELL AS THE SAYINGS OF THE wise.
C. Intense discussions about disputed points.
D. Rapid-fire question drills to sharpen the wits of the students.
E. And we see from Paul's writings that he acquired such a knowledge of the Old Testament, that everything it contains was at his command. Its phraseology became the language of his thinking.
He literally writes at times in quotations and quotes from the entire Old Testament with perfect facility.

F. And yet, this facility was learned as an unbeliever.

9. His success was exceptional and he became super zealous for the traditions of Judaism even becoming a Pharisee. Gal. 1:14; Phil. 3:5; Acts 23:6

10.From his home life he got the religious convictions and the zeal but at school he acquired a detailed knowledge of the Jewish religious law.

A. The Mosaic law: However, it was knowledge of the law that had been stained and distorted from its true nature and intent.
B. All the traditions and human viewpoint that was added.

11. It was his hope, as well as the hope of the whole nation in general that the messiah would only return to a people keeping the law. But this "hope" was totally divorced from the spiritual truth of personal faith and trust in the Messianic promise.
It was a belief system that had lost the reality of faith in a substitutionary sacrifice for sins as symbolized in the Mosaic sacrificial system.
It is important to note however, that there were still some who understood and put their faith in the Messianic promise. (Mary, Joseph, Simeon, Anna, Zecharias, Elizabeth, John, and others.

A. This of course, would add even more zeal to one striving to please God by his works.

B. And Saul was doing just that, Phil. 3:6, as touching the righteousness that is in the law, he was blameless. But this was a "religious," human viewpoint righteousness that had no spiritual value. It is the righteousness of  Isaiah 64:6, "all our righteous deeds are like a filthy garment."
And of Romans 3:10, "There is none righteous, not even one."

12.His religious devotion became so great that he became the most ardent persecutor of the early church prior to his salvation. Gal. 1:13 Acts 8.3; 22:4-5, 19; and Acts 9:1-2
This was to such an extent that through divine inspiration, he is viewed as -
"The foremost" among sinners (1 Tim. 1:16).
And "the least of all saints" (Eph. 3:8).
And to be "the least of the apostles . . .  because I persecuted the church of God" (1Cor. 15:9).

13.And then he was saved, which put a brand new focus on all his previous religious instruction. Acts 9:1-9; 22:6-10; 26:12-18
14. Very soon after being saved Saul changed his name to paulos, which in the Greek means "little." The change is simply noted at Acts 13:9 without any explanation. But given his attitude, as revealed in his writings, the name change is probably a personal recognition of God's grace to him. (1Cor 15:9; 2Cor. 12:11; Eph.3:8; 1Tim. 1:15)


PEACE: 7 kind of peace in the Bible

1. Peace with God: salvation peace or reconciliation - Rom 5:1-10; Eph 2:17-19; and Luke 1:76-79

2. Peace of God: inner relaxation in all circumstances through confidence in the character and plan of God. Phil. 4:6-7; 2 Thes. 3:16

3. Unity peace: doctrinal rapport and agreement between believers based on the unity doctrines of Eph. 4:3-6.

4. Mental attitude peace: absence of all enmity toward others. No mental attitude sins. Romans 12:17-21

5. Circumstantial peace: circumstances going right in your life.
Principle reflected at Dan. 4:1; 6:25 and 1 Sam. 29:6-7

6. Social peace: peace within a social structure based on maximum promotion of morality standards.
Ps. 34:14; Acts 24:2

7. National peace: absence of enmity between nations which in turn promotes growth and prosperity.
2 Chron. 20:29-30; 1 Kings 4:21-25

(8) Eternal peace: not specifically mentioned In the Bible but established from the opposite direction as at Rev. 15:11 and 21:3-4



1. Basic definition of peace is the absence of enmity or conflict.

2. The Bible accurately represents 7 different types of peace.

A. Peace with God
B. Peace of God
C. unity peace
D. mental attitude peace
E. circumstantial peace
F. social peace
G. national peace

3. The standard desire and greeting in the early church as formally reflected by the apostles was - Grace and peace.

A. Grace refers to all the grace provisions God makes available for the believer to fulfill the plan of God here on earth.

B. Peace is the result of using those grace provisions. le., the total relaxation and confidence of trusting in the character and plan of God.

4. Paul describes it at Phil. 4:6-7

A. absence of worry
B. peace beyond human understanding
C. a garrison to the soul

5. Jesus promised peace as part of the abundant life.

A. Jn. 14:27 and 16:33
B. Mat. 11:28-30
C. And reminded them of the principle after his resurrection. Jn. 20:19, 21, 26

6. The same principle was taught throughout the Old testament.

A. Ps.85:5-13
B. Is. 26:3-4
C. Application to sleep. Ps. 4:8

7. Capacity to experience the peace of God is based on relationship, fellowship and growth.

A. Relationship: Jn. 14:27; Is. 57:21;
B. Fellowship, the filling of the Holy Spirit: Gal. 5:22 Rom 14:17
C. growth: Rom. 15:4, 13; Ps. 119:165; Pr. 3:1-2, 13-26 (2 Pet. 1:2)

8. The application of truth via FAITH REST. Heb. 4:1-16

See studies on FAITH REST in the FOUNDATIONS section of the website.


PEACE: Social peace

1. Psalm 34:12-14 - Seek peace and pursue it

A. Seek: bAqash - find, discover - initial understanding of the peace issue within every area of your society.
B. pursue it: rAdaph - intensity of the search to indicate application of peace principles in every area of life.

2. Principle of Rom. 12:18- as much as lies within you.

3. Mark 9:50- the tastelessness of salt

4. Doing good to all men: Gal. 6:9-10

5. Use wisdom: Col. 4:5

6. Grace speech: Col. 4:6

7. General moral living: I Peter 2:12

8. Employment: Eph. 6:5-8; Mat. 20:1-15; Col. 3:22-25

9. Nation: 1 Pet. 2:13-15

A. Principle of Jer. 29:4-7
B. No revolution: Prov. 24:21-22
C. Rom. 13:1-7
D. No social or political activism. 2 Cor. 10:3-6

(We are in a spiritual conflict - not a moral, social, political or physical conflict.)

E. Example for Israel in 516-323 BC. Zech. 8:14-17

1. Morality living by citizens: v. 16a-17
2. Fair judicial system: v.16b w/ Pr. 21:15; 11:10-11; 29:4; Ec. 8:11

F. Acts 24:2, "much peace" and national "reforms."

10.The way of life in Messiah's kingdom: Psalm 85:8-13


PEACE: Unity Peace

1. Must first recognize the 7 different kinds of peace taught in the Bible. See listing above

2. Unity begins at Salvation:

A. Unity through position in Christ: 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:26-28
B. Unity through possession of the 36 positional blessings.

3. There is unity in purpose: All believers remain on earth for the one purpose of representing Jesus Christ to the world. 1 Cor. 10:31; 6:20; 2 Cor. 5:20

4. The local church provides for unity among believers in a common geographical location. 1 Cor. 12:12-27

5. The attack on Christian unity:

A. Doctrine: Titus 1:10-11 (v. 9); 1 Cor. 14:36-38; 2 Tim. 4:3-4
B. Human celebrity-ship: 1 Cor. 1:10-13; 3:4-7
C. Social distinctions: James 2;1-4; Gal. 2:11-14
D. The Sin Nature: James 4:1-2; 1 Cor. 6:1-8

6. Unity peace then is the status of fellowship between believers which is stable and encouraging, based on adherence to divine truth. That is, the acceptance and advancement of the absolute truth standards of God's word. 1 Cor. 1:10; 4:6

7. Since the basis for unity peace is divine truth, truth must be learned and applied. Eph. 4:11-14

8. God's word in the heart produces the character qualities of THE LOVE STRUCTURE . 1 Tim. 1:5

A. The application of love then is the cement of unity. Col. 3:12-15
B. But love does not ignore the issues of bible truth. Col. 3:16

C. Any unity that exists at the expense of divine truth, is a false unity and does not promote the plan of God, but promotes man and the darkness system. 2 Tim. 2:25-26; Is. 8:19-20

D. Accordingly, if the issues of truth are compromised in order to provide a man-made unity, God's plan is violated. Rom. 16:17-18; 2 Thes. 3:6, 14-15; 1 Tim. 4:6; 2 Tim. 2:24-26

9. So then, the preservation of the unity of the Spirit of Ephesians 4:3, is accomplished by the promotion of truth through love with grace humility. Rom. 15:1-2; Gal. 6:1-2; Phil. 1:27; Col. 3:15.

10. The general guideline for doctrinal unity is found in the seven unity doctrines listed at Ephesians 4:4-6.

A. One body: Doctrine of POSITION in Union with Christ.
B. One Spirit: Doctrine of the HOLY SPIRIT: His person and work
C. Called in one confidence of your calling: Doctrine of Salvation and SALVATION SECURITY
D. One Lord: doctrine of Jesus as the Christ (see many under "C")
E. One faith: One system of doctrine. See BIBLE: New Testament Authority
F. One baptism: Ritual identification with Jesus through water (BAPTISMS)
G. One God and Father: Doctrine of God's character. (many under "G")

11. The doctrine of unity is reflected in the ritual of COMMUNION. 1 Corinthians 11:17-34

12. Unity peace is also reflected through Christian welfare, which is the caring and providing for the afflicted and ailing of the church community. See Topic: Christian Welfare.

13. There is a special blessing of joy on the promoters of peace, whether it be the peace of reconciliation with God, or the peace of unity through adherence to divine standards for life and worship. Matthew 5:9



outline summarized from Edersheim's "the Temple," pages 238-244

1. First cup of wine:

A. Prayer of thanksgiving

B. Drink it

C. Wash hands with prayer of praise.

2. Eating of bitter herbs:

A. Dipped in salt water

B. Distributed by the host (president of the feast)

3. Second cup of wine filled: the time of instruction

A. Son asks the key question - why?

B. The father (host) answers and explains

C. Sing part one of the "Hallel" (Ps. 113 and 114)

D. Prayer of thanksgiving

E. Drink cup

F. Wash hands with prayer of praise

G. Then one of the two unleavened cakes is broken.

H. Thanks is given afterwards, not before.

4. Distribution of the cake:

A. bitter herbs sandwiched between

B. Dipped in charoseth (sauce of raisin, dates and vinegar)

C. Distributed by the host

D. Actually serves as the official beginning of the supper.

5. The actual supper:

A. Unleavened bread

B. Bitter herbs

C. the paschal lamb

D. After that, nothing more eaten.

6. Third cup of wine:

A. Prayer

B. Special blessing on the cup

C. Drink it

7. Fourth cup poured:

A. Second part of the "Hallel" is sung. (Ps. 115, 116, 117, 118)

B. Prayer

C. Dismissal



A. The Hebrew:

1. Hebrew: adjective - tamiym - speaks of completion, fullness, consistency and perfection -

all depending on the context of its use It doesn't always mean the same thing.

2. It is used to indicate the physical perfection of the animal for sacrifice.

44 times - Lev. 1.3, etc, .

3. It is used to simply mean complete - as in a complete year -

Lev. 25.30; a whole day - Josh. 10.13

4. It is used of God at Deut. 32.4 - His work is perfect, complete.

a. perfect, as in no "imperfection" (which is true)

b. or complete as in - when he does what He does, it is complete Ec. 3.14

c. or another meaning - having integrity - all that He does comes from His absolute integrity.

d. Ps. 18.30 - As for God His way is "having integrity"

e. Ps. 19.7 - the law of the Lord is "having integrity"

f. Job 37.16 - describes God as One who is perfect in knowledge.

5. So then - in reference to the believers character - integrity.

a. Gen. 17.1-walk before me and be perfect. Refers to complete or consistent integrity. (probably fulfilled at Gen. 26.5)

b. Deut. 18.13 - you shall be blameless before the Lord your God.

Emphasis in context on avoiding all the occult activity of the Canaanites.

c. Josh. 24.14 - now therefore, reverence the Lord and serve Him with integrity and truth

d. God's desire is for us to have "sinless consistency" not "sinless perfection" for that is impossible. The presence of the sin nature prevents it.

e. The issue is one of "attitude" first. The desire on our part to be consistent in integrity which waits upon God for guidance and evaluation of our life.

Ps. 139.23-24

f. The attitude which confesses immediately any sin. Prov. 28.13

g. The attitude which seeks to learn God's word in order to avoid committing such sins in the first place. Ps. 119.11

h. Thus, that which results from spiritual growth and reaching a place of spiritual consistency, ie., maturity.

i. Job 1.1; Ps. 15.2; 18.23, 25, 32; 37.18; 84.11; 101.2, 6; 119.1;

Proverbs 11.5; 28.10, 18

6. Now there is also (just for completion)

a. tam - adjective, 13 times - upright, having integrity

b. tom - noun, 28 times - integrity

c. tummah - noun, 5 times - integrity


B. An orientation to the Greek word group - teleioo, verb.

1. Like in the Old Testament, the idea of completion or finishing

a. Luke 2.43 - when they had completed the days

b. Jn. 4.34 - to finish His work

c. Jn. 17.4 - I have finished the work

d. Acts 20.24 - finish my course

2. Used one time to indicate fulfillment of Old Testament prophesy.

Jn. 19.28 - That the scripture might be "completed."

3. Used to indicate a complete salvation package provided by God.

a. Heb. 10.14 - for he has perfected (completed) for all time those who are (being) sanctified.

(present passive participle - to indicate a condition of sanctification which began at the moment of trust in Christ, but which has a progressive aspect to it once a person becomes a child of God through faith. So, "being sanctified" is a continuous process which is based on the completed act which God did at the moment one believed in Christ - 1 Cor. 1.2 - Those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus)

b. Heb. 11.40, Old Testament believers: so that apart from us (Church age believers) they should not be made perfect - a salvation condition that has them IN HEAVEN as at Heb. 12.23.

c. Heb. 12.23 - indicates a group of believers in heaven separate from the church (also mentioned in the verse) who are spirits of just men "made perfect." (salvation status in heaven, which they did not have before Christ's resurrection)

d. At Heb. 9.9 and 10.1 - we can probably see a salvation idea from the standpoint of NOT acquiring salvation.

4. Used to indicate the growth process of the humanity of Jesus.

a. Heb. 2.10 - God made Jesus complete through His sufferings.

(not the cross - but all the pressures throughout his life)

b. Heb. 5.9 - And having been made complete through v. 8 -

learning obedience through the things which He suffered.

c. this is in reference to the spiritual growth of his humanity which of course, began in childhood. Luke 2.40, 52

5. And thus, it is used to indicate the believer's progress in spiritual growth

(1 Pet. 2.2; 2 Pet. 3.18)

a. Heb. 5.14 - solid food is for the MATURE

b. Heb. 6.1 - Therefore let us press on to MATURITY

c. James 1.4 - let patience have her COMPLETE work so that you may be COMPLETE and entire, lacking nothing

d. James 3.2 - the absence (control of) verbal sins is an indication of spiritual maturity (PERFECT man).

e. The growth process in coming to a completed understanding and expression of LOVE. 1 Jn. 2.5; 4.12, 17, 18; Cf. Eph. 3.19 and 5.1-2

f. And in fact, the expression of this quality of love is what Jesus has in mind at Mt. 5.48 - be complete as your Heavenly Father is complete.

1. Jesus is using this word in a Hebrew context with the Hebrew word "tamiym" in mind , ie, having integrity.

2. Jesus explains that this is what He has in mind as he prefaced this "command" with v. 43-47, love and fairness.

3. Also at Luke 6.36 where Jesus teaches on the same subject (if it is not indeed the same message) be merciful as your Father is merciful. expression of love and fairness.

g. Col. 1.28 - Paul's goal in ministry is to present every man complete in Christ. This is not just a salvation issue, but a growth to maturity issue as he talks about "wisdom" etc.

h. And at Col. 4.13 - Epaphras has the same desire in his prayers: that you may be complete (mature) and fully assured in all the will of God. (cf. Rom. 12.2)

i. The goal of the instruction from our communicators is this spiritual maturity, consistency or completion.

Eph. 4.11-14-"Unto a mature man."

j. 1 Cor. 14.20, do not be children in "thinking" but be mature.

6. So in conclusion, the goal toward "perfection" is a goal toward building the quality of character that God desires to be in us through learning and using His Word. 1 Tim. 1.5 (Ps. 119.11 ) .

That goal of "love" is summarized at 1 Cor. 13.4-7



1. The purpose of this book is exhortation to advance in "light" by standing in the true grace of God through utilizing the grace provisions outlined at V. 5:10, 12.

Amplified throughout by the "7 therefores" of application.

2. After basic orientation to salvation, v. 1:13, THEREFORE - -
dress the mind with truth and trust it. (Use equipping and support grace of v. 5:10)

3. After orientation to the power of provision of God's word, v. 2:1-2, THEREFORE -
Desire the pure milk of the word. (utilize equipping grace)

4. After orientation to Christ's victory, v. 4:1-2, THEREFORE -
Arm yourselves with the same "in thinking" (ennoia) that was in Christ.
(Exhortation to use support grace as per v. 2:23)

5. After orientation to divine justice and the advance of the spiritual conflict, v. 4:5-7, THEREFORE -
Exhortation to have wise thinking and balance in application of prayer.

6. After orientation to the conflict, service and undeserved suffering (persecution), v. 19, THEREFORE - -
Exhortation to trust God through consistent adherence to policy. (utilize support grace)

7. After all, as a final conclusion, v. 5:1-5, THEREFORE - -
Exhortation to maintain the growth process by keeping intact the primary purpose of the local church.

8. After warning against creature rebellion, V. 5:6-10, THEREFORE - -
Exhortation to humility pursuit of truth in spite of the many and varied pressures designed to distract. v. 5:6-10


1 Peter 3:21 by K. Wuest

By Kenneth Wuest, Wuest's Word Studies, Commentary on 1 Peter, page 108-109

The words "the like figure" are in the Greek ho antitupon.

The question as to whether the word "figure" refers back to the word "ark" or the word "water," is easily settled by the Greek grammar involved in this expression, for the relative pronoun ho is neuter, the word "ark" is feminine, and the word "water" neuter. The relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in gender. Therefore the word "figure" which is neuter and construed grammatically with the pronoun ho goes back to the word "water." The word "figure" is the translation of antitupon which means "the counterpart of reality." The Greek word "baptism" is in apposition with the word "figure." Our translation so far reads, "Which (water) also (as a) counterpart now saves you, (namely) baptism." Water baptism is clearly in the apostle's mind, not the baptism of the Holy Spirit, for he speaks of the waters of the flood as saving the inmates of the ark, and in this verse, of baptism saving believers. But he says that it saves them only as a counterpart. That is, water baptism is the counterpart of the reality, salvation. It can only save as a counterpart, not actually. The Old Testament sacrifices were counterparts of the reality, the Lord Jesus. They did not actually save the believer, only in type. It is not argued here that these sacrifices are analogous to Christian water baptism.

The author is merely using them as an illustration of the use of the word "counterpart." So water baptism only saves the believer in type. The Old Testament Jew was saved before he brought the offering. That offering was only his outward testimony that he was placing his faith in the Lamb of God of whom these sacrifices were a type. The moment he conceived in his heart that he would bring his offering to the Tabernacle, his faith leaped the centuries to the time when God would offer the Sacrifice that would pay for his sin. Our Lord said, "Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad" (John 8:56). The act of bringing the sacrifice was his outward expression and testimony of his inward faith. Water baptism is the outward testimony of the believer's inward faith. The person is saved the moment he places his faith in the Lord Jesus. Water baptism is his visible testimony to his faith and the salvation he was given in answer to that faith.

Peter is careful to inform his readers that he is not teaching baptismal regeneration, namely, that a person who submits to baptism is thereby regenerated, for he says, "not the putting away of the filth of the flesh."

Baptism, Peter explains, does not wash away the filth of the flesh, either in a literal sense as a bath for the body, nor in a metaphorical sense as a cleansing for the soul. No ceremonies really affect the conscience. But he defines what he means by salvation, in the words, "the answer of a good conscience toward God," and he explains how this is accomplished, namely "by the resurrection of Jesus Christ" in that the believing sinner is identified with Him in that resurrection.

Return to BAPTISMS topic



1. At the time of Jesus, there existed several Jewish religious sects. Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes Herodians and Zealots.

A. The two main sects of Judaism, Pharisee and Sadducee, developed during the early years of the Maccabean period of Jewish history. 167-30 AD

B. At the time of Christ, the Pharisees numbered about 6,000 and the Sadducees considerably less.

2. The seeds were sown early in the chaotic period between Alexander's death and the consolidation of Roman power in 30 AD.

A. Between 323 and 167 BC, religious and political division developed between the priests and the scribes who together had governed the spiritual, moral and political development of the nation since the return from the Babylonian captivity in 536 BC.

B. Greek culture influenced Jewish politics and Hellenistic viewpoint began to dominate in the ranks of the priests.

C. As they leaned more and more toward these foreign standards they considered themselves better than the scribes and called themselves tsaddiqim - the righteous ones.

D. The scribes and the people, being generally more religiously devoted to their own heritage, rejected the Greek influence and called themselves chasidees - the godly ones.

3. In 167 BC a priest named Mattathias took the initiative in resisting the religious persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes and began the fight for independence from Syria.

A. He died the next year but his son Judas the Hammer (Maccabee) pulled the people together and controlled the political arena for the pursuit of freedom.

B. Through Judas and his two brothers Jonathan and Simon, now known as the Maccabeans, the Jews won their freedom from Syria and the Maccabeans acquired the high priestly office.

C. Through them the religious or traditional culture of the Jews began to take prominence.

D. The political culture under Hellenistic influence took a back seat to this zeal and power.

4. So during the political advances of the Maccabeans, the traditional legal party (the chassidim) gained influence and power.

A. But in their legalistic zeal, power went to their head and they became more demanding of the people.

B. They taught that a true Israelite was only one who observed the law in the context of scribal interpretations.

C. This caused the Hellenists (tsaddiqim) composed of aristocrats from within the priesthood, to become more vocal end organized and the two parties were formally structured into 2 sects.

D. The chassidim became Pharisees and the tsaddiqim were called by their opponents the tsadduqim (the destroyers). Thus the Greek, saddoukaios - Sadducee)

5. In 152 BC Jonathan was appointed high priest which initiated the new high priestly dynasty of the Asmoneans. (152 - 30 BC)

A. But the Sadducees remained in the background until the time of John Hyrcanus. BC 135.

B. At that time John and his two sons, Aristobulus and Alexander Jannaeus joined the Sadducees and gave that party majority influence in both politics and religion for 57 years. 135 - 78 BC

6. Under the rule of Jannaeus (105-78 BC) there was a push by the people to reject the Sadduceen influence because he persecuted the Pharisees to the point of crucifying many of them.

A. Persecution from Idumaea

1. During the reign of Jannaeus, he appointed to be governor of Idumaea, a man named Antipas. They both died in 78 BC.

2. The successor to Antipas, his son, Antipater, through crafty overtures to Rome, acquired from Caesar the procuratorship of Judea in 47 BC.

3. He was assassinated in 43 BC, but not before he began persecuting the Asmoneans who he had deceptively used in his overtures to Rome.

4. This persecution was continued by Antipater's son, Herod the Great, who reigned from 37 to 4 BC.

5. This persecution extended to the Pharisees so that they were forced to adopt a new religious policy, Ie, acceptance of Rome's rule.

6. After the death of Herod, the Pharisees petitioned Rome to rule them and they never deviated from that attitude of subjection to Rome.

7. Thus, Saul could be both a Pharisee and a Roman citizen.

8. The Pharisees opposed the Jewish revolt of 68-70 AD.

9. That is why Vespasian permitted Johanan Benzakkai, a Pharisee, to preserve the rabinnical school at Jabneh, to where Gamaliel had relocated the Sanhedrin.

B. The battle of two sons

1. In 78 BC, Jannaeus died and his two sons vied for the position of high priest.

2. John Hyrcanus II, sided with the Pharisees and Aristobulus was supported by the Sadducees.

3. Aristobulus was prevailing over John until the Romans took sides which resulted in John Hyrcanus winning the priesthood.

4. With that influence the Pharisees acquired both political and religious control but the political was short-lived.

5. Soon the Sadducean aristocracy regained control in the Political arena partly through alliance with the Herodean sect.

6. But the Pharisees retained power and influence in the religious arena and maintained it from that time onward.

7. In fact, for the Sadducees to hold onto their political power, they actually had to concede to the Pharisaic religious viewpoint when it came to official activities.

7. So by the time of Christ, both the Pharisees and Sadducees along with the Herodians, managed the Sanhedrin which dominated and controlled every phase of Jewish life.

A.The Sadducees still in association with the Herodians controlled the High priesthood and maintained a greater power in the political arena, but had a lesser popularity and influence with the people.

B. The Pharisees and scribes were associated together and had the greater Popularity and influence with the people.

C. from the standpoint of their religious evil, both groups were viewed by Jesus as a unit and detrimental to the pursuit of Truth. Mat. 16.1-12

8. After the fall of the Jewish nation in 70 AD, the Sadducees totally dropped out of history, but the Pharisees continue as the leaders in Jewish religion and culture until 200 AD.

9. Observations concerning the Pharisees

A. The Pharisees were orthodox in their beliefs with a strong adherence to the letter of the Messianic promise but not its spirit.

1. They were were very patriotic toward the Jewish state.
2. But at the same time, were very tolerant of Roman rule as long as it did not interfere with their practice o the law.

B. The scribes were subordinate to the Pharisees and were their representatives to the people.

1. They served as the ultimate authority in questions of faith and practice.
2. The Pharisees were the ultimate example of that practice.

C. The scribes formulated the oral law and its interpretations.

1. The oral law dealt with every conceivable case of conduct in public and in private life.
2. They covered the scriptures with the oral and multiplied rules until they crushed out the spirit of freedom.
3. All that resulted was oppressive religious slavery.

D. The power of the Pharisees was in their popularity with the people who were wooed and Impressed with their piety and rigid stand on the principles of the law.

E. The New Testament provides extensive description of their character.

1. They put their trust in tradition. Mark 7:5-9, 13
2. Practiced extreme social prejudice. Mat. 9.11; Jn. 7:49
3. Concerned with overt appearance to the point of neglecting the inner life.

a. Approbation lust: Mat. 23:5-7
b. Overt righteousness. Mat. 5:20; 23:BC
c. But hypocrites: Mat. 23:3, 13, 23 25, 28

4. Put their trust in relationship to Abraham. Mat. 3:7-9; Jn. 8.33
5. Claim to be representatives of the law. Mat. 23:2, But are

a. Blind guides: Mat. 23:6,24
b. And hypocrites Mat. 23:3, 23, 25

6. They rejected everything about their Messiah

a. Rejected John's ministry. Luke 7:30
b. called Jesus demon possessed. Mat. 9:34
c. Rejected his authority to forgive sins. Luke 5:21
d. Rejected his authority over the sabbath. Luke 6:2-7
e. Denied him the Messianic title. Luke 19:38-39
f. Conspired against him. Mat. 12:14, Mark 3:6; Jn. 11:47-53
g. Called him a liar. John 8:13
h. Called him a sinner. John 9:16
i. Rejected His teaching and wanted signs. Mat. 12:38; 16:1
j. Always challenged Him with the law. Mat. 19:3; 22:15f

F. Specific points of character proclaimed by Jesus

1. Brood of vipers: Mat. 12:7,4
2. hypocrites: Mat. 23:13
3 fools: Mat. 23:17
4. Evil: Mat. 12:34
5. Full of lawlessness: Mat. 23:28
6. Blind guides: Mat 23:16
7. Blind men: Mat.23:19
8. son of hell (gehenna): Mat. 23:15
9. serpents: Mat. 23:33
10. Of your father the devil: Jn.8:44
11. Their teaching is leaven: Mat.16:6-12

G. The classes of Pharisees: from a variety of sources we find that the Pharisees were subdivided into several life styles that emphasized a particular religious bent.

1. Shoulder Pharisee: Wears symbols of his good deeds on his shoulders.
2. "Wait a little" P: one who begs for time in order to perform some good deed.

3. Bleeding P: Always closed his eyes when out in public so as not to see a woman. Thus was always bumping into something and bleeding.

4. Painted P: Advertised his "holiness" so no one would touch him and cause defilement.
5. Reckoning P: What must I do to be certain I've left nothing undone? Implies that I have done it all, so what's left?

6. Fearing P: kept the law because he was afraid of God and of a future judgment.
7. Shekamite P: kept the law for monetary profit.
8. Mortar P: Always wore a cap to cover his eyes so as not to see impurities or indecency
9. Tumbling P: always has his head hanging down.
10. Love Pharisee: Obeyed from emotional dedication to God but with still no knowledge of Truth.
11. All of these acted in hypocrisy and religious slavery except the love Pharisee who acted from emotional zeal and ignorance.

10. Major theological differences between the two.


1. The Pharisees believed in the after life and resurrection.
2. The Sadducees believed that the soul died with the body and had no continuous existence nor is their resurrection. Acts 23:8; Mat. 22:23


1. Pharisees accept the existence of angels as a superior creation to man.
2. Sadducees reject the existence cf. angels and spirits. Acts 23:8


1. Pharisees were basically hyper-Calvinistic believing that God's sovereignty determined everything.
2. The Sadducees emphasized the tree will of man, believing that man himself determined his lot in life.


1. The Pharisees accepted the entire Old Testament, but added to it as authoritative, all the interpretations and traditions developed by the scribes down through the years.

2. Sadducees accepted only the established Old Testament canon and totally rejected all the traditions, regulations and interpretations passed down by the scribes.

3. But in actuality, they both simply gave the scriptures lip service without really putting their trust in them.

a. Both are exposed by Jesus. Jn. 5:45-47
b. And it is clear the Sadducees reject the truth of the Old Testament since they reject its teaching on resurrection and angels.

11.The only real functional difference between the two groups is the issue of religion vs. politics.

A. The Pharisees emphasized rigid ritualism and overt good.
B. The Sadducees emphasized political power in association with religion.
C. Some have tried to suggest a character difference between the two groups but actually they are both characterized by intense jealousy, hatred and violence toward anyone who threatens the status quo, either politically or religiously.

12.The Sadducees do not come under Christ's condemnation as the Pharisees do because the Sadducees were politically minded whereas the Pharisees were the ones who put themselves in the seat of Moses. Mat. 23:2-3

13. But the Sadducees, as represented by the chief priests were just as violently antagonistic toward the person and the message of Jesus as were the Pharisees.

A. Mat. 21:15, 23, 45; Mark 11:18
B. Mat. 26;3-5, 59; 27;12, 20, 41-43; Mark 8:31; 10:33
C. Luke 19:47
D. John 7;32, 45-48; 11:47-53
E. Acts 4:1, 5-6, 23; 9:1-2, 14,21; 23:14



1. Does God have a structured plan for the universe?

A. Romans 11.36-For from Him and through him and unto him are all things.

B. Col. 1.16 - all things created by Him (Christ) and for Him.

C. The universe:

1. Gen. 1.14-15

2. Ps. 19.1-6

D. The earth:

1. Is. 45.18

2. Psalm 115.16

E. The renovation:

1. Psalm 102.25-27

2. 2 Pet. 3.10-13

3. Isaiah 66.22a

2. God's plan for the angels:

A. Ps. 103.20-21; 104.4

B. The plan allows and deals with the rebellion of the angels.

Ezek. 28.12-19; Mt. 25.41

3. The plan for mankind:

A. Psalm 8.3-8

B. 1 Cor. 11.7

C. Gen. 1.27

4. The plan allows and deals with the rebellion of man.

A. Gen. 2.16-17

B. John 3.18 - judged already

C. Mt. 25.41 - Share Satan's destiny

D. Psalm 92.5-7 - the purpose for the progress of evil

5. God's plan for the exposure and neutralization of Satan involves salvation provision for mankind.

A. Gen. 3.15

B. Is. 42.1-4

C. Heb. 2.14-15

D. Col. 2.15 with Jn. 12.31-32

6. God's plan for the human race is called the plan of the ages. Eph. 3.11, prothesis + aion

A. Eph. 1.5 - the good thinking of his will - eudokia + thelema

B. Eph. 1.11 - His purpose - prothesis - (who works all things according to the decree (boule) of his will (thelema).

C. Eph. 1.9 - The mystery of his will (thelema) - According to his good thinking (eudokia) which he purposed in Him (protithemi). The plan is centered around Christ

7. Foreknowledge concerning the Messiah: 1 Pet. 1.20

8. God's plan concerning the bruising of Messiah's heel.

A. Luke 22.22 - horidzo

B. Acts 2.23 - delivered up - ekdoktos (perhaps, provided)

1. by the predetermined decree - horidzo - aorist passive participle + boule

2. and prognosis of God.

C. Acts 4.28 - the enemies of Messiah gathered to carry out God's plan.

1. What your hand - reference to Divine power

2. and purpose: boule - decree

3. predestined: aorist active indicative - prooridzo

9. Divine outline of the salvation plan: Romans 8.29-30

A. Foreknowledge: 1 Pet. 1.2 - basis for election

B. predestined: conformed to Christ's image (experience and resurrection)

1. 1 Cor. 2.7 - Church age mystery wisdom

2. Eph. 1.5 - adoption

3. Eph. 1.11 - inheritance

C. Called: Invitation to election - Eph. 1.4

D. Justified: positional conformity to Christ's image via the imputation of God's righteousness.

E. glorified: physical conformity to Christ's image via resurrection.

10. The 6000 year old promise:

A. 2 Tim. 1.9

B. Titus 1.2

C. Gen. 3.15

D. Mt. 25.34

11. The plan pre-dates the promise:

A. The Messiah: 1 Pet. 1.20

B. Believers are elected: Eph. 1.4

C. Book of life: Rev. 17.8

12. General outline of the historical progress of the plan:

A. total provision for spiritual life fulfillment. Heb. 4:3 - REST

B. Plan of salvation: Gen. 3:15

C. The curse on physical creation: Rom. 8:20; Gen. 3:16-19

D. Perpetuation of the earth: Gen. 8:21; 9:9-16

E. The weather patterns: Gen. 8:22

G. Nations: Acts 17:26

H. Abraham: Gen. 12:1-3

I. Israel: Deut. 32:8; Ezek. 5:5; Dan. 8:24; 11:36

J. Judgment on the nations: Isaiah 25:1

1. Assyria: Isaiah 14:14; 2 Kings 19:25

2. Babylon: Is. 22:11

3. Persia: Is. 46:11

K. Messiah's Kingdom: Psalm 2:7

L. Messiah's First Coming: Galatians 4:4

M. The church: Eph. 3:8-11

N. Messiah's Second Coming: 1 Tim. 6:14b-15

13. The ultimate goal of the plan is the summing up of all things in Christ.

A. Eph. 1.10

B. Phil. 2.9-11 -- every knee bow and every tongue acknowledge --

C. Col. 1.15-20

1. First place --

2. Reconcile all things

D. 1 Cor. 15.23-28 - all enemies under his feet

14. The unchangeableness of his purpose: Heb. 6.17



1. Polygamy violates divine design of "man and woman." Gen. 2:24a

2. Polygamy breaks the one flesh unit of Gen. 2:24b. Both soul and body.

3. Polygamy defiles the marriage bed: Heb. 13:4

4. Polygamy is viewed as fornication and adultery. 1 Cor. 7:2, "immorality."

5. Polygamy destroys the symbolism of marriage found at Eph. 5:28-33

6. Polygamy symbolically breaks "union with Christ." 1 Cor. 6:15-20

7. Polygamy is specifically forbidden to the king in Israel. Deut. 17:17

8. Polygamy neutralizes spiritual capacity. Deut. 17:17 with 1 Kings 11:3-8

9. Polygamy destroys capacity to find true fulfillment through the love of one woman.
2 Sam. 1:26; Ec. 7:26-29; Prov. 5:15-23

10. Polygamy has never been authorized, condoned or blessed by God. It was permitted in the same way that any sin is permitted, but no one guilty of it ever prospered "spiritually" while in that status.

Return to Marriage: the provision


POSITION in Union with Christ

1. Position is the term used to describe the believer's union with Christ.
Throughout the New Testament the phrase, "in Christ" or "in Him" usually refers to one of the three aspects of positional truth.

2. Because of mankind's "birth" position and status in the kingdom of darkness, all are spiritually dead - separated from Christ and without God. Romans 5:12; Eph. 2:1, 12;

3. Through union with Christ, by faith in the gospel, the old status, "In darkness" is removed and the believer becomes a new creation "in Christ," and in the kingdom of light. 2 Cor. 5:17; Rom. 6:6; Col. 3:9-10; Eph. 5:8

4. The mechanics of union with Christ.

A. Faith: trust in the person and work of Christ. Col. 2:12

"Through faith in the working of God"

B. Baptism of the Holy Spirit: 1 Cor. 12:13
C. The believer becomes ONE with Christ. Gal. 3:27; Eph. 5:29-30; 1 Cor. 6:15
D. The believer is "sealed" In Christ by the presence of the Spirit. Eph. 1:13-14
E. Comes under the "integrity" protection of God's faithfulness. Rom. 8:38-39

5. The first aspect of union with Christ is "CURRENT position in Christ."

A. This is our present position in Christ in which we share His session at the right hand of the Father. Eph. 1:20-22; Philip. 2:9-11; Col. 3:1a

B. Through Current position in Christ, the believer shares everything that Christ has in His exalted humanity. The believer shares His destiny and inheritance.

1. Christ IS eternal life: 1 John 5:11-12
2. Christ is perfect righteousness: 2 Cor. 5:21
3. Christ is the SON: Gal. 3:26
4. Christ is the ELECT one: Eph. 1:4
5. Christ is the HEIR of God: Heb. 1:2 + Rom. 8:16-17; Gal. 3:29

C. Because of current position (CP) in Christ, God sees the believer as perfect and sinless.  He sees us as He sees THE SON.

6. The second aspect of union with Christ is Retroactive Position.

A. Retroactive position (RP) in Christ refers to the fact that through that union with Christ, the believer is identified "positionally" with Christ's death on the cross.

B. RP in Christ takes us back to the cross and identifies the believer with the work of Christ in dealing with sin.

1. ID with Christ in His death: Rom. 6:2-3, "died to THE sin (nature)"
"baptized into His death."

2. We died when He died. Col. 2:20; 3:3

3. Christ died to the sin nature. Rom. 6:10
We are dead to the sin nature. Rom. 6:2

4. Crucified with Christ: Gal. 2:20

C. Furthermore, our identification with His death extends forward and identifies with His burial, resurrection, ascension and session. Col. 2:12; Eph. 2:4-6

D. Therefore, the issue in RP in Christ is to recognize the positional victory over sin through union with Christ and to claim the power of God for victory over sin in experience.

7. The 3rd aspect of union with Christ is Experiential Position (EP) in Christ.

A. Basically, EP in Christ is the application of both RP and CP to our Christian way of life.

B. Because of RP we should live in victory over sin. Rom. 6:11-13
"don't let THE sin (nature) reign in your mortal body so that you should obey its lusts."

C. Because of CP, we should reflect our exalted standing before God into our Christian experience by seeking to imitate the light of His standards and the character of Christ. Eph. 5:8; Col. 3:1-2

D. So, EP is simply imitation of Christ in the life of the believer. Eph. 5:1-2; Col. 3:1-14

8. Summary

A. All believers are in union with Christ. 1 Cor. 12:13; 1 Cor. 1:30

B. This union confers on the believer the positional status of being one and equal with the glorified humanity of Jesus. Gal. 3:27-28

C. This union is permanent and unable to be disbanded by God or man.
Rom. 8:38-39; Eph. 1:13; 2 Tim. 2:11-13

D. The character of the believer through this positional status is perfectly righteous and sinless. 2 Cor. 5:21; Col. 2:10

E. But in actual experience, the believer must still contend with the world, the sin nature and the devil. Eph. 6:12; Gal. 5:17; Col. 2:8; 1 Pet. 2:11; 5:8

F. So the issue throughout the Christian life is to use the Word (1 Tim. 1:5) and the filling-control of the Spirit (Gal. 5:16, 25) to live a life that consistently reflects the perfect character and status of our position. Eph. 5:8; Col. 3:1, 9-10

G. The complete fullness of this positional status will become reality at the rapture of the church when all church age believers will receive a resurrection just like Christ's. Philip. 3:20-21; 1 Cor. 15:21-22; 42-53

9. The believer's position in union with Christ is the basis for possessing the "many spiritual blessings in the heavenlies IN CHRIST." See next topic, 36 Positional blessings.



A. Eph. 1.3: Every spiritual blessing in the Heavenlies in Christ.

B. 9 Judicial blessings:


2. UNION WITH CHRIST: 1 Cor. 1.30


4. PROPITIATION: 1 Jn. 2.2

5. JUSTIFICATION: Romans 3.21-24; includes blameless.

6. RECONCILIATION: 2 Cor. 5.18-19





C. 15 Relationship blessings:

1. NEW BIRTH: 1 Pet. 1.3

2. ETERNAL LIFE: 1 Jn. 5.11-12




6. SANCTIFICATION: 1 Cor. 1.30


8. AN ELECT RACE: 1 Pet. 2.9

9. A HOLY NATION: 1 Pet. 2.9

10. A PROTECTED PEOPLE: 1 Pet. 2.9

11. IN A SPIRITUAL BODY: 1 Cor. 12.12-27

12. ADOPTION: Sonship rank - Ephesians 1.5



15. SEALED: Ephesians 1.13-14

D. 9 Service blessings:





5. AMBASSADORSHIP: 2 Cor. 5.20

6. PRIESTHOOD: 1 Pet. 2.9

7. SPIRITUAL GIFT: 1 Peter 4.10


9. GUARDIAN ANGEL: Heb. 1.14

E. 3 Future blessings:



3. RULERSHIP REIGNING: Revelation 20.6

F. Detailed analysis of the positional blessings.


PRAYER: Summary

1. Prayer is simply conversation with God in your own thinking with your own understanding, in your own KNOWN language.

2. There are 3 categories of prayer:

A. Access Prayer: This is the provision of ACCESS to fellowship with God through salvation relationship with Him. The experience of access to God through prayer is based on fellowship with Him. John 15:7; 66:18.

B. Praise Prayer: This is communion with God based on understanding His person and work, and it falls into two categories.

1. Exaltation: Heb. 13:15
2. Thanksgiving: Eph. 5:20; 1 Thes. 5:18

C. Petition: This is asking for things from God.

1. Prayer for self:
2. Prayer for others:
3. Prayer for those unable to pray for themselves: intercession
(unbelievers or believers out of fellowship with God)

3. The mechanics of prayer:

A. To the Father: Mat 6:9; John 16:23
B. In the name of the Son: Eph. 5:20
C. Through the filling control of the Spirit: Eph. 6:18; Rom. 8:26-27

4. The position of Prayer: Any position you want. All are authorized in Scripture and there is no particular position that is more "holy" than another.

5. The language of prayer:

A. Not as the Gentiles do: Mat. 6:7
B. KJV English has no special significance (thees and thous, etc.)
C. Holy hiccups is meaningless repetition. Constant repetition of Amen, halleluyah, praise the Lord, etc.

D. Canned prayers are artificial and impersonal. A canned prayer is one that is memorized and then recited later.

6. Group prayer is authorized and normal.
Women ARE allowed to pray in public.

7. The time of prayer: Any time you want. No specific time is better than others. All are represented in Scripture.

8. The frequency of prayer: 1 Thes. 5:17 teaches that prayer should be a constant attitude, "pray continuously." Luke 18:1, pray at all times and not get discouraged.

9. Answers to prayer: Behind every prayer there are two factors - The desire and the request.

A. First category: The request is answered, the desire is not.
B. 2nd category: The desire is answered, the request is not.
C. 3rd category: Both request and desire are answered.
D. 4th category: Neither are answered.

10. Reasons why prayer is not answered.

A. Two basic reasons:

1. Sin is in the life that has not been confessed. Ps. 66:18
2. Ignorance of divine policy. John 15:7; 1 John 5:14-15

B. Asking to satisfy personal lusts rather than the furtherance of Divine design. James 4:3

C. Breakdown of fellowship in marriage: 1 Peter 3:7

D. Asking from creature arrogance rather than from genuine grace humility. Job 35:12-13; Luke 18:11-14

E. Detail of life arrogance: Prov. 21:13

F. Retaining mental attitude sins toward someone. Mat. 6:14-15.

G. Ritual without reality denies prayer access. Is. 1:10-15; Pr. 15:8

H. Not following divine policy for worship: Mal. 1:7-9

I. Negative volition/attitude toward God's word. Pr. 28:9; Zech. 7:11-13

11. Prayer before meals:

A. This practice is not commanded.
B. It would fall under the category of praise/thanksgiving prayer.
C. It serves as a teaching aide to children and new believers.
D. Beware of showcasing self in all kinds of public prayer.


PRAYER: Detailed

I. Prayer is simply conversation with God. The believer thinks or speaks from his own soul and communes with God on God's level by following the policy and standards found in His word.

A. Proseuchomai, 87 times; and proseuchā, 37 times:

1. General word for prayer with the emphasis on fellowship and the attitude of humility.

2. This word is consistently translated pray or prayer and represents any or all of the three categories of prayer.

B. Proseuchā then describes prayer in general, and is not only privileged activity but is required activity for all believers.

1. Col. 4:2:

a. devote yourselves: proskartereo - present active imperative

1. kartereo - be strong, endure

2. pros - face to face with. So the idea of faithfulness and dedication is involved.

Be faithful or dedicated in the sphere of prayer. (proseuchā)

b. keeping alert: gregoreo - present active participle - adverbial.

To describe the degree of faithfulness and dedication.

Indicates diligence to pray at every opportunity and need.

c. In it: prayer

d. with eucharistia - indicates 2 things.

1. The attitude of grace humility that recognizes God as the source of all benefits and blessings.

2. Grace humility that recognizes our privilege and responsibility to serve others in prayer.

2. Romans 12:12 - devoted to prayer

a. proskartereo - present active participle - adjectival, to further describe the functional character of love as started in v. 9.

(1 Cor. 13:4-7 describes the attitude character of love)

b. to prayer: proseuchā

c. Prayer then as part of agape love is an integral part of the Christian way of life as indicated in Gal. 5:6, "faith expressing itself through love"

3. Normal church activity established from the beginning: Acts 2:42


C. The first category of prayer can be called access prayer and is necessary for all other prayer to be successful.

1. Access prayer is what is done to "catch the ear" of God. It is based on Psalm 66:18 and John 9:31.

2. The provision of access is through salvation relationship, but the experience of access is through fellowship.

1 John 3:21-24

3. The issue then is knowledge of truth & fellowship with God.

John 15:7 and 1 Peter 4:7

4. Fellowship for Old Testament believers simply involved the absence of personal sin in the life. Psalm 66:18; 15:1-5

5. But for the church age believer, fellowship is intricately tied in with the filling control of the Holy Spirit.

Eph. 6:18; Jude 20; John 4:23-24

6. The parable of prayer access: Luke 18:9-14

7. Access prayer is required for all spiritual activity.

1 Cor. 11:28-31; 1 Peter 2:1-2; Rom. 8:8; John 4:23-24;

Proverbs 28:9; 15:8, 29; Psalm 66:18

8. Access prayer related to the "presence" of God.

Lam. 3:44; 2 Chron. 30:27


D. The 2nd category of prayer, I call fellowship prayer:

It has two sub-categories which are expressed as a result of the believer's communion with God.

1. Exaltation or praise prayer:

a. Luke 1:46 - megaluno

b. Hebrews 13:15 - homologeo + thusia (sacrifice)

c. Luke 24:53 - eulogeo - (adjective, eulogetos used 8 times toward God)

2. Thanksgiving prayer: the expression of grace toward God.

a. Ephesians 5:20; 1 Thes. 5:18 - eucharisteo

b. 1 Timothy 2:1 - eucharistia

c. Col. 1:9-12: it is the natural result from progress in spiritual growth.


E. The 3rd category of prayer, I call service prayer.

Service prayer is when the believer uses his prayer privilege to minister to and for others or self.

There are 5 sub-categories.

1. Specific petition for self: deesis in Phil. 4:6

2. Attitude of trusting (faith rest) in general: proseuchā in Phil. 4:6; Acts 16:25; 1 Peter 5:6-7

3. Specific petition for others: deesis in 1 Tim. 2:1-2

4. General attitude of trust (faith-rest) for others: proseuchā in 1 Tim. 2:1-2.

This is an attitude of trusting God to meet the general needs of those for whom you pray.

5. Intercession prayer for others: enteuxis in 1 Tim. 2:1-2.

This is specific prayer for those who are unable to pray for themselves. Like an unbeliever or a believer who is out of fellowship with God.


F. All our prayer is to be directed toward God the Father, but we cannot really reach Him on His level without the intercession of the Holy Spirit on our behalf. Rom. 8:26-27

The Holy Spirit actually acts as a transporter of sorts to carry to God "our attitude and intent" and represents us to the Father according to divine standards.


II. The mechanics of prayer:

A. The divine authority structure:

1. Pray to God the Father: Mt. 6:6,9; Jn. 16:23; Eph. 1:17; 3:14; 5:20; Phil. 4:6

2. In the name of the Son: Eph. 5:20; Jn. 16:22-27.

Not with His "title", but under the authority of His character, work and resurrection.

3. Through the filling of the Holy Spirit: Eph. 6:18; Jude 20; Rom. 8.26-27

4. Romans 15:30

5. Comments on Acts 7.59-60: "Lord Jesus, receive - -"

not really a prayer but more of an exclamation or announcement. Here I come.

6. Comments on Acts 9:10-17: This is a vision, not prayer.

7. Comments on 2 Cor. 12:8, "I entreated the Lord"

More likely that this is the Father than Jesus.

8. SEE: God the Father: addressed as Lord


B. Position of prayer:

1. Kneeling: Acts 20.36; 21.5; Luke 22:41; Eph. 3.14

2. Standing: Mk. 11.25; Mt. 6:5

3. Prone: Mt. 26:39

C. The language of prayer:

1. Mt. 6.7: not as the Gentiles do

(application to the tongues of the mystery cults, 1 Cor. 13:1)

2. KJV (King James Version) English is not a holy, spiritual language.

3. Holy hiccups is meaningless repetition. (repetitions of "amen" and "halleluyah," etc.)

4. Canned prayers (memorized) are artificial.


D. Group prayer is authorized and bona fide. Acts 1:14; 2:42

1. Acts 4:24-30 - homothumadon - cf. 1 Cor. 1:10; Rom. 15:6

2. Acts 12:5, 12; 20:36

3. Women in group prayer: 1 Cor. 11:5;

(Acts 16:13 in a Judaism context)

4. Apply Mt. 6:5-6 - this is a humility issue via privacy and does not forbid group prayer.


E. The time of prayer:

1. The ritual time for prayer under Judaism was 3PM. Acts 3:1; 10:3, 30

2. Optional times: Peter in Acts 10:9 - 12 noon.

3. Specific time away from detail of life activity. 1 Cor. 7:5

4. All night: Luke 6:12

5. Day and night: Luke 2:37; 1 Thes. 3:10; 1 Tim. 5:5

6. When reminded of someone: Rom. 1:9; 2 Thes. 1:11;

Eph.1:16; 1 Thes. 1:2; 2 Tim. 1:3; Philemon 4

7. In the morning: Psalm 5:3

III. The frequency of prayer:

A. 1 Thessalonians 5:17

1. Pray: proseuchomai - present middle imperative- prayer in general -

Includes all 3 categories of prayer

2. without ceasing: adverb - adialeiptōs - not continually, but consistently and upon every opportunity.

3. Your circumstances will determine how often you pray.

Whenever a need arises. Whenever you are told of a need.

Whenever you think of someone, etc.

4. Your soul is n a constant attitude of prayer (faith rest and grace oriented) directed toward God the Father and then it will be directed to a specific issue when it arises.

5. V. 18, "in everything give thanks," indicates the constant attitude of grace orientation from application of truth. Verbalization is not necessary, but grace orientation is a mental recognition of both creator and Father provisions.

B. Luke 18:1 - Jesus teaches on the mandate of prayer.


1. Now he was telling them: lego - imperfect active indicative

Indicates the process of teaching and illustrating.

2. a parable: parabole- that which is cast along side as an aid. Therefore, a parable is a teaching aid to illustrate a point of doctrine - in this case persistence in prayer.

3. Of the necessity: Lit. - to show that it is necessary.

pros + definite article + present active infinitive of deo

4. For them to pray: proseuchomai - present middle infinitive

5. At all times: pantote - again, the idea is consistency and taking every opportunity without neglect or discouragement as the next word indicates.

6. And not to lose heart: kai + me (a negative) + present active infinitive of egkaleo.

To become weary or tired. Used here as an attitude word.

a. Therefore, no discouragement and neglect because of God's apparent failure to answer or because of circumstances.

b. LIT: And not to become discouraged - ie, don't give up.

c. Learn and apply promises: Rom. 8:28; 1 Pet.5:7; Mt. 6:33

7. And so, clearly, prayer is a Christian way of life mandate that must be understood and practiced in order to fulfill our priestly representation of God's plan here on earth.

C. Review of Col. 4:2 (above)


IV. The practice of prayer conversion:

A. Definition: The practice of converting negative mental attitudes from others into positive thoughts within your own soul, through praying for them. Luke 6:27-28

1. But I say to you to love your enemies: This is the principle of beneficent love which should be applied in every area of our life in regard to every person in our life.

2. Beneficent love as applied to our enemies will be expressed in 3 ways:

a. Overt actions: Do good to those who hate you -

1. do good: poieo: present active imperative

2. those who hate: miseo - present active participle

b. Verbal expressions: Bless those who curse you -

1. bless: eulogeo - present active imperative- speak well of

2. curse you: kataraomai - to speak down or against.

c. Mental attitude maintenance through prayer:

1. pray: proseuchomai, present middle imperative

2. those who mistreat: epāreadzo - verbally abuse

3. The essence of prayer conversion is to offset any intended harm directed from anyone who is antagonistic to you, while at the same time preserving your mental attitude of love, mercy and grace.

4. Prayer conversion then serves also as a preventative maintenance technique on your own mental attitude as well as providing a positive way to deal with negative attitudes when they do infiltrate.


B. Matthew 5:44-45

V. 44

1. Pray: proseuchomai - present middle imperative

2. For those who persecute you: dioko - present active participle

V. 45

1. So that: hopos - purpose and result

2. You might become: ginomai - aorist middle subjunctive- the process of character reflection viewed as to its final goal. (Luke 6:35, and you will be - future indicative- eimi)

3. Sons of your Father who is in Heaven: The imitation of God (Eph. 5:1)

4. For He causes the Sun/sends rain: common grace provisions for the people of the world in that they are His offspring and under His creator responsibility. Acts 14:17

5. On the evil/good; righteous/unrighteous:

ponāros / agathos; dikaios / adikos

Creator love and concern for His creation is unprejudiced.

(Luke 6:35 - He is kind to ungrateful and evil men)

crāstos + acharistos (cf Rom. 1:21) + ponāros

6. We are to reflect that same impartiality and desire only what is best for everybody.

a. Mt. 5:48, Therefore, you are to be complete and consistent (teleios) just as your heavenly Father is complete and consistent (teleios).

b. Luke 6:36, Become merciful (ginomai + oiktirmon), just as your Father is merciful (eimi + oiktirmon).

C. Prayer conversion will also facilitate your own prayer access to the Father in that fellowship is either maintained or restored based on grace forgiveness of others. Mark 11:25

1. And whenever: kai hotan - whenever you are attempting the prayer activity of v. 24 - proseuchomai and aiteo - these words are used together to express petition type prayer, although it could also include intercessory prayer.

2. You stand praying: stāko - present active indicative + proseuchomai- present middle participle

3. If you have: 1st class condition "if" + echo - present active indicative, to indicate the reality of mental attitude sins toward another.

4. Anything against anyone: kata + tis (no exceptions)

5. This presence of mental attitude sin prevents personal prayer access and all petition will be useless. Ps. 66:18

6. Forgive: present active imperative - aphiemi - to let go or send away.

The commanded attitude adjustment in you in order to be restored to fellowship.

7. In order that: hina + subjunctive- paves the way for prayer access.

8. Your Father also may forgive you: aorist active subjunctive- aphiāmi.

a. This amplifies 1 John 1:9

b. Confession of sin accomplishes nothing if we retain in our soul the negative attitude that either precipitated or resulted from the sin confessed. Proverbs 28:13

c. If we retain mental attitude antagonism toward anyone, our own fellowship is forfeited.

9. V. 26 is not in the original (omitted by manuscripts - aleph, B,L,W,D,Y)

But is present at Mat. 6:14-15

V. 14

1. For if: 3rd class condition "if" - potential which indicates personal responsibility for your attitudes.

2. You forgive: aorist active subjunctive- aphiāmi - any given point of time you are faced with the sins of others.

3. Their transgressions: paraptoma - an overstepping of a boundary or standard. In this case it is an offense against your personal standards.

4. Your heavenly Father will forgive you: aorist active indicative - aphiāmi.

Nothing will be in the way of your fellowship with God.

V. 15

1. But if: 3rd class condition again

2. you do not forgive: me aphiāmi - aorist active subjunctive

You choose to maintain a grudge of bitterness and or anger.

3. Neither will your Father forgive you:

oude + aorist active indicative- of aphiāmi.

4. It is impossible for you to experience forgiveness for any of your confessed sins if you continue to hold onto any one particular sin. Proverbs 28:13

5. This then is the principle of mental attitude purity in order to maintain prayer access. In fact the occasion of prayer should give you the opportunity to deal with this problem in your life on a daily, almost moment by moment basis.

D. When you see someone do something of which you don't approve, dismiss (aphiemi) the disapproval from your mind through application of grace and specific prayer for the person.

1. Application of doctrine: Rom. 14:4, 10; 12:19

2. Specific prayer: gospel information or conviction for growth and fellowship.

3. This includes both those over you and under you in authority.

E. Anytime you think of your disapproval of that person, convert your concentration to positive prayer.

1. The excuse: I just keep thinking of what they did or said.

2. To entertain these thoughts is creature arrogance that is simply ignoring divine provision.

F. Dismiss your disapproval, remembering that you are not responsible for that person, but you are responsible for yourself and your personal priesthood before God. We cannot allow someone else's behavior to distract us from progress and service in the Christian way of life.

G. Let the problem itself determine how long you pray for the person. Whenever you think of them, pray.

H. Five guidelines found at 1 Peter 3:8

1. Like-minded: homophrōn

a. maintaining accurate doctrinal standards as your point of reference in dealing with other people.

b. Of course, you cannot answer for the other, so you must apply Romans 12:18, as far as it depends on you - - -

c. The next 4 actually depend on this one.

2. Sympathetic: sumpathes; sum=with, pathos=passion or suffering.

Therefore, this is an identification with someone else's pressures in general.

Application of grace humility - we all have problems.

3. brotherly: philadelphos - esprit de corps for everyone in the body of Christ. Basically - desire for his progress in spiritual growth in order to function in the body efficiently.

4. compassionate: eusplangnos - good "emotioned". Emotions that express the desire for the other's well-being.

5. Humble: tapeinophron - humility of mind

a. application of grace humility using the status of servant as the foundation.

b. Through love serve one another. Gal. 5:13

c. Apply the doctrine of debtor: Rom. 1:4; 13:8

I. Prayer conversion, then is the technique of dealing with your negative attitudes and the negative attitudes of others through prayer about and for them.

J. And the result will be 1 Pet. 3:9 - eulogeo - present active participle

Giving a blessing instead - speaking beneficially toward.

K. Application of Rom. 12:14-21 - Doctrine of vengeance.


V. The Answers to Prayer:

A. The Power of prayer:

1. Prayer has a limited but very real power. James 5:17-18

2. Prayer cannot change another person or force an unbeliever into salvation. Prayer is not coercive.

Ezek. 14:14; Acts 8:18-25

3. Prayer does not change the plan of God from the standpoint of His determined will, but it can affect personal history under His optional will.

a. Certain things are going to happen no matter what you pray.

This is the determined will of God.

Examples: tribulation scenario, rapture, kingdom

b. Certain things may or may not happen depending on the law of sowing and reaping. Gal. 6:7-9

And on the law of prayer. James 4:2; 1 John 5:14

4. The power of prayer then, is directly dependent on how much your soul complies with divine viewpoint.

The best illustration is Christ in His humanity.

Hebrews 5:7 - because of His piety

5. So piety and "according to His will" explains the power behind prayer promises. Mt. 21:21-22; John 12:27-28

6. James 5:16 b - The energizing prayer of a righteous man is very powerful.


B. Endurance in prayer is directly related to its power.

Matthew 7:7-11 with Luke 11:5-10

C. There are 4 specific ways that God responds to prayer.

And whichever one we experience will indicate the degree that our thoughts comply with His. "According to His will."

D. Behind every prayer there are 2 factors.

The specific request and the underlying desire.

The 4 ways that God responds to our prayer is to viewed with those two factors in mind.

1. The request is answered but the desired is not:

a. Psalm 106:15

request - for meat - granted.

desire - soul satisfaction - not granted.

b. 1 Sam. 8:4-7

request - for a king - granted

desire - to be like other nations - not granted


2. The request is denied but the desire is granted.

a. Gen. 17:18-21

request - Ishmael to be an heir of the covenant - denied.

desire - To see Ishmael prospered - granted.

b. Gen. 18:17-33

request - to spare Sodom - denied.

desire - to deliver Lot - granted.

c. 2 Cor. 12:7-10

request - removal of the thorn in the flesh - denied.

desire - removal of soul pressure - granted.

3. The request is answered and the desire is granted.

a. Judges 16:28

request - eyesight restored - granted.

desire - vengeance on the Philistines - granted.

b. 1 Kings 18:36-39

request - fire on the altar - granted

desire - to glorify God - granted

c. John 5:5-9

request - to be healed - granted

desire - to walk to the temple - granted

4. both the request and the desire are denied.

a. 1 Sam. 15:24

request - forgive my sin (but it was an improper confession)

desire - that I may rule as king - denied.

b. 2 Sam. 12:16

request - for the child to live - denied

desire - contribute to his blessings of fatherhood - denied

D. General reasons why God does not answer prayer.

1. There are 2 negative reasons:

a. Sin is in the life: Ps. 66:18; Is. 59:2

b. Ignorance of divine policy: John 15:7; 1 John 5:14

2. And there is one positive reason: God's timing

E. Specific reasons why God does not answer prayer.

1. Asking to satisfy personal lusts rather than the furtherance of divine design. James 4:3

2. Breakdown of fellowship in marriage. 1 Peter 3:7

3. Asking from creature arrogance rather than from genuine grace humility.

Job 35:12-13; Luke 18:11-14

4. Detail of life arrogance: Proverbs 21:13

5. Retaining mental attitude sins toward someone. Mt. 6:14-15

6. Ritual without reality denies prayer access. Isaiah 1:10-15; Proverbs 15:8a

7. Not following divine policy for worship. Mal. 1:7-9

8. Negative attitude toward God's word. Pr. 28:9; Zech. 7:11-13


VI. Study of Christ's model prayer: Mt. 6:5-13

VII. Example of group prayer: Acts 4:24-30

VIII. Praying before meals:

A. There is no direct mandate for the believer to pray before partaking of food.

B. But there is the principle of humility which related everything in our life to God as the source.

1. This is called thanksgiving: eucharistia

eu = good; charistia = active noun from charis;

Thus, the expression of good grace toward God as the source.

2. As a verb (eucharisteo) it means to express an attitude of humility which recognizes God's grace as the source and man as the benefactor of everything that God has created.

1 Tim. 4:4-5; 6:17

3. Once we recognize God as the source and accept His policy as the authority in our life, we develop the attitude of contentment and experience endurance under pressure.


C. Thus the general mandate of 1 Thes. 5:18

1. In everything: pas - neut. singular - gives us an application to Romans 8:28, and indicates that there are no exceptions unless the believer is out of fellowship.

2. Give thanks: eucharisteo -present active imperative - express grace orientation

a. Recognize God's knowledge and control of all events in your life. Heb. 4:13

b. but apply the law of sowing and reaping. Sin and its consequences are your own responsibility as long as you remain out of fellowship. Gal. 6:7-9

c. You do not give thanks for sin or its consequences.

But when back in fellowship, you recognize that God allows the consequences, both natural and applied, in order to teach spiritual value. Heb. 12:11 (Divine discipline)

3. For: gar - explains why to look at everything from the perspective of grace orientation.

4. This: houtos - neut. singular demonstrative pronoun.

Goes back to the neuter singular of pas - all.

a. Refers to whatever situation comes your way.

b. Whatever you are encountering right now - unless it is volitional violation of truth - is God's will for you.

5. Is the will of God for you: thelema - the divine plan at this moment of time.

a. Either the absolute will of God or the optional will.

b. If you are out of fellowship, you are under the permissive will of God and shut off from the natural benefits of spiritual living.

c. Sometimes, even in this status, God will apply direct grace benefits to you as a motivation to return to fellowship.

d. But when out of fellowship, the giving of thanks is simply religious jargon that means nothing with God unless it leads to the proper repentance, which is a mental attitude adjustment to His standards and policies.

e. In other words, if you recognize God as the source, you will naturally seek to learn His viewpoint. If not, then religion will dominate your soul and lead you to slavery and spiritual frustration.

6. In Christ Jesus: based on your union with Christ - your membership in the body as an adult son.

cf. Rom. 8.28 - to those who are the called.

a. The reality of spiritual life begins at salvation.

The intricate details of God's plan come into play only for the believer.

b. The unbeliever is under the authority and influence of the kosmos (the world system) and reaps consequences accordingly.

c. God's circumstantial provisions for the unbeliever relate only to the divine laws of nature that he has put into operation. (Mt. 4:45 - rain falls on just and unjust) and to the law of prayer as exercised by the believer.

7. The primary application of this passage is to circumstances in life. Your status, contacts, near misses, and your head on collisions - as long as sin is not involved.

8. Secondary application is to the possession of various details of life in general such as food, shelter and drink.

a. All prayer in general should include the recognition of

God as the source of food details. (the example in Christ's model prayer - Mt. 6:11

b. But this is a general attitude of trust and dependence on God rather than a specific prayer at meal time.

c. Not that it is wrong, but it is not mandatory.

d. At best, it is a teaching aid to focus on God's grace.

At worse, it is religious ritual that showcases man.

D. There is no Old Testament scripture that sets precedent for prayer before meals, but much that reflects the general attitude of thanksgiving.

E. And we have the example of Jesus Himself:

1. On two occasions - public:

a. Feeding of the 5000: Mt. 14:19; Jn. 6:9-11; Mk. 6:41; Lk.9:16

b. Feeding of the 4000: Mt. 15:36: Mk. 8:6

c. CF two words - blessing and thanksgiving.

1. eulogeo- pronounce a blessing based on grace provision.

2. eucharisteo - to recognize that it is grace provision.

d. These are special occasions where the verbal blessing serves as a teaching aid that showcases God as the source.

e. Notice that this is not "asking" a blessing, but pronouncing a blessing. Something only Jesus good do.

f. There is good indication that Jesus did not use a verbal prayer at every meal. Jn. 21:12-13; Luke 24:41-43


2. The example of Christ at the institution of the communion.

Mt. 26:26-27; Mk. 14:22-23; Lk. 22:19

a. Again, it is a special occasion where the prayer is a teaching aid to focus attention of God as the source.

b. The incident in Luke Luke 24.30, after Christ's resurrection, is probably the breaking of bread as he did in the communion.

This act was a teaching aid that served as an eye opener for the 2 men and they recognized Him.


F. The example of Paul: Acts 27:35, Used as a teaching aid among many unbelievers to focus attention on the sovereignty and power of God . This was designed to teach creature humility.


G. The principle of mental attitude thanksgiving: Rom. 14:6

1. The one who eats meat gives thanks to God. He recognizes divine provision in the details of life.

2. The one who does not eat meat also gives thanks to God, and also recognizes divine provision.

3. V. 5-9 deals with personal preferences without spiritual undertones.

a. the one who honors one day above another should do so without making it necessary for spirituality.

b. This is acceptable as long as he credits the grace of God for everything he does. "Observes it for the Lord."

4. Let each man be fully convinced in his own mind (nous).

plerophoreo -present passive imperative - be completely dressed

a. Must always apply divine viewpoint to the activity.

b. Thus, he will not force a religious requirement on others or think that he is gaining personal merit by what he does.

c. Divine viewpoint allows for individualized expressions of worship as long as divine policy is not violated.

d. It is the weak believer who thinks of his personal preferences as religious mandates, and shuts himself off from true spiritual blessing (peace and joy) by doing it.


5. One eats and another does not eat, but both do it for the Lord.

a. They do it, not because of religious taboos, but because of personal preference.

b. Both give thanks. eucharisteo - present active indicative

c. And in their grace attitude they seek to promote divine viewpoint in all things.

6. There are 3 perspectives in the chapter:

a. The strong believer with personal preferences in dietary liberty and/or concerning the equality of days.

b. The strong believer with personal preferences in dietary restrictions and/or concerning special days.

c. The weak believer who holds to dietary restrictions and/or puts himself under special days as religious mandates or sources of spiritual merit.


7. But our point is to recognize the principle of giving thanks.

The attitude of seeing God as the source.

a. It is to be a moment by moment attitude in all areas of life.

b. To restrict it to a ritual prayer a at meal time is religious vanity.

c. To express it verbally at meal time is not wrong nor is it required.

d. Negative attitudes destroy true grace orientation - judging, complaints, jealousy, arrogance, insensitivity.

H. This same principle is mentioned in 1 Cor. 10:30.

1. Here the strong believer recognizes his liberty, but also recognizes the laws of expediency, edification and love.

2. He partakes of food that religion puts taboos on and has the attitude of grace orientation - thankfulness.

3. But his attitude is neutralized if he knowingly causes the weak believer to stumble and sin.

4. So the principles of v. 31-32

I. The final authority on the subject is 1 Tim. 4:4-5

1. Everything created by God: pas ktisma - creature reference to edible animals.

2. Is good: kalos - bona fide for eating

3. nothing is to be rejected: apobletos - adj. from apoballo to cast away from self

4. If is is received: present passive participle - lambano- concessive participle

5. with eucharistia: the basic attitude of grace orientation that recognizes God as the source.

6. For: gar - explains how eucharistia is expressed overtly in order to establish the food as acceptable.

7. It is sanctified: hagiadzo - present passive indicative - set apart as bona fide food supply, established as acceptable.

8. by means of: dia + gen = through

9. the word of God: God's revealed viewpoint to man

a. Not reciting the word over food or before a meal.

No scriptural support for such a practice.

b. Must refer to the divine authorization as found in the word.

1. Pre Mosaic law: Gen. 9:3

2. Post Mosaic law: Acts 10:9-16; 1 Tim. 4:3-4;

Acts 15:23-29; Romans 14:2-3

c. There needs to be divine authorization to offset the Mosaic national regulations which had become, in the mind of the Jew, universal spiritual mandates.


10. And by prayer: enteuxis - the word means intercession.

a. The verb carries the idea of making contact with someone for the purpose of conversation and/or fellowship.

b. Thus the noun is an appeal for contact or acceptance.

Therefore, petition or intercession.

c. Normally in the NT, it means to pray for someone who is unable to pray for themselves.

d. Here, it refers to specific prayer that reflects our acceptance of God's authorization for the food we are using.

1. The prayer reflects the attitude of grace orientation that God is the source.

2. but it only really becomes an issue with the food items that fall under religious restrictions.

3. The word reveals the difference between national dietary restrictions for Israel and religious restrictions that are distortions of the national ones.

4. And prayer reveals the believer's acceptance of that difference.


e. Whether this is to be verbal or not, there is no command in scripture. So it is optional.

f. But a conscious recognition of god's provision is indicated by the two words thanksgiving and prayer.

g. And we should apply the principle of using prayer as a teaching aid to showcase God's character and plan in reference to His provisions for our sustenance needs.

J. And so in conclusion:

1. There is no commanded pattern for "grace" before meals.

2. There are many examples, but mostly in public situations that needed a teaching aid to showcase God's character.

3. In application:

a. For children: teaches creature humility and relationship humility.

b. For the unbeliever: teaches creature humility

c. For public assemblies: teaches grace orientation as well as creature humility in general.

d. Out in public in a restaurant:

1. This falls under the principle of Mt. 6:1-8: What is the motivation behind the public prayer?

2. Public prayer for the unbeliever, really only has value if some kind of teaching comes before or after.



A. Romans 8:26-27: The intercessory help of the Spirit - INSERT

B. 1 John 5:14-15 - According to His will

C. Applied to Matthew 21:22. This is the 2nd requirement for successful prayer. It must be done in an attitude of total trust in the character and plan of God. That is, from the perspective of faith-rest living. This requirement is also found at James 1:6-7, "but let him ask in faith without any doubting . . . for let not that man expect to receive anything from the Lord."
All THREE requirements must be present for success in prayer.
1. Must be in fellowship. Psalm 66:18
2. Must pray in faith: Mat. 21:22
3. Must pray in wisdom, according to His will. 1 John 5:14-15

D. Examples of prayer requests:

1. For national leaders: 1 Tim. 2:1-2

2. For communicators: Heb. 13:18; 1 Thes. 5:25

3. For an open door in communication: Acts 4:29; Eph. 6:19,22;

Col. 4:3; 1 Thes. 3:10; 2 Thes. 3:1

4. For one's service: Rom. 15:30-31; 2 Thes. 1:11; Philemon 4-6

5. For deliverance from doctrinal opponents: Rom. 15:30-31;

2 Cor. 1:8-11; 2 Thes. 3:2; Ps. 35:22-26

6. For other believers in general: 2 Cor. 9:14; Jam. 5:16; Eph. 6:18

a. Concerning salvation: Rom. 10:1; 1 Tim. 2:1-2

b. Growth of believers: 2 Cor. 13:9; Eph. 1:16f; Col. 1:9; 4:12;

Phil. 1:9; Eph. 3:14-19

c. For stability and consistency: 2 Cor. 13:7, 9

d. For recovery from spiritual defeat: 1 John 5:16-17

e. The sick: James 5:14-15; 2 Cor. 12:8

7. For wisdom: James 1:5-6

a. Personal growth: Ps. 51:10-13; 139:23-24

b. Protection from temptation: Ps. 36:10-12; 141:1-4

8. Personal needs in general: Heb. 4:16; Phil. 4:6-7; 1 Pet.5:7

9. For business ventures: James 4:13f

10. To see someone: 1 Thes. 3:10b; Rom. 1:9-10; Philemon 22

11. For removal of discipline when back in fellowship:

Psalm 38.1-22; 39:7-13

12. Church leadership is confirmed through public prayer and the authority ritual of laying on hands. Acts 6:6; 13:3; 14:23


"Hear O Lord "- recognizes dependence on the plan and character of God.

A. Must apply the principle of policy obedience.

"The Lord hears the righteous" with Ps. 66:18-20 and Is. 1:15

B. Therefore - The possibility of confidence: Psalm 6:8-9 - based on knowledge and follow through.

C. Examples in Genesis:

1. Gen. 20:7, 17

2. Gen. 24:12-14 with v. 42-45 - Eleazer.

3. Gen. 24:26-27, 48, 52 - thanksgiving.

4. Gen. 25:20-21 - Isaac, for Rebekah to conceive.

5. Gen. 32:9-12 - Jacob concerning fear of Esau.

D. National prayer:

1. Ex. 2:23; 3:7 - Israel in Egypt

2. Judges 3:9,15; 4:3; 6:7; 10:10-16

3. Dan. 9:1-19 - Daniel fulfilling Lev. 26:27-42

4. Ezra 9:5-15 - Ezra, concerning moral condition of the nation.

E. Judges 13:8 - for divine guidance

F. 1 Sam. 1:10,12, 15-16 - Hannah for a son

G. 2 Kings 19:14-20 - Hezekiah, concerning Sennacherib

Is. 38:1-6, Hezekiah's prayer for recovery

H. 2 Chron. 33.10-13 - Mannasseh's prayer of recovery

I. Jer. 29:7 - for the nation where you live

J. Neh. 1:4-11, Nehemiah, for favor from the king

K. Neh. 2:4-5 - guidance

L. Neh. 4:7-9, Military situation

M. Dan. 2:17-23, Request for specific knowledge

N. Dan. 6:3-10, prayer activity in spite of opposition.

O. Jer. 7:16; 11;14; 14:11: amplifies 1 John 5:16

P. Ps. 35:11-16 with Mt.5:44 - Prayers for an enemy

Q. Prayer in Jonah:

1. Jonah fails to pray when tempted: v. 1:1-3 (principle of Mt. 26:41)

2. V.1:12-15 - unbelievers praying that Yahweh not punish them for throwing Jonah overboard.

3. V. 2:1-9 - Jonah, under discipline, gets back in fellowship and reaffirms his dedication to divine policy.

4. V. 4:1-3 - Jonah out of fellowship prays to die (not answered of course)

R. Solomon's prayer at the dedication of the temple: 1 K.8:22-53



A. Prayer is a spiritual gift and I don't have it. Not true.

All believers are priests and have the responsibility for prayer.

B. Prayer is personal and should not be done with other believers.

Answered under group prayer.

C. Prayer is optional as a response to god, so the believer really need not to pray.

Wrong! Prayer is not optional.

It is a commanded procedure for all believers.

D. I don't have time to pray.

Principle: You don't have time not to pray.

If you don't have time then the details of life are enslaving you.

E. I don't know how or what to say.

Principle: Don't be so self-centered - learn truth.

F. I cannot stand to hear a certain person pray. Don't get your eyes on people.

If the prayer you are hearing is not doctrinal, pray your own prayer while the other is praying. Apply the doctrine of prayer conversion. If it is doctrinal, the mentally follow along with the attitude and specifics of the other person's prayer.

G. I never see the results of my prayers. No issue.

God answers according to His standards. Apply he principles of praying according to His will.

H. My mind wanders when others pray. Prayer takes doctrine and the discipline that doctrine produces. Pursue truth and allow the growth process to strengthen your mind.



1. Predestination is the fact that God has determined from eternity past the destiny of every one who believes in Christ. Predestination means that the believer has a part in the pre-designed plan of God.

2. The sovereign thinking of God in eternity past, made a plan for the Lord Jesus Christ. Acts 4:28 (1 Pet. 1:20; Rev. 13:8) (Eph. 1:11, thelāma, then boulā, then prothesis)

3. Christ is the Elect one of God the Father. 1 Pet. 2:5; Is. 42:1 (privilege, rank and function of Messiah)

4. When a person trusts in Christ as his savior, he is put into union with Christ. Based on this position in Christ, that believer shares Christ's election. That is, he shares the predetermined plan of God for the God-man, Jesus Christ. Eph. 1:4-11; 3:6; Rom. 8:17

5. This plan is called the prothesis (purpose) of God. Eph. 1:11; 3:11; 2 Tim. 1:9; Rom. 8:28

6. When the Bible views the believer's position in the plan of God, it sees it as predetermined (Eph. 1:11; Rom. 8:29). The plan was designed beforehand, but the believers entrance into the plan was not pre-designed, it was foreknown.

7. In God's plan, he predetermined the destiny of two classes of people.

A. Those who believe in Christ, share Christ's destiny.
B. Those who reject Christ, do not, but instead share the destiny of Satan. (Matthew 25:41)

8. Then according to his foreknowledge, God sees which of the human race makes which decision toward Christ. On this basis, God enters the believer into his plan even before that believer is born.

A. Again, the plan is predetermined, and the basis for entering the plan is predetermined, but the actual entering into the plan is based on each person's decision to accept or reject Christ.

B. But since that decision is foreknown by God, He can view the believer as in his plan from the inception of that Plan in the mind of God - or eternity past, "before the foundation of the world." Rom. 8:29; 2 Tim. 1:9; Eph. 1:4-5; 2:8-9; Jn. 3:18 (judged already);

9. This predetermined plan is summed up by the concept of being conformed to the image of His son. Rom. 8:29

A. salvation conformity is positional perfection.
B. experiential conformity is spiritual growth. Christ formed in you. Romans 13:14; Gal. 4:19
C. Ultimate conformity is resurrection body. Phil. 3:21

10. Adoption is part of the predetermined plan. Eph. 1:5

11. And of course, it is related to the believers eternal inheritance. Eph. 1:11

12. From God's predetermined plan comes the election of the church.

Rom. 8:3O (called); 1 Pet. 1:1-2;
Eph. 1:4-5, "Chose us IN HIM before the foundation of the world. . . having predestined us to the adoption of sons."

13. Predestination is related to the nation of Israel as God's chosen people. Rom. 11:2

14. Application of predestination to the life of the believer.

A. Eternal security. Predestination takes our decision to accept Christ in time and relates it permanently to the sovereign plan of God in providing eternal life for mankind.

1. Our decision is finite, but not alterable, because that decision was foreknown by God and accordingly we were given a permanent place in God's eternal life plan.

2. Predestination says that God in his sovereignty made a plan and decreed that when a person trusts in Christ, he is placed in that plan. The plan is then sealed, or rather that decision is sealed, by God's sovereignty.

3. Nobody nor nothing can change that plan. (Rom. 8:38-39)

B. experience: God has a plan for my life in time (here on earth).

1. When I entered God's plan of Eternal life, I also entered a specific way of life for here on earth which is designed to bring honor and glory to the plan and character of God.

a. spiritual gift: Divine ability; Divine know-how.
b. Indwelling and filling of the Holy Spirit: Divine enablement, fulfillment of the ability.
1 Cor. 6:19-20; Acts 1:8; Gal. 5:22-23

2. Along with this is God's design for me to be happy in this life. Stabilized, content and satisfied. Jn. 17:13

3. Rom. 8:28: In spite of my failures and sins, God's plan for me remains the same. And he takes everything in my life and in the end works it all out for benefit as I trust in him and live according to his standards.
Romans 8:28 is only operational when the believer is in fellowship with God, walking according to His revealed truth and expressing a functional LOVE for God.

4. God's will for the believer in principles

a. Directive will of God for the believer:

1. operational will
2. viewpoint will
3. geographical will

b. Permissive will of God for the believer.
c. Overruling will of God for the believer.

15. For more details see the section on Volitional Theology.



1. What happens at night: Ec. 2:23, the heart does not rest, lie down.

A. The heart works overtime to highlight and intensify the pressures of life.
B. For the spiritual rebel, there is no solution, so that it all seems to be vanity.
C. But for The trusting believer there is the absolute reality of the character and plan of God.

2. God's grace provision (chesed):

A. Ps. 42:8 - chesed in the day time, doctrinal comfort at night.
B. Job 35:10-look to God who gives songs in the night (comfort from knowledge of Bible truth)
C. Psalm 23, Yahweh, my shield.

3. Therefore there is potential for confidence in the pressure.

A. Psalm 4:8 - lie down in peace.
B. Psalm 119:148 - no fear of nighttime solitude

4. There are always two choices in the pressure:

A. Principle: PS. 56
B. Ps. 6:6-7 - negative reaction
C. Ps. 63:6-8 - positive response.

5. Process of meditation from the negative to the positive. Ps. 77:1-15

6. Job's negative reaction: Job 30:16-23; 7:1-6

7. Examples of positive response:

A. Psalm 16:7-8
B. Psalm 119:55
C. Acts 16:19-25

8. Divine protection during sleep: Pr. 3:24, 6:22, 19:23



1. What is pride?

A. Pride as a natural soul attitude was originally designed to express total confidence in the character and plan of

B. Then through the sin nature distortion, the soul turned inward
and became the channel of independence from God and confidence in self.
Principle of Ec. 7:29

C. Independence from God is rejection of His viewpoint and authority.

D. Confidence in self is expressed by conceit and arrogance.

1. Conceit is thinking that you are totally self-sufficient and self-accomplished.

2. Arrogance is that self-sufficiency expressed in negative attitudes and actions toward others.

3. In other words, conceit is simply "operation brag," (Prov. 25:24; 27:2).

4. Arrogance is an intense, emphatic contention followed up by a physical aggressiveness. Proverbs 21:24

E. Proverbs 30:11-14, the process of arrogance that begins in childhood.

F. Thus pride is self deception which can be designated as blind arrogance.
(tuphoo - 3 times)

1. Tuphoo means to raise a smoke or emit smoke, thus producing a blindness so you can not see around you. This translates into self-delusion.

2. It is directly related to pride and therefore the term, "blind arrogance."

1 Timothy 3:6, lest he become arrogantly deluded
1 Timothy 6:4, he is arrogantly deluded
2 Timothy 3:4, having become arrogantly deluded

2. Recognize three sources of pride.

A. Satan's original sin: Ezek. 28;11-17; Job 41:34; Is. 14:13-14

B. The world system under Satan's authority and influence (1 John 5:19).
1 John 2:15-16

C. Man's sin nature: Mark 7:21-23, pride (huperāphania)

3. General indictment on independence from God.

A. Perversion, Isaiah 29:15-16; 45:9-10

B. Heart is not right within him, Habakkuk 2:4

C. Called senseless and stupid, Psalm 94:8-11

D. Under delusion, Jer. 49:16

E. Obadiah 3, Self deception, Gal. 6:3; Pr. 30:12; Rev. 3:17-18


4. Then there is the logical, Divine opposition to pride.

A. Attitude: Prov. 6:16-17; 16:5a; Job 37;24

B. Divine opposition: James 4:6; 1 Pet. 5:5

C. Action: Ps. 31:23

1. To angels: Ezek. 28;18-19; Mat. 25:41; Is. 24:21a; Rev. 20:10

2. Persons: Ps. 73:3, 15-20

3. Nations: Five cycles of discipline - Jer. 18:6-10

4. The world: 2nd Advent, Is. 2:12-17; 13:11; 24:21b; Ps. 2:1-9

5. Eternal: Philip. 2:9-11; Rev. 20:15; 1 Cor. 15:24-28


5. Pride keeps us from fellowship with God.

A. Isaiah 59:1-8

1. Pride is the attitude of independence from God
2. Sins are various expressions of that pride.

B. Psalm 138:6, God knows the proud from a distance.

C. Isaiah 1:10-15, God does not respond to the plea of the proud (Ps. 66:18).

D. Psalm 10:4, pride keeps one away from genuinely seeking God.

E. Jer. 13:15-17, Pride keeps one from responding to Divine warnings.


6. Therefore, the general warning. 1 Samuel 2:3

A. James 4:5-10

B. 1 Peter 5:5-7

C. 1 Cor. 10:12


7. Characteristics of the arrogant.

A. Under self-deception: Obadiah 3; Gal 6:3; Rev. 3:17-18

B. Their pride is their only guide through life. Prov. 21:4

C. Their way of life is rebellious and oppressive. Ps. 94:3-7

D. Persecute the poor. Psalm 10:4

E. Jealousy and strife. James 3:13-18; Pr. 13:10; 28:25

F. Psalm 73:6-9

1. violence

2. corrupt

3. rejection of divine sovereignty

4. lays claim to human sovereignty

8. Characteristics that may produce arrogance.

A. prosperity: Hos.13:6; 2 Ch. 26:16; Ps. 73:5-9

B. Knowledge: 1 Cor. 8.1

C. Responsibility: 1 Tim. 3.6; 1 Pet. 5.3

D. Types of arrogance:

1. religious: Lk. 18.9-12; Rm. 2.17-29; Jn. 9.34

2. racial: Jn. 8.33; 4.7-9; Acts 10.28

3. physical: 1 Sam. 17.4-10; 16:1-7

4. Age: Jn. 8.57; 1 Tim. 4.12; Job 32:6-8

5. Academic: John 7:15

6. Social: Mat. 9:10-11; Luke 15:1-2

7. Sexual: 2 Sam. 11:2-4; 13:1-17; Gen. 34:1-4

8. Gender: John 11:27

9. Moral: Luke 18:11

10. Political: 1 Kings 12:1-15


9. Arrogance in rejecting Divine policy.

A. Salvation: Rom. 10.1-4

B. Fellowship: Gal. 3:1-3; 5:1-9

C. Growth: 2 Tim. 4.3-4; 1 Thes. 4.8

D. Prayer: Mat. 6.7

E. Service: Jn. 16.2; Jas. 4.13-17

10. Consequences from arrogance:

A. Separation from God as at point 5.

B. Stirs up strife: Pr. 28.25

C. Blinds to other sins: Pr. 14.16

D. Leads to soul neutralization: Pr. 18.12

E. Eventually - humiliates you - in time and/or in eternity:

1. Pr. 11.2; 16.18;

2. Believer: 1 Jn. 2.28-29

3. Unbeliever in eternity: Is. 66.24

11. Protection and solution is Bible Truth: Job 33.17; Pr. 16.6a

A. Fear of the Lord: Pr. 16.6b

B. Dependence upon God - grace prayer. Ps. 36.11

C. Pr. 8.13 - genuine trust in God does not involve arrogance either in attitude, action or speech.


12. Illustration from Israel

A. Deut. 8:11-14, 16-18; Ezek. 16.1-34

B. Northern Kingdom: Isaiah 28.1; Hosea 4.1-10

C. Southern Kingdom: Isaiah 30.1-2, 8-11; 32.9-14; Ezk. 33.23-29


13. Illustrations from other nations

A. Babylon: Is. 47.8-11

B. Moab: Jer. 48.28-33, 40-44; Ezk. 25.8-11

C. Ammon: Jer. 49.2-5; Ezk. 25.1-1

D. Edom: Jer. 49.14-20; Ezk. 25.12-14; 35.1-14

E. Philistia: Ezk. 25.15-17

F. Tyre: Ezk. 26.1-3; 27.1-3

G. Egypt: Ezk. 29.1-9

H. Assyria: Ezk. 31.2-11


14. Illustrations from individuals

A. Hezekiah: 2 Chron. 32.24-26

B. Nebuchadnezzar: Dan. 4:37; 5:17-23

C. King of Tyre: Ezk. 28:1-10

15. Standards for humble thinking:

A. Rom. 12.3

B. 1 Cor. 4.6

C. Jer. 9:23-24

D. Pr. 27.2

E. Rom. 13.8

F. Rom. 15.2

G. 1 Cor. 10.11-12; Gal. 5.7-8

H. 1 Cor. 14.37

I. Rom. 14.7-8 with Jas. 4.13-15

J. 1 Peter 2.16

K. 2 Peter 1.2-4

L. Philip. 2:3


PRIORITIES: The Divine Priority

1. Definition: The Divine Priority is the fact that as God's creatures we are under a mandate to relate to Him on His terms as the most important issue in the universe.

2. Statement of the Divine Priority Ec. 12:13; Micah 6:8; Deut. 6:4-5

3. The basis for the Divine Priority:

A. He is the Creator: Acts 17:24-31
B. He is our Owner: 1 Cor. 6:19-20; Rom. 14:7-9

4. Statement of Divine Provision: Lamentations 3:22-23
This is the attraction of the Divine Priority. Jn. 14:27; Jer. 17:7-8

5. Therefore, the statement of the believers orientation and adjustment to the Divine Priority.
Lam. 3:24-26; Psalm 73:25-26

6. Adjustment to the Divine Priority requires a basic orientation to the character and plan of God. Prov. 18:10; Deut. 32:4

A. Sovereignty: Ps. 103:19; 115:3; 135:6; Dan.4:35 I Chron. 29:11-13
B. Righteousness and justice: Ps. 145.17; Jer. 9:24.
C. Omniscience and omnipresence: 2 Chron. 16:9; Ps. 33:18; Mt. 6:8, 32; Josh. 1:9
D. Eternal existence: Deut. 33:27
E. Omnipotence: Jer. 32:17, 27; Eph.3:20; 2 Cor. 9:8; 2 Pet. 1:3-4
F. Truth: Num. 23:19; Titus 1:2:
G. Unchanging: James 1:17; Mal. 3:6 Therefore God is faithful, Lamentations 3:23

7. The Divine priority holds a constant day by day demand on our life that requires that we live every day as a life in itself.

A. Lam. 3:23
B. Ps. 90:7-12
C. Prov. 27:1; Mat. 6:34
D. Psalm 31:14-15a
E. Ephesians 5;16
F. Hebrews 3:13

8. That demand on our life is fulfilled through a daily occupation with the revelation of God.

A. There are three aspects to God's revelation.

1. The physical universe: Psalm 19;1-6; Psalm 119:89-91; Rom. 1:19-20
2. Written in the Bible: Ps 19:7-9; 2 Tim. 3:16-17; 1 Cor. 2.16
3. The experiential ministry of God in our life.
Psalm 19:10-11; Rom. 8:17; Gal. 5:22-23

B. The written revelation is the most important provision the believer has in this life. Deut. 32:47; Prov. 4:13; 3:13-15; Job 23:12; Ps. 119:127; 2 Pet. 1:3-4

C. That value demands that we give it daily attention: Deut. 11:18-20; Josh. 1:8; Ps. 1:2; Prov. 6:20-23; 8:32-36

D. Accordingly, that's the basis for increased confidence, stability and production. That is, consistency in occupation with the character of God and adherence to the Divine Priority.
Ps. 119:9-11; Jas. 1:21-25; 2 Tim. 3:16-17; Prov. 4:4-9; 2 Cor. 3:18; Col. 1:9-12

9. The outline of the Divine Priority:

A. Son ship: salvation-relationship Jn. 3:16-17; 1:12-13; 2 Pet. 3:9
B. Priesthood: function-experience

1. fellowship: 1 Jn. 1:3; Eph. 5:18-20
2. Growth: 1 Pet. 2:1-3; 2 Pet. 3:18; 2 Cor. 3:18
3. Imitation: 1 Pet. 1:14-16; Eph. 5:1-2, 7-8
4. Service: Eph. 2:10; 1 Pet. 4:10-11; 3:15; 2:9

C. The power to fulfill the Divine Priority: Acts 1:8; 2 Cor. 4:7; Phil. 4:13; Rom. 8:8 + Gal. 5:16-17

D. The ultimate purpose: Glorification of the character and plan of God
Eph. 3:8-11; 3:21; 1 Pet. 2:9


A. selfishness: Rom. 15:1-7; Acts 20:35; Rom. 12:10 Phil. 2:3-8; 1 Cor. 2:1-5; 9:19-27; 10:31-33

B. finances: Jas. 4:13-17; 1 Tim. 6:9-10

C. family: Mt. 10:34-39; Lk. 9:57-62; 1 Cor. 7:3-6

D. daily details: food, clothing health, etc. Mt. 6:24-34; Mk. 8:14-24; Lk. 10:38-42; Jn. 4:31-38 Heb.13:5-6; Phil. 4:10-13; Rom. 14:17; Mt. 4:4

E. Government and religious opposition: Dan. 6:10; Acts 4:13-20; Jn. 12:35-43; Hos. 6:6

F. Profession: Heb. 11:24-27

G. Human prejudice and human celebrity-ship:
Jonah 1:1-3; 3:1-5, 10; 4:1-4; 9-11;1 Cor. 1:11-13; 3:1-9 ; Gal. 2:11-13

H. Misdirected zeal: Lk. 11:27-28; Jn. 12:7-8; Rom. 10:1-3

I. False doctrine: Acts 20:25-32; Gal. 1:6-9; 3:1-5; 5:2-10;
Col. 2:8, 16-23; 1 Tim. 4:1-3; 2 Pet. 3:14-18; Rom. 16:17-18

J. Immorality: 1 Thes. 4:1-8; 1 Cor. 7:1-5; 1 Kings 11:1-10 Many passages in Proverbs

K. Undeserved suffering: 2 Cor. 4:1-2; 8-18;1 Pet. 2:19-25; 3:13-17


1. The law of procreation was designed by God. Gen. 1.27-28

A. The system was put into place when God created male and female.

Gen. 1.27-28

B. It did not function until after the fall of man.

C. But because of the fall the system came under a curse.

1. the pain in childbirth: Gen. 3.16

2. The general curse on creation: Rom. 8.20-21 - the law of entropy.

2. God's control of conception:

A. Gen. 29.31; 30.2, 22; Ruth 4.13; 1 Sam. 1.6

B. Divine power: Luke 1.36-37; Rom. 4.18-21


3. God forms the fetus:

A. Divine foreknowledge: Ps. 139.15-16; Jer. 1.5

B. God administrates the physical law. Ps. 139.13-14

1. Psalm 139.13

a. form: qAnAh - inner organs (kilyAh)

b. weave: sAkak -at Job 10.11 it involves bones and tendons.

2. Job 10.8-10

a. Fashioned: yAtsar

b. made: AsAh

c. V. 9 - AsAh - as clay: speaks of artistic design

d. V. 10-11 - 3 factors

1. pour out like milk ---: speaks of a process

2. clothe with skin and flesh

3. knit with bones and tendons

3. Job 31.15 -

a. AsAh - making the body

b. kun - establishing it with physical life in the womb

4. Job 33.4

a. The Spirit of God made me: AsAh, reference to physical body in womb.

b. give me life: refers to soul life at physical birth.

5. Psalm 119.73 - AsAh + kun = same as Job 31.15


4. God administrates birth:

A. Ps. 22.9 - God brings forth from the womb (Ps. 71.6)

B. God gives the human spirit: Ec. 12.7 with Heb. 12.9b

C. The neshAmAh of God gives life: Job 33.4b

D. We are the offspring of God: Acts 17.28-29

E. Ps. 127.3 - Children are the gift of God.

5. Orientation to birth defects:

A. The curse on the physical laws: Rom. 8.20-21

2nd law of thermo dynamics observes that there is an innate tendency towards decay and disorder in the universe.

B. Thus, mutations (birth defects) will occur.

1. Usually because of a negative factor related to the developing fetus. (heredity, interbreeding, sickness, chemicals, drugs)

2. These mutations are permitted by God because of the curse.

3. But it is not because of anyone's personal sins. Jn. 9.3a

4. Birth defects, as with any crisis, are always an opportunity for God to demonstrate His own essence. Rom. 8.28

a. There are certain occasions where the birth defect is allowed to bring specific and dramatic attention to God's sovereignty and power. Jn. 9.3b

b. But not everyone is healed:

1. Acts 3.1-6 - Jesus was here many times

2. Many people at Bethesda - only one healed. Jn. 5.2-9

c. Therefore most birth defects and diseases are allowed as natural evidence of the curse and the overall depravity of mankind.

C. Medical science and birth defects:

1. God has given man the ability to decrease suffering in the world through harnessing the laws of science.

2. Medical science can discover the presence of curse-mutations in the womb.

3. And the same science has the ability to decrease suffering by terminating the fetus through abortion.

4. This indeed decreases suffering for both the parents as well as the mutated physical body were it to be born and given a soul.

5. But it does not remove the natural evidence of the curse which points us back to man's original failure in God's plan.

6. Nor does it usurp God's authority for we are using God-given scientific resources to live within the sphere of the curse.

7. And furthermore, in the context of our use of medical science, God could heal the mutation in the womb, and thus encourage the parents to make the birth decision.

8. Parents should not be pressured into allowing a mutated fetus to be born through religious emotionalism, subjectivity and disorientation.

9. Abortion is not killing. It does not cause the separation of a soul from a body because the soul is given at birth.

10. Abortion in the above context is both sensible and spiritual in that it promotes the wisdom of the creator and allows the believer to function in a limited capacity, above the physical curse.

11. The only other reason for allowing abortion is for the health of the mother.

12. Abortion for birth control purposes is creature arrogance and denies the authority of God.

13. Abortion in cases of rape and incest also rebels against God's authority and should not be allowed unless for the health reasons already discussed.


Pronunciation Guide:

My intent is to provide a "sound" guide, not a direct transliteration of the letters and vowels.

Hebrew: For the Old Testament words

Consonants: For the purpose of transliteration, the aleph, which carries the sound of the vowel connected with it, will be indicated by a
’ (or '), as in aleph. And the ayin, which also carries the sound of the vowel connected with it, will be indicated by a ` in front; as in `ayin.
(At the present time, this transliteration device has not been incorporated in most places)


A = "a" as in father and vocalizes the Hebrew vowel sign, QAmets.

ā = the long "a" sound as in gate and vocalizes the vowel sign, sere.

a = the short "a" sound as in fat and vocalizes the vowel sign, pattach.

e = the short "e" sound as in set and vocalizes the vowel sign, segol.

ō = the long "o" sound, as in note, and vocalizes the sign, cholem. The o is usually LONG in Hebrew, but there is a short "o" sound, as in gone, which will be indicated by "o".

i = the short "i" sound or a long "i" sound when coupled with a "y."

u = long "u" as the u is always pronounced long.

Greek: For the New Testament words

a = "a" as in father and vocalizes the letter, "alpha."

ā =  a long "a" sound and vocalizes the letter, "eta."

e = short "e" and vocalizes the letter, "epsilon."

o = short "o" and vocalizes the letter, "omicron."

ō = a long "o" sound and vocalizes the letter, "omega."

u = a long "u" sound and vocalizes the letter, "upsilon."

i = a short i sound (as in pit) and vocalizes the letter, "iota."
When the iota is the final letter in a word, it sounds closer to a long "e."

Vowel combinations as "one" sound: diphthongs

ai = long "i"

au = "ow"

ei = long "a" (or long "i") - BUT one or the other, not both.
I pronounce it as a long "a."

oi = "oi" as in oil

ou = long "u" sound as in flute.

eu = "u" sound as in feud.

āu (or AU) is a diphthong that combines the eta and the upsilon sounds which are
     pronounced very rapidly together.

ui = kind of like a "wee" sound.

Return to Letter category of your choice:



1. Propitiation means that God is satisfied concerning violations of His righteousness (sins) because His justice has administered a proper penalty.

2. It begins by understanding the Ark of the Covenant of the Levitical law. Exodus 25:10-22

A. V. 10 - It was a box made from acacia wood (45x27x27 inches).

B. V. 11 - Overlaid with gold.

C. Wood speaks of humanity and gold speaks of deity. Together-represents the hypostatic union of Jn. 1:14. (God and man united together)

D. V. 17-21 - mercy seat made of solid gold with two cherubs on either side.

Wings cover the mercy seat to picture observation.

E. The two cherubs represent God's character of righteousness and justice observing the sacrifice of sprinkled blood and being satisfied.

F. Inside the ark: Heb. 9:4

1. pot of manna: represents the sin of faithlessness (no trust)

2. Aaron's rod which budded: represents the sin of rebellion

3. Broken tables of the commandments: represents sin of disobedience

4. In the ark: represents the savior bearing sins in his own body on the cross. 1 Peter 2:24

G. Day of atonement: Leviticus 16:11-15; Heb. 9:7 - once a year to symbolize salvation relationship.

1. the blood represents the spiritual death of the future savior.

2. sprinkled on the mercy seat represents payment for sin.

3. God's Righteousness and justice are satisfied and the people of the nation are reconciled to God for another year.

4. Symbolism taught at Heb. 9:8-10

4. Propitiation results from the love of God initiating the plan of salvation in the person of Christ. 1 Jn. 4:10

A. Sacrifice: Christ gave Himself for us, Titus 2:14

A. Universal payment for sin: 1 Tim. 2:6 - ransom for all which accomplishes an
unlimited atonement.

B. 1 Jn. 2:2 - satisfaction concerning the whole world

5. Christ then is the fulfillment of this Day of atonement symbolism. Heb. 9:11-14

6. Accordingly, He is publicly displayed as a mercy seat of satisfaction. Rom. 3:24-25

7. The symbolic indication of propitiation in the Old Testament was the smoke of the burnt offering.

A. soothing aroma 43 times: Lit: an odor of soothing

1. odor: reyach (construct form) odor of

2. soothing: niychoach, quieting, tranquilizing, appeasing, from verb, nuach = to rest

B. First occurrence: Gen. 8:21

C. The Levitical code: Lev. 1:9, 13; 2:2, 9, etc.

D. Always associated with the burnt offering - the offering by fire.

E. The symbolism is established based on -

1. the meaning of the word - niychoach

2. Ezek 20:41 - the acceptance issue

3. figurative use at Phil. 4:18 - osmā euōdia - odor of fragrance indicates acceptance.

F. The symbol is used of Christ's sacrifice at Eph. 5:2

8. Because God is satisfied with Christ's sacrifice, He is able to accomplish the whole salvation package.

Atonement, propitiation, (man's faith-trust must occur here) redemption, regeneration, justification and then, reconciliation

9. But in order for a person to actually benefit from God's salvation provision, he must accept it by total trust in the person and work of Jesus Christ. Jn. 3:16; Rom. 5:1;


THE PROVOCATION: The Trials in the Wilderness

1. From the word parapikrasmos: an act that incites someone to displeasure and anger

2. It refers to a 40 year period when the New nation of Israel continually incited God to Divine anger through rejection of truth.

3. The focal point of the provocation is the first year of the Exodus.
The ten tests of Numbers 14:20-24

4. The example of the Exodus generation is a key factor in fulfilling priesthood and partaking of the abundant life through faith rest.

A. negative example: 1 Cor. 10:6, 11-12
B. positive example: Rom. 15:4

5. Principle behind faith rest is dedication.

A. salvation: where it begins - Jn. 3:19-21; Acts 26:18
B. value system: details versus truth - Mt. 6:19-25
C. ambassadorship: Rom. 14:7-8; 1 Cor. 10:31-33

6. The principle of testing:

A. Testing is no issue until you have made a decision to follow Christ.
B. The first test the believer encounters deals with the priority of The Word. Mt. 4:3-4; Jn. 8:30-32
C. And ultimately, all testing is designed to teach the value of the Word and then evaluate the believer's attitude to it. Deut. 8:1-3; 2 Ch. 32:31

D. So then the purpose of testing is to cultivate dedication to Divine design and allow it to manifest itself in every area of life whether during times of prosperity or adversity. Jas. 1:2-4; 1 Pet. 1:6-7 Deut. 8:16

E. Only a consistent intake of Divine truth will perpetuate the dedication attitude and provide success in Faith rest.
Heb. 4:1-3; 1 Pet. 1:13

7. The failure of the Exodus generation: Num. 14:20-24

A. God tests them about 20 times over a period of 40 years.
B. All the tests are designed to teach the all-sufficiency of of God's grace.
C. Every time God establishes the value of His provisions, they reject it and embrace some aspect of kosmic (world) viewpoint.

D. Each of the ten tests during that first year were turned around and became a test to God by the people.
E. Testing Cod is rejecting faith rest activity and asking in arrogance, the question, "What can God do for me now?"
F. The failure in these tests simply demonstrates that they do not have the desire to advance in spiritual life.
They want material prosperity above all else.

G. Therefore they are unable to fulfill the Priestly commission of Ex. 19:5-6 and God removes them from responsibility through discipline. They die in the wilderness and do not see the land.

8. The results of the ten tests indicate That these people want the benefits of grace but not the responsibility.

A. They love what God offers them and what he can do for them but they do not love God or His policies.
B. They want a life without complications and answers to all their problems, but not a life of spiritual commitment.
C. It is because of their choice to reject a life of faith that they have no capacity to relate to spiritual value.
Truth has no meaning to them.
Physical reality is all they understand.

D. Each test dealt with a detail of life pressure vs. the reality of God's perfect plan and provision.
E. And each time their choice was physical comfort and pleasure rather than spiritual value.

1. perception:
2. response:
3. status: content deficiency and alienation
4. result: removal from priestly function

a. experientially: warning and intense Div. discipline.
b. physically: through final discipline, death.

9. The example of the provocation indicates that we all as believers face the very same issues in our Christian life on a daily basis. Hebrews 3:7-15



©Ron Wallace, Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


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