These outlines are intended as "teaching guides" to the study of any particular topic. The outlines may leave many unanswered questions as to details since those details would be answered in the process of teaching from the scripture references provided. In addition, there may be vocabulary references and subject references that are unfamiliar. Hopefully before too long, all the necessary topics will be available to provide a balanced and complete theology.

Pronunciation guide

GREEK: Verbal Orientation

Hebrew Verbal Orientation

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JACOB’S TROUBLE: Jeremiah 30

JAMES: The Brother of Jesus

JealousyPt1: audio
JealousyPt2: audio

JEHOVAH: (Yahweh, LORD) Technical Background

JEPHTHAH'S VOW (Judges 11:29-40)

JERUSALEM: Daughter of Zion

JERUSALEM: Escape in 68-70 AD

Jerusalem council: Summary



Jewish bondservants: The 144,000 bond servants of God
The 144k as evangelists


JOHN: The Disciple

JOSEPH: The Husband of Mary

JOY: See happiness


JUDE: The Brother of Jesus

Judges of Israel as God: Psalm 82


JUDGING: General Principles

JUDGMENT: Freedom From Judgment

JUDGMENT: last judgment at great white throne

JUDGMENT: Lake of Fire



JAMES: The Brother of Jesus

1. James was the half-brother of Jesus: Mat. 13:55; Mark 6:3

2. He was the writer of the book of James (c. 45 AD) James 1:1.

3. He was probably married. 1 Cor. 9:5

4. During the ministry of Christ, James, as well as the other family members were not believers. John 7:1-5.

5. At the beginning of Christ's ministry, they associated with Him. John 2:12

A. Probably because of family ties.
B. And because they were impressed with His miracles.

6. But they did not accept Him as the Messiah and soon stopped being with Him. Probably based on principles similar to those found at John 6:66.

7. They sought to "shut him down" once, thinking that He was insane (Mark 3:21).

A. They thought to gain access to Him because of family ties. Mark 3:31-32
B. But He shut them down by pointing out the issue of "true" family ties. Ie, the learning and doing of the will of God. Mark. 3:33-34

8. If James was present at the crucifixion, we have no knowledge of it. However, the brothers were still unbelievers at this time as is indicated by the assignment of custodial care of Mary to John the disciple.
John 19:26-27.

9. After the resurrection, Christ's brothers re-examined the facts and became believers. We know this because they are at the upper room in Acts 1:14.

10. James thus became closely associated with the Jerusalem church and in fact became the leader of the church there after James the disciple was martyred in 44 AD. (Acts 12:17; 15:13; 21:18; Gal. 1:19; 2:2, 9-12)

A. He probably had the spiritual gift of prophet. (There were only 12 apostles. Rev. 12:14).
B. Influence because he was the Lord's brother.
C. Influence because of a very strong personality.
D. Influence from his close association with the apostles.
E. Even though he and others for that matter are spoken of as "apostles," (Gal. 1:19) the reason is because they "functioned" in a leadership role under the guidance of the real apostles and in close association with them.
F. There were only 12 apostles; the 11 disciples and Paul.
    See Topic: APOSTLES

11. He wrote the book of James in about 45 AD, shortly after assuming leadership of the church in Jerusalem and it is considered to be our first Christian letter. The subject of the letter is growth and application of truth into your life in order to experience the abundant life of peace and joy.

12. Sometime after writing the book of James and before the Jerusalem Counsel in 53 AD, James got caught up in Mosaic legalism and in his place of authority, greatly influenced the Jerusalem church, the church at Antioch and several apostles as well such as Peter. Acts 15:1-2, 5-6; Gal. 2:4, 11-16.

13. Mosaic legalism and this initial attack on the church was partially resolved by the Jerusalem counsel. Acts 15:6-21.

14. But sometime shortly after that, James reverted to his legalism and even influenced Paul to perform a legalistic vow in Jerusalem in 58 AD.
See topic: Paul's sins

15. After this incident, the Bible never mentions James again. Tradition indicates that he died 4 years later in 62 AD.

16. Application from the life of James:

A. The dangers of human celebrity-ship. (the influence of James)
B. The process and tragedy of legalism in the life of a believer.
C. The principle of good and bad influence from friends.



1. Jealousy originally was one of the 7 Divine viewpoint attitudes God designed for the human soul.

(Respect, love, pride, ambition, hatred, jealousy and anger)

A. Jealousy was the attitude of protectiveness and zeal for the promotion of Divine viewpoint in man's environment.

B. But through the distortion of the sin nature (OSN), this protectiveness and zeal was re-directed to self and the promotion of self.

C. Thus, jealousy emanates from the sin nature. Gal. 5.21; Mk. 7.22

D. And is evidence of OSN control. 1 Cor. 3.1-3

E. Jealousy is a characteristic of the unbeliever lifestyle. Titus 3.3; Rm.1.29

2. Jealousy is not consistent with light viewpoint. Romans 13.13

3. Jealousy is not consistent with the humility of wisdom. James 3.14

4. The intensity of jealousy:

A. Proverbs 27.4

B. Proverbs 6.34

C. Song of Sol. 8.6

D. James 4.2

5. Personal consequences:

A. Hinders growth: 1 Pet. 2.1-2

B. Soul damage: Proverbs 14.30

C. Puts you into the chain of attitudes and actions which can change your life forever.

6. Social consequences: James 3.16

7. Jealousy instigates violence:

A. Cain: Gen. 4

B. Joseph's brothers: Gen. 37.4-11; Acts 7.9

C. Saul: 1 Sam. 18.8-9, 29; 20.31

D. Haman: Esther 5.9-14

8. Jealousy can provide a false motivation for religious activity.

A. Philippians 1.15

B. Galatians 4.17

C. Persecution: Phil. 3.6; Acts 17.1-5

D. Against Jesus at the cross: Mt. 27.18; Mk. 15.10

9. Religious zeal:

A. Romans 10.2 - zālos

B. elicits false teaching: Acts 13.45

C. 1 Tim. 6.4 - emphasis on religious academics can cause jealousy.

10. Warnings against jealousy:

A. Proverbs 3.31-35

B. Proverbs 24.19-20

C. Proverbs 23.17-19

D. Psalm 37.1-11, 35-40

11. Successfully dealing with jealousy.

A. Prevention: cultivate love - 1 Cor. 13.4

B. Cultivate humility via fear of the Lord. Proverbs 23.17

C. Asaph's testimony: Psalm 73.1-24

D. Hannah's trial: 1 Samuel 1-2


JEHOVAH: (LORD, Yahweh) Technical Background

1. YHWH occurs 6823 times in the OT and is usually translated as The LORD, with LORD in all capital letters.

2. That is to distinguish it from the word adon and adonay (plural) which means sir, master, lord, one in authority.

3. This is the "personal" name of God - and the only one He has. All the other designations are TITLES.

4. The definite article (the) NEVER occurs with this name and should never be translated with it. In the same way that we do not say, the Michelle, or the Ron, so we should not say, the Yahweh. (However, in the Greek, they do employ the definite article with personal names.)

5. After the Babylonian captivity, (605-536 BC) a verbal tradition developed among the Jews to pronounce the name YHWH as adonay instead of speaking the name.

6. They misapplied the principle of Ex. 20:7 and Lev. 24:16.

A. Because they did not want to violate this commandment, they decided that is was improper to EVER say the personal name of God.

B. Thus, they devised a system to avoid reading it in their scriptures. They would say adonay instead of YHWH.

7. This tradition was perpetuated into the LXX (septuagint - Greek translation of the OT made in the 3rd century BC) and was therefore rendered with the Greek word kurios - lord.

8. In the 6th and 7th centuries AD, the Masoretes developed the system for vowel sounds called vowel points. (prior to this the Hebrew language was all consonants and the vowel sounds were preserved through an oral tradition.

9. In order to preserve the verbal tradition of not pronouncing the personal name of God (YHWH), they placed the vowel points from adonay (lord) on the consonants YHWH in such a way that it could not be pronounced when found in written form.

10.This then prompted the reader to say adonay instead of YHWH when they came across the name of God.

11.Christian scholars have consistently perpetuated the tradition in English translations by not translating YHWH as a personal name, but instead translating it as The LORD.

12.But they have been consistent in rendering YHWH as LORD in all capitals to distinguish it from adonay - lord.

13.Furthermore, sometimes the scripture refers to YHWH as adonay, in which case we would find, "the Lord YHWH."

A. In such cases, the translation, Lord LORD would be awkward to say the least. In these cases most English translations have rendered it as Lord GOD.

B. GOD in all capitals, to inform us that it is really YHWH instead of the Hebrew word for God based on the root el (eloah, elohiym, el).

14.There is also a shortened form of YHWH in the OT which is rendered as Yah, and refers to the same personal name of God. This shortened form helps us determine what was the original pronunciation of YHWH as we study the grammatical background.

A. Based on Exodus 3.14-15, it can be traced back to the "to be" verb, hawah (archaic form) or hayah

B. I am that I am: is a 1st person singular form which looks like this, ehyeh. This of course refers to God's personal revelation concerning His absolute existence.

C. God reveals Himself in this way to confirm the name that had been used of Him from the beginning all through Genesis.

D. From the first person form, the logical change to the 3rd person form relates God as "the one who is" - ie, the absolute and unchanging one.

E. At v. 15, this change is made and YHWH says to Moses, Thus you shall say to the sons of Israel, The LORD, the God of your fathers - - - has sent me to you.

OR - YHWH, the God (elohiym) of your fathers - - -

F. The 3rd person form for the to be verb - "he is" looks like this - yiyeh or yiweh (using the archaic form - hawah)

G. Since the shortened form Yah has been preserved for us, it is easy to render the whole form as Yahweh, and the change from yi- to ya- could possibly be for emphasis which the Hebrews did quite often.

H. The recognition of the above items is universally accepted by Christian scholarship today.

15. When Jesus says at John 8:58, "before Abraham became, I AM," He was claiming the "absolute existence" inherent in the term, "I am."
He was thus, proclaiming himself to be Yahweh.
The Jews who heard this understood exactly what Jesus meant - so in v. 59, they picked up stones to try to kill him.

16. Explanation of Exodus 6:3

A. Yahweh's statement at Ex. 6:3 is a reference to "covenant relationships."

B. In the previous COVENANTS that God made with Abe, Isaac and Jacob, the covenant was confirmed by God referring to Himself as "God The Sufficient One" (true meaning of el shaddai - not almighty. Power is not directly related to that title).

C. Previous to this God revealed himself via yahweh all the time.

1. Adam and Eve knew Him by that name. IN fact, when the first born arrived - she actually thought that he was the promised deliverer (Yahweh in the flesh). Thus at Gen. 4:1, "I have gotten one, a man - Yahweh." (the ath- is probably the sign of the direct object, rather than the preposition, with.)

2. Gen. 4:25 - "then men began calling upon the name of Yahweh." They certainly knew who He was.

3. Noah's prophecy blesses "Yahweh, the God of Shem." Gen. 9:26.

4. At Gen. 13:4, "Abram called on the name of Yahweh."

5. At Gen. 15:2, Abram actually talks to Yahweh, "O Lord yahweh."

D. At Gen. 15:7, God tells Abe, "I am Yahweh, who brought you out of Ur."

BUT - when God makes a COVENANT with Abraham, it is made via the title, el shadday. Gen. 17:1

E. Isaac knew Yahweh and prays to Him, Gen. 25:21.

BUT - when Yahweh confirms the covenant with Isaac at Gen. 26:24, He uses the same designation "indirectly," "I am the God (elohim) of your father Abraham."

F. Jacob knew Yahweh (Gen. 28:16-21), "Surely Yahweh is in this place and I did not know it," (v. 16) - and v. 21, "then Yahweh will be my God."

BUT - when Yahweh confirms the covenant to Jacob at Gen. 35:9-12, He uses the same title, "I am el shadday."

G. This is what Yahweh meant when he said at Exodus 6:3-4, "and I appeared to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, as God Almighty, but {by} My name, LORD, I did not make Myself known to them.

"And I also ESTABLISHED MY COVENANT with them,
to give them the land of Canaan, the land in which they sojourned."

H. He is talking about making a covenant with them. He did not make that covenant as yahweh, but as el shadday. But here, He lays the foundation of the covenant that He will make with the nation of Israel when He brings them out of Egypt. Ex. 6:6-8 (NASB)

"Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, 'I am the Yahweh, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments.

'Then I will take you for My people, and I will be your God; and you shall know that I am the Yahweh your God, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians.

'And I will bring you to the land which I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I will give it to you {for} a possession; I am the Yahweh.'"

I. And He is to be known by the name of Yahweh forever: Exodus 3:15

"This is my Name forever, and this is how I am to be remembered to all generations"

17. The name Jehovah:

A. For us today, there is no biblical mandate or logical reason to perpetuate the tradition of a legalistic and superstitious Interpretation of Lev. 24:16.

B. Therefore, what must be determined is the proper pronunciation of this personal name of God. And the two choices we have are Jehovah and Yahweh.

C. Jehovah is a manmade word (traced back to Galatinus in the year 1520 AD) which does not provide either a translation or even a transliteration of the personal name of God.

1. It is however, a transliteration of the traditional form of the Hebrew word which combines the consonants of YHWH and the vowels of adonay.

2. The vowel sounds are represented as follows:

a. The short e comes from the aleph (an almost silent consonant that takes on the sound of the vowel associated with it) of adonay (with the very short a sound represented by the vowel sign, pathach/sewah).

This is a very short sound between short "a" and short "e" which follows the "y" of YHWH. Thus, "ye."

b. The 0 comes from the daleth (d) with the vowel sign cholem, and is placed after the "H" of YHWH. Thus - "ho."

c. The ah sound comes from the "nay" which is a qamets with a yodh; and is placed after the "W" of YHWH. Thus Wa. And the final "H" from YHWH is placed at the end.

3. And all together it comes out as YeHoWaH.

4. But the German Y sound is represented by the letter J and the letter W is pronounced as a V. And since the German had a big influence on these matters, it comes into English as JeHoVaH.

5. So you can see how man-made this is and that it could not possibly be the proper pronunciation of God's personal name.

D. Thus we can use Yahweh, to be accurate or Jehovah, to be traditional. But we must also recognize that God would not reveal himself through the man made traditional word, Jehovah.


Judges 11:29-40
1. Human sacrifice is totally unacceptable to God.

2. Throughout history, those peoples who practiced human sacrifice were the
most morally depraved that history records.

3. Jephthah has the empowering of the Holy Spirit when he makes his vow.
V. 29-31

   A. He is not being overly emotional.
   B. Everything points to the fact that he is a man of great integrity.

4. When he makes the vow, he has a person in mind, V. 31. "And it shall be
   that the one coming out of the doors of my house to meet me . . . he
   shall be the LORD'S, and I shall offer him up as a whole offering."

   A. The suffix ending on the verb "offer" is 3rd masculine.
   B. The pronoun indication in the verb, "shall be," is 3rd masculine.
   C. Although it is true the same factors could be used to indicate an
   "it," as with the NASB translation, it seems unreasonable that he has
   an animal in mind.

   D. The words, "out of the doors of my house" seem to suggest a person.
   E. It is probably one of his servants. Based on v. 35, he certainly did
   not have his daughter in mind.

5. God condones the vow by giving the victory in battle. V. 32

6. Jephthah's sorrow at v. 35, is genuine but it does not distort his
   divine viewpoint. He knows that God expects the vow to be carried out
   as agreed.

7. When his daughter finds out about the vow, she accepts it because of
her own love and dedication to God and her recognition of God's victory.
V. 36.

8. She requests two months in the mountains to proclaim and lament her
   virginity and the fact that her virginity is to be perpetuated for
   the rest of her life in devotion and service to God.

   A. She is not feeling sorry for herself.

   B. She is proclaiming the greatness and uniqueness of the sacrifice
   she is making.

   C. It is also possible that the time of seclusion helps establish
   the fact that at the time of the vow, she will indeed be a virgin.
9. If she were going to die, leaving her home would be meaningless. She would want to spend time with her family. A. If she were going to die, her virginity would not be an issue. B. But since she is going to live in total dedication to God, virginity was an issue because it serves as a sign of that dedication.

10. When she returned, the vow was carried out, V. 39 "He did to her
   according to the vow which he had made, and she had no relations
   with man."
   A. The issue of virginity simply demonstrates the extent of this
     sacrifice to God.
   B. She devotes herself to the pursuit and promotion of spiritual
     values separated from the distractions of married life.

   C. Paul teaches about this principle at 1 Cor. 7:25-35

11. In recognition of her faithfulness to both God and her father, a ritual
holiday was organized and celebrated by the women of Israel 4 days every year.
V. 40

12. Points of application:

   A. We see a side of faithfulness to God which rises above the pull of
      materialistic things.

   B. We see a dedication to one's "word" which should be an example to us all.

   C. We see an example of the "voluntary eunuch principle" as Jesus taught it
      at Mat. 19:12.

   D. And we certainly learn that when we do make a promise, we best be
      fully aware of all the issues involved before
      "signing on the dotted line."


JERUSALEM: Daughter of Zion

1. Psalm 9.14: in the gates of the daughter of Zion - Jerusalem

2. 2 Kings 19.21: virgin daughter of Zion - daughter of (who is) Jerusalem

3. Isaiah 1.8: the daughter of Zion

4. Isaiah 10.32: the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem

5. Isaiah 16.1: the mountain of the daughter of Zion

6. Isaiah 22.4: the destruction of the daughter of my people

7. Isaiah 37.22: the virgin daughter of Zion --- daughter of Jerusalem

8. Isaiah 52.2: O captive Jerusalem --- captive daughter of Zion

9. Isaiah 62.10-12:

V. 10 - gates

V. 11 - daughter of Zion

V. 12 - city not forsaken

10. Jeremiah 4.10-11: this people and Jerusalem/daughter of my people

11. Jeremiah 4.31 with 5.1; 6.1-6, 23, 26: Divine discipline

12. Jeremiah 9.1-9: discipline on the city (daughter of my people) extended to the entire nation - v. 9.

A. 14.17-18: virgin daughter of my people

B. 31.21-22: faithless daughter

13. Lamentations 1.6: daughter of Zion (Jerusalem)

14. Lamentations 1.15: virgin daughter of Judah


JERUSALEM:  The escape in 68-70 AD
Luke 21:20-21
“Now when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then recognize that her desolation is at hand. Then let those who are in
Judea flee to the mountains, and let those who are in the midst of the city depart, and let not those who are in the country enter the city.”
There will be a chance to escape from Jerusalem when Rome begins its invasion.

1. The Jewish wars with Rome began in September of AD 66.
2. The zealot resistance had been going on for 60 years.

3. Shortly before September, Eleazer, captain of the temple guard, convinced the priests to stop the daily sacrifice for the emperor.
4. This in itself constituted open revolt, but then in early September, the rebels seized the Antonia fortress and destroyed its Roman garrison.
5. In November of AD 66, Cestius Gallus with one legion (20,000 troops) entered Judea to bring the situation under control. He occupied Bezetha, the Northern suburb of Jerusalem. But suddenly for no apparent reason, he withdrew and suffered severe losses in his retreat.

6. This event probably does not qualify as “Jerusalem surrounded by armies”, but believers may have seen the danger and left the area.

7. In the spring of  AD 67, Vespasian arrived with three legions (60,000 troops) and steadily secured Galilee, Peraea, W. Judea and Idumaea.

8. He set up headquarters at Caesarea and prepared to attack Jerusalem. Josephus states, “And now Vespasian had fortified all the places round about Jerusalem and erected citadels at Jericho and Adida, and placed garrisons in them both.” (Bk. IV, chap. 9, p1).

9. “And now the war having gone through all the mountainous country and all the plain county also, those that were at Jerusalem were deprived of liberty of going out of the city.?”

10. “Now as Vespasian was returned to Caesarea, and was getting ready with all his army to march directly to Jerusalem, he was informed that Nero was dead.”

11. Nero’s death was on June 9, 68 AD and because of the civil war that followed in Rome, Vespasian discontinued the campaign for about a year in order to see how the events in Rome would turn out.

12. During Vespasian’s inactivity, 3 rival rebel leaders established themselves in Jerusalem and during this massive internal chaos, evacuation was prohibited. (Josephus, Bk. V, c1, p5).
“Nor could such as had a mind, flee away, for guards were set at all places.”

13. In April of 70 AD, Titus surrounded Jerusalem with 4 legions (80,000 troops). Five months later (September) the city was occupied and subsequently both it and the temple were destroyed.

14. The only  chance for believers to get out of the city was sometime between Vespasian’s initial arrival and the setting up of the blockade by the rebels.

15. The whole issue here, and at the midpoint of the 70th week of Daniel, when the abomination of desolation is set up (Matthew 24:15-21), is that there is very little time to attain physical security. Occupation with unnecessary material things and other personal details will destroy the chance to escape. Any involvement with necessary details (pregnancy and nursing) will also slow the escape.

1. Jews from Judea, apparently under the guise of having authority from the Jerusalem church, came to Antioch and started teaching that unless you were circumcised you could not be saved. Acts 15:1, 24.

2. It became a source for intense argumentation and strife among the believers at Antioch. Acts 15:2.

3. So Paul, Barnabas, Titus and others went to Jerusalem under divine guidance to meet with the apostles and elders there in order to get it all settled. Acts 15:2; Gal. 2:1-2.

4. Upon arrival at Jerusalem they met first with the church leadership in private to clarify the issues of the gospel to the Gentiles. Gal. 2:2

5. The church leadership accepted them and allowed them to address the assembly of believers.

6. As Paul began to speak about the Gentiles, the Judaizers interrupted and proclaimed that the Gentiles must be circumcised and keep the law of Moses. Acts 15:5; Gal. 2:4

7. They had actually demanded that Titus be circumcised immediately. But Paul interrupted the interrupters and prevented them from speaking or doing anything to Titus. Gal. 2:3-5.

8. This required that the church leadership hold a council with Paul and Barnabas to discuss the situation. Acts 15:6.

9. First there was much debate about it. Acts 15:7. Paul's ministry to the Gentiles was acknowledged. The Jerusalem church extended the right hand of fellowship and service to Paul and rejected the false teaching about keeping the law. Gal. 2:9

10. The apostles and elders made a point that Paul's ministry should be sure to help the poor, but he was doing that anyway. Gal.2:10.

11. Then Peter stood up before the assembly and supported the doctrine of Christian liberty and freedom from the Mosaic law. Acts 15:7-11.

12. Peter's teaching was accepted and Paul then addressed the assembly reporting in detail about his progress among the Gentiles. Acts 15:12

13. When Paul was finished James addressed the assembly and proclaimed officially that the Gentiles were not under the law. Acts 15:13-21.

14. There was a bit of compromise as James insisted on some side issues (meat and blood), but Paul did not argue and would address them as false issues later in his letters. Acts 15:20.

15. A letter was written to proclaim the official position of the Jerusalem church and it was delivered to the Antioch church by Paul and Barnabas. Acts 15:22-29

16. The church at Antioch accepted with joy the conclusions from Jerusalem and the issue was settled for the time being. Acts 15:30-32

JOSEPH: The Husband of Mary

1. Mat. 1:1-16: Joseph was of the family of David, descended from David through
    A. This is the ROYAL line of rulership.
    B. The Luke 3 genealogy records Mary’s line back to David through Nathan.
         Joseph is mentioned as the legal father.
    C. And it is the FATHER’s lineage that is the basis for counting the census.
         Thus, Joseph was required to go to Bethlehem to be properly counted. Luke 2:1-4.

2. Joseph and Mary were in relative poverty when they started out life together.
    This is based on the offering of Luke 2:24. Two turtle doves or two young pigeons.
    A. Leviticus 12:6-8, “But if she cannot afford a lamb, then she shall take
         two turtledoves or two young pigeons.”
    B. But that changed 1 or 2 years after the birth of Jesus.
        Matthew 2:11, the gifts from the magi.

3. Matthew 1:19:  Joseph was a righteous man.
    A. The word is dikaios: just, righteous, honorable.
    B. His moral integrity is the focus in this passage.

4. Joseph was a believer with consistent adherence to the divine design for spiritual
   activity in the dispensation of Israel.
    A. Consistent observance of the Passover feast:  Luke 2:41
    B. Obedience to God’s commands through Gabriel. Mat. 1:24-25
    C. Continued obedience after the birth of Jesus: Mat. 2:13-14, 19-23
    D. Principle of placing Jesus in a proper family environment.

5. He was a carpenter and also taught his sons to be carpenters.
     Matthew 13:55 and Mark 6:3

6. Luke 2:22-24 indicates that both Joseph and Mary were greatly awed and excited at the
    information given about Jesus at his birth, even though they had been taught about
    Him earlier by Gabriel.

7. Luke 2:50 indicates that they still did not fully understand their son’s true nature and
    mission by the age of 12.

8. We have no other information about Joseph after Jesus’ 12th year.
    But it is clear that he faithfully fulfilled his role as husband and father throughout
    his life. Mat. 13:55-56; Mark 6:3
9. It is speculation, but the silence concerning Joseph during Christ’s ministry could be
    indication that he died sometime prior to its commencement.
    A. Mat. 13:55, “is not this the carpenter’s son,” does not mean Joseph is still alive.
        It means that he was well known in the city, and even that he had recently died.
    B. The construction here separates “the carpenter” from His mother, brother and
        sisters.  “His mother called Mary, and His brothers, James and Joseph and Simon
        and Judas? And His sisters, are they not all with us?”
        This also strongly suggests that Joseph had already died.
    C. However, the presence of several sons and daughters indicates a relatively long and
         productive marriage.


JUDE: The Brother of Jesus

1. A half-brother of Jesus and writer of the book of Jude.

A. Brother of James: Jude 1
B. James is the brother of the Lord. Gal. 1:19

2. Listed as one of Christ's brothers in Mat. 13:55 and Mark 6:3.

3. During the ministry of Christ, Jude, as well as the other members of the family, were unbelievers. John 7:1-5

4. At the beginning of Christ's ministry, they associated with Him. John 2:12

A. Probably because of family ties.
B. And because they were impressed with His miracles.

5. But they did not accept Him as the Messiah and soon stopped being with Him. Probably based on principles similar to those found at John 6:66.

6. They sought to "shut him down" once, thinking that He was insane (Mark 3:21).

A. They thought to gain access to Him because of family ties. Mark 3:31-32
B. But He shut them down by pointing out the issue of "true" family ties. Ie, the learning and doing of the will of God. Mark. 3:33-34

7. If Jude was present at the crucifixion, we have no knowledge of it. However, the brothers were still unbelievers at this time as is indicated by the assignment of custodial care of Mary to John the disciple.
John 19:26-27.

8. After the resurrection, Christ's brothers re-examined the facts and became believers. We know this because they are at the upper room in Acts 1:14.

9. We have no knowledge of Jude's life after Pentecost except through the letter that he wrote between 70 and 80 AD, and a general reference in 1 Cor. 9:5 that indicates he was probably married.

10. Limited evidence indicates that Jude was long associated with the Jerusalem church and not affected by the Mosaic legalism that dominated that church and plagued so many in the first few decades of the church age.

A. Content of his letter.
B. Not mentioned in Gal. 1:19
C. Probably involved with the migration of Acts 8:1.
D. Not mentioned at the Jerusalem counsel in Acts 15:4, 13.

11. Evidence in his letter indicates:

A. That he was grace-oriented. V. 1, Calls himself the brother of James rather than the brother of the Lord.

B. He was familiar with the writings of the apostles. v. 17-18
C. He was dedicated to the promotion of divine truth in the world.
D. That He was aggressive as an ambassador.

12. His letter was written to remind believers of the dangers of false doctrine and apostasy. v. 3-5

13. His spiritual gift was probably "prophet."

A. Only 12 apostles.
B. Only apostles and prophets received direct revelation from God for the church.
Ephesians 3:5.



1. Judging is a necessary part of living and must be expressed in a variety of areas.

A. Both believer and unbeliever need to make many evaluations and judgments at every juncture in life.

B. Morality was designed by God to provide an absolute standard to both believer and unbeliever that they might lead a life of order, stability and freedom.

C. Thus, proper evaluations and judgments are made based on the degree that divine morality standards have influenced the soul.

D. But even though the unbeliever might have moral standards to assist in making proper judgments, everything he thinks and does is colored by the sin nature and expresses independence form God and God's viewpoint.

E. The believer on the other hand, has two things that enable him to evaluate and judge according to divine viewpoint. (The Bible and the indwelling Holy Spirit).

2. Only the believer has the potential to evaluate and judge evil for what it really is.

A. Every believer is appointed a priest at the moment of salvation and has the responsibility to represent the plan and character of God to others. 1 Pet. 2:9

B. Every believer has the indwelling Holy Spirit which gives the potential for discerning all things. 1 Cor. 2;15

C. Every believer has available to him the body of Divine revelation which gives the standards of God in order to discern between good and evil. Heb. 5:14

D. If these 2 provisions are not used by the believer, then the sin nature will dominate and he will live in the blindness of spiritual darkness. 1 John 2:11;
John 11:9-10; 12:35-36; Prov. 4:19; Eph. 4:14, 17

3. The believer is commissioned by God to make evaluations and render judgments whenever and wherever he encounters darkness.

A. The process is called in the Greek, "krinō" and involves 3 factors.

1. anakrino: investigation. gathering of facts. This requires positive volition and objectivity as at Acts 17:11 (eugenās = soul integrity).

2. diakrino: evaluation and discernment of the facts.
Must have an absolute standard as the measurement

3. apokrino: rendering a verdict, giving an answer.
This refers to verbalizing your evaluation.

a. Positive verdict: dokimadzo - approve
b. Negative verdict: katakrino - condemn

B. These 3 factors re-stated:

1. Attitude: objectivity vs. subjectivity. John 7:24; Eph. 4:26
2. Standards: 1 Cor. 4:6 -not beyond what is written

a. Spiritual vs. religious: 2 Tim. 1:13; 3:14-17
b. Moral vs. immoral: 1 Cor. 5:9-13

3. Verdict: positive vs. negative. Mat. 7:6; Titus 3:10-11; Jude 22-23; Mat. 12:30

C. There are two types of judgment that can be expressed.

1. John 7:24 - krino = present active imperative

a. According to human viewpoint: kata opsis - John 8:15
b. According to divine viewpoint: dikaios krisis
   A RIGHTEOUS standard of judgment

2. Isaiah 55:8-9 - my ways are not your ways
3. Eph. 5:15 - unwise vs. wise (asophos vs. sophos)
4. Heb. 5:14 - good and evil (kalos and kakos)

D. There are 5 areas where the believer is responsible for making absolute judgments.

1. Doctrinal evaluation: the issues of light vs. darkness
2. Priesthood evaluation: The issue of personal fellowship and service
3. Authority evaluation: issue of submission and administration
4. Friendship evaluation: issue of fellowship with others (doctrine of separation)
5. Enemy evaluation: Issue of recognition and engagement. (offense and defense)

4. The first area of judgment responsibility is doctrinal: Evaluation of light vs. darkness.

A. 1 Cor. 10:15 - aorist active imperative of krino
B. 1 Thes. 5:20-22 - dokimadzo - present active imperative (kalos vs. ponāros)
C. 1 John 4:1-6 - recognition of demons and demon doctrines.

5. The 2nd area of judgment responsibility is priesthood evaluation.

A. Evaluation of self: 1 Cor. 11:28-32; 2 Cor. 13:5-6; 1 Cor. 9:24-27; Rom. 12:1-2
B. Evaluation of others: Rom. 15:1; Gal. 6:1; Mat. 7:15-23;

6. The 3rd area of judgment responsibility is authority evaluation.
(The issue of submission or administration)

A. Submission to God: Creature humility - 1 Pet. 1:17; James 4:6-7
B. Your status in the local church: 1 Pet. 5:1-5
C. Your status in moral relationships.

1. 1 Pet. 2:13-15, 18
2. Eph. 5:22-6:9; 1 Cor. 11:3-16
3. 1 Pet. 3:1-7
4. Romans 13:1-7
5. Exodus 22:28

D. Spiritual gifts: 1 Cor. 12:14-32

7. The 4th area of judgment responsibility is friendship evaluation.
Basically, application of the doctrine of separation.

A. 1 Cor. 15:33-34
B. 1 Cor. 5:9-13
C. 1 Cor. 6:14-16
D. 2 Thes. 3:6-15
E. 1 Peter 4:1-4
F. Romans 16:17-18
G. application of the 3 factors in the evaluation process: attitude, standards, verdict

8. The 5th area of judgment responsibility is enemy evaluation.

A. Recognition: Identification based on doctrinal evaluation.

1. Spiritual enemies: Mat. 12:30; John 16:2
2. Moral enemies: Rom. 13:4 (the one who practices evil)

B. Engagement:

In the spiritual arena:

1. Spiritual offense: Content and proclamation - Eph. 6:10-18; 1 Peter 3:15
2. Spiritual defense: Testimony - 1 Pet. 2:12-16

In the moral arena:

1. Humility principles: Rom. 12:14, 17-21
2. Self: Ex. 22:2; 21:12-14; Mat. 24:43
3. Family: Neh. 4:14; 1 Tim. 5:8
4. Society: Neh. 4:14; Rom. 13:1-4; Ec. 8:11; Pr. 29:4; 21:15

9. The believer violates his judgment responsibility when he allows human viewpoint and emotionalism to be his standard. Thus, the many warnings about judging.

A. Mat. 7:1-5, This does not PROHIBIT judging; it teaches that judging should
    be done PROPERLY.
B. Rom. 14:1-4, 10, 13
C. Prejudice: James 2:1, 8-9; Acts 10:28
D. Improper judging is rejection and defamation of the law of Love.
    James 4:11-12
E. In fact, by assuming the divine prerogative for himself, he may actually prompt God to remove adversity form the offender. Prov. 24:17-18

10. Judging directed toward God and His plan: blasphemy

A. blasphemy is a verbal judgment toward God that comes from rejecting His sovereignty, righteousness and justice. Romans 1:20-21

B. Rejection of the divine essence declares in principle, that God is flawed and His policy does not work.

1. It is arrogance for the creature to judge the creator in terms of being critical of His policy, timing or direction of circumstances.

2. The creature is not greater than the Creator nor the Creator's policy. Rom. 9:20-21; Isaiah 29:16

3. The servant is not greater than his master or his master's policy. John 8:31; 13:13-17; 1 Cor. 14:37

C. God is blasphemed when an unbeliever rejects the gospel and comes up with his own plan.
Romans 2:4-5; Mat. 12:31-32

1. But unbelief does not nullify the character and plan of God. Rom. 3:3

2. Indeed, every blasphemy will be proved a lie and God will be pronounced true. Romans 3:4

D. God is blasphemed when the believer rejects fellowship via 1 John 1:7, 9 and Ps. 51:1-2.

1. Making excuses for sin rather than facing it on God's terms.
Psalm 51:3 - blaming circumstances, heredity, environment, others or even God.

2. Failure to give God His rightful place. Psalm 51:4a

E. God is blasphemed when circumstances are criticized.

1. It is slander to say that the weather is wrong. God is in control. Mat. 5:45; Acts 14:17

2. It is slander to criticize God's timing. He is still in control.

F. It is blasphemy to ascribe the works of God to Satan or man. Acts 5:34-39

G. It is blasphemy to ascribe the works of darkness to God. Mat. 7:21-23; Acts 8:9-10

11. Slander toward other people:

A. Slander is a category of verbal sin that criticizes, accuses or abuses others.
katalalia = speaking down or against.
(There are 3 categories of verbal sin: deceit, threats and slander)

B. The believer priest violates his appointed authority and evaluation responsibility when he slanders.

1. Slander is judging with a master's authority when you have no such authority. Rom. 14:4

2. He assumes to himself the prerogatives of divine sovereignty and justice which he has no right or even capacity to administrate.
James 4:12

3. He attempts to defeat the fortresses of evil by taking things into his own hands instead of just proclaiming truth. Rom. 12:19

4. He seeks personal vindication by slander instead of trusting God.
5. Leave it in the hands of God. 1 Cor. 4:6; Prov. 20:22

C. Categories of slander:

1. Blasphemy: blasphāmeō, Col. 3:8 - defamation of character
2. Verbal abuse: loidoreō, 1 Pet. 3:8-9; 1 Cor. 4:12
3. Complaining: gongusmos, Philip. 2:14 - emotional discontent
4. Disputing: dialogismos, Philip. 2:14 - intellectual discontent
5. Ridicule: 2 Kings 2:23-24
6. Gossip: tale-bearing, Prov. 11:13; 16:28; 17:9; 18:8; 20:19; 26:20

D. It is always slander to attribute doctrinal error to a communicator of truth when he is not teaching false doctrine. Romans 3:8

1. They were saying Paul taught that the means justifies the end.
2. The truth is - that if the means are evil, the ends can only be evil also.
3. The end cannot be better than the means.
4. Some teach that you can be saved by being bad because this promotes the grace of God. Of course, that's wrong.

5. One teaches you can experience the abundant life and reach spiritual maturity in one way, and someone else teaches that the same end can be reached by a different way.

6. The means determines the end result. And God has designed a special system by which believers progress in growth. Eph. 4:11-16

E. Summary concepts concerning slander:

1. Slander basically refers to judgments expressed in areas where the believer does not have authority or jurisdiction.

2. He has no authority to make an issue out of anyone's sin except his own and those who are under his authority. (To "mention" someone's sin is not making an issue of it).

3. To mention someone's sin is not in itself, slander. When a parent counsels a child, he may refer to certain people as bad examples and ones to avoid as he explains why.
That in itself is not sin.

4. However, the child may then misapply the information and use it to criticize or ridicule the object, and this then becomes slander.

5. To attribute sin when there is no sin is slander, even when the speaker believes it to be true.

a. There is no excuse for a believer to perpetuate a lie - ever.
b. We are responsible for what we see and must confirm facts before we speak or act.

6. To repeat someone's sin which is true is not necessarily slander. It depends on why you speak it. A pastor may repeat it so as to warn others, but he has to be very sensitive to the possibility of turning it into slander.

7. A parent can warn their children about the sins of others as can the pastor. But this is not for the purpose of criticism, but so the children can avoid a negative influence in their life.

8. Once the believer becomes involved in listening to slander, it is easy to become a slanderer himself.
(You become a "carrier" of the snake bit venom of the verbal sin.
James 3:8; with Rom. 3:13

9. When you make an issue out of someone's sin -

A. You don't use it to excuse your own sin.
B. You don't use it to prove you are better than someone else.
C. You use it to criticize and tear down an organization you don't like or simply is unable to communicate.


JUDGING: General Principles

1. Do not judge according to appearance (human viewpoint): John 7:24; 8:15; 5:30

2. Judge with righteous judgment (divine viewpoint): John 7:24

3. The true perspective in judging is not personal (toward the person) but impersonal (toward the presence of good or evil). Jude 23

4. All judging requires the attitude of humility to be objective. Phil. 2:1-4; Rom. 12:16; Jam. 4:11-12

5. Judging must be accomplished on the basis of Philip. 2:14. Do all things without grumbling or disputing. James 5:9

6. Do not allow your judgments to be colored by doctrinal deficiencies and human viewpoint. Mat. 7:1-5

7. Self judgment is necessary to determine the presence of sin and proper motivations in every are of the Christian way of life. 1 Cor. 11:28-32

8. Any negative judging should be replaced by the law of love. Rom. 14:13; Jam. 2:8-13; Mat. 5:44

9. Personal favoritism and prejudice is not consistent with the body of revealed truth. James 2:1-4

10. Do not take God's prerogative of judging upon yourself. Rom. 12:17-21

11. Any wrong judging reflects your sinful attitude, and you be judged by God on that basis. Mat. 7:1-2; James 2:13

12. Such wrong judging can actually result in adversity being removed by God from the one you judge. Prov. 24:17-18

13. What protects us from expressing this wrong judging is knowledge and application of divine truth. 1 Cor. 4:6, 16-17

14. We must evaluate moral and spiritual associations. 1 Cor. 15:33-34; 2 Thes. 3:6, 14-15

15. Must recognize that which is immoral. 1 Cor. 5:9-13

16. Must evaluate spiritual error and make proper response to it. Mat. 7:6, 15-27; Philip. 3:2; 1 Thes. 5:20-22; 2 Thes. 3:14-15; 2 Tim. 4:14-15; Titus 1:10-11; 3:10-11

17. Do not criticize the weak believer but apply the law of love. Rom. 14:1, 3a

18. Do not let legalism compromise truth. Apply the law of love. Col. 2:16-23; Rom. 14:19-21

19. Factual data concerning others is to be confirmed by two or more witnesses. 2 Cor. 13:1-2; Prov. 18:13

20. Doctrinal evaluation should result in a proper spiritual indictment on the offender. Gal. 5:2-9

21. Any expression of bona fide judgment must include forgiveness. 2 Cor. 2:5-11

22. Legal actions should be avoided by believers if possible. Disputes should be handled by believers within the context of local churches. 1 Cor. 6:1-8


JUDGMENT: last judgment at great white throne

1. Primary scripture is Rev. 20:11-15

2. It takes place after or simultaneous with the destruction of the heavens and the earth at the end of Messiah's 1000 year earthly reign. V. 11

A. Him who sat on the throne: the Lord Jesus Christ based on John 5:22
B. From whom the heavens and earth fled: mentioned as though this had just happened, and then comes the judgment.

3. Every unbeliever of all 4 dispensations (all of human history) will appear here. v. 12

A. I saw the dead: spiritually dead is the issue since they come from both the "physically" living and the "physically" dead.

B. Small and great: categories of human viewpoint evaluation. From the human perspective, there are no exceptions.

4. They will all receive a resurrection body in order to "face the music" of divine justice with full human perception. John 5:28-29; Acts 24:15; Dan. 12:2

5. Two sets of books are opened to determine qualification for judgment. v. 12

A. The books: this refers to the books of works and lists all the acts of human righteousness that these unbelievers performed. This is based on the phrase, "judged according to their DEEDS."

B. And another book: the book of life. The issue in this book is not deeds, but whether someone has trusted in Christ as savior or not. Rev. 3:5
(The over-comer is the one who has believed in Jesus, 1 John 5:5)

6. The dead who appear here come from two locations. v. 13

A. The sea: refers to the living human population at the end of the kingdom.
B. Death and Hades: the two terms refer to the same place.

1. Hades refers to the "place" of torment where all unbelievers go upon physical death to await the final judgment. Luke 16:23

2. Death indicates the "mechanics" of entering into Hades, ie, physical death.

C. See Acts 10:42, "judge the living and the dead."

7. The process of judgment:

A. The first issue is the book of life: If the name has been blotted out that means that he died without trusting in Christ as savior.

B. Thus, he stands on his own merits for acceptance before God.
That is, works and human righteousness which is called at Ram. 2:16, "The secrets of men."

C. But these are totally useless for acceptance before God. Eph. 2:8-9; Titus 3:5-6; John 1:12-13; Isaiah 64:6

D. So when they are judged according to their deeds, they find themselves only deeper in debt to the penalty from God's justice. Rom. 4:4

E. The evaluation is to demonstrate clearly that their deeds do not even reach up to divine standards for righteousness. Isaiah 64:6; Rom. 3:23.

F. It is probably at this point where the "witnesses" stand up as a demonstration that there was no excuse to reject Christ. Mat. 12:41-42; Rom. 1:20

8. And so, having no name in the book of life and no righteousness that is compatible with God's, and no excuse for rejecting Christ, they unbeliever is rejected by God and cast into the lake of fire. V. 14.

A. This is the second death: the second and ultimate experience of neutralization.
The first death was physical.

B. This is the place and experience of separation from God described in detail at 2 Thes. 1:9; Mat. 25:30 and Rev. 14:10-11

C. Gnashing of teeth and outer darkness

9. Death and hades are thrown into the lake of fire. v. 14
    See topic below: Judgment: lake of fire

All who have died physically as unbelievers as well as the place of their confinement. Furthermore, there will never again be any physical death.

10. Anyone: specific reference to those who had not experience physical death.

11. Not in the book of life: the only real issue for eternal life vs. eternal separation from God is whether your name is in the book or not. See topic: Book of life.


JUDGMENT: Lake of Fire

1. The lake of fire is a literal place of darkness, filled with unquenchable, non-consuming fire, designed by God as the place of everlasting judgment.

A. Darkness: Mat. 8:11-12; 2 Pet. 2:17
B. Fire: Rev. 21:8
C. Unquenchable: Mark 9:48
D. Non-consuming: Mark 9:48
E. Everlasting: Rev. 20:10

2. The term lake of fire does not occur in the Old Testament, but the fact of an everlasting fire of judgment is adequately represented.

A. Daniel 12:2

1. And many: Old Testament believers at the time of the arrival of Jesus at the Day of the LORD.
2. Who sleep in the dust of the ground: indicates the sleep of the body which is under decay and waiting for resurrection.

3. Will awake: reference to the body receiving resurrection, not the soul "waking up."

a. The soul is not "sleeping." But prior to Christ's resurrection, it is in the comfort section of hades (or sheol).

b. And after Christ's "first" ascension they are in the third heaven.

4. These to everlasting life: Lit: to the life (chay) of perpetuity (ōlAm).

5. But the others: unbelievers whose bodies are also asleep but whose souls are in the "torments" section of hades.

a. These also will "awake" as implied by the context.
b. And as Jesus taught at John 5:28-29.
c. But it does not take place at the same time. Their resurrection awaits the end of the 1000 year kingdom. Rev. 20:5

6. To disgrace: cherpAh - attitude toward self. Shame and the sorrow that attends it.

7. And everlasting contempt: ōlAm dārAōn

a. This is the attitude of others toward those judged.
Abhorrence, rejection, hatred (Divine viewpoint).

b. dārAōn only occurs here and at Isaiah 66:24.

B. Isaiah 66:24b

1. Their worm: represents man's physical life and insignificance
2. shall not die: indicates the perpetuation of a physical existence.
3. And their fire - not quenched: This is the only direct Old Testament reference to the everlasting fire of judgment.

4. An abhorrence: dārAōn - vehement hatred and rejection based on application of divine viewpoint.

5. To all mankind: This attitude simply reflects the attitude that God has toward all who have rejected Him.

3. In the gospels, Jesus used the term gehenna to represent everlasting judgment.

A. Background:

1. It is the Greek word for the Hebrew - valley of Hinnom or tophet.
2. It was the place where the Jews had practiced all the terrible things of the phallic cult, including child sacrifice. Jer. 7:31; 19:2-6

3. later, the place served as the receptacle for all manner of pollution and garbage.

4. Therefore, because there were constant fires burning to consume the garbage, the term came to be used to represent everlasting judgment.

B. Used by Jesus:

1. Mat. 5:22 - minimum qualification for entrance into the gehenna of fire.

a. Mental attitude sin of anger
b. The resultant verbal sin of name-calling.

2. Principle of hand vs. the body. Mat. 5:29-30

a. Because of the minimum qualification for entrance into gehenna, all members of the human race are assigned to it. Heb. 9:27

b. If that minimum qualification is not present, then the assignment can be canceled.

c. The only way for it to be removed, is for God to provide a savior to bear sins, as He did in the person of Christ. 1 Pet. 2:24; 2 Cor. 5:21; 1 John 2:2

d. But man must accept Christ's work on his behalf in order to have the removal of the minimum qualifications recorded and the assignment of judgment canceled. John 3:18; 5:24

e. Man must accept God's solution since anything he himself attempts is inadequate and keeps the assignment in force. Rom. 4:4

f. Man's solutions can only be overt as he cannot deal with the soul without divine aid.

g. If man were to devise something to deal with his sin then the only thing that would appear to work would be to remove the "producer" of the sin.

h. Thus, the hand, foot, tongue, etc. cut off.
i. Because in so doing, the rest of the body would appear sinless and not come under judgment.

j. But the solution is not a physical part of the body, but the soul (Mat. 5:22, anger) and since man cannot chop off the soul, he must accept God's solution.

k. Jesus is not suggesting an alternative solution for man but suggesting what man's logic offers when the divine solution is rejected.

l. Thus, since you cannot cut off your sinfulness as it is internal, you must accept the forgiveness provided by Christ's work.

3. Mat. 18:8-9 - same principle, but notice the correlation of terms.

a. V. 8, eternal fire (pur aiōnios)
b. V. 9, the gehenna of fire
c. Mat. 5, just gehenna

4. Mark 9:43-49 - same principle with amplification on the term.

a. V. 43, gehenna, ie, the unquenchable fire (pur asbestos)
b. V. 44 and 46, not in the original
c. V. 48 - quoted from Isaiah 66:24, "whose worm does not die."

1. worm: skōlax = symbol of man's physical insignificance and thus his physical life in general.

2. die: teleutaō, present active indicative.

d. And the fire is not quenched: sbennumi - present. passive indicative.

5. Luke 12:4-5, the only real threat in life is God's right and power to put you into the gehenna. This should be man's primary concern rather than physical violence and death.

6. Mat. 10:28, Same statement of the threat with amplification.

a. Physical threats cannot destroy the soul.
dunamai - present middle participle + aorist active infinitive of apokteinō.

b. But fear Him: phobeomai - present middle imperative.

c. who is able: dunamai - present mid. participle
d. To destroy: apollumi - aorist active infinitive. This refers to neutralization in spiritual death, not annihilation.

e. Both soul and body: they will be joined to suffer together at the last judgment. John 5:28-29

f. In gehenna: no definite article.

7. Mat. 23:15, the unbeliever is called a son of gehenna
8. Mat. 23:33, religious unbelievers are secure in their appointment to gehenna as long as they remain independent from God.

a. How shall you escape: pōs + pheugō - aorist active subjunctive.
b. the judgment: krisis of the gehenna - Heb. 9:27
(definite article present)

9. Mat. 25:41-46, everlasting punishment vs. life.

a. V. 41, the eternal fire: pur aiōnios
Has been prepared: hetoimadzō, perfect passive part.
For the devil and his angels.

b. V. 46, eternal punishment: kolasis aiōnios
( kolasis occurs only here and at 1 John 4:18)

4. The lake of fire was originally designed for Satan and his angels. Mat. 25:41

A. Because of sin, all people are in the family of Satan, under judgment and share his place of judgment. John 8:44; 3:18; 1 John 5:19

B. But Christ paid the penalty for sin and provided salvation for all mankind.
John 12:32; 1 John 2:2

C. Therefore, no member of the human race needs to go there. 2 Pet. 3:9; 1 Tim. 2:4

D. The only reason they will go there is if they reject the provision of Christ's work on the cross. John 3:15-18

E. And on that basis, they have a reservation of judgment. Heb. 9:27; 2 Pet. 2:17; Jude 13 (tāreō, perfect passive indicative)
John 3:18, Have been judged already, perfect passive indicative of krinō.

5. Further description of this judgment at Rev. 14:9-11

V. 10
1. He will drink of the wine: to indicate a complete identification with divine justice.
2. Of the wrath of God: divine justice expressed against violation of His perfect righteousness.
3. Mixed in full strength:

a. which as been mixed: perfect passive participle of kerannumi.
b. Full strength = unmixed: akratos - full alcoholic content.
Therefore, a full expression of divine justice.

4. In the cup of His anger: bona fide expression of displeasure when truth is violated. (orgā)
5. And he will be tormented: future passive indicative of basanidzō.
6. With fire and brimstone: indicates a literal type fire, although a non-consuming one, so that the torment is primarily in the soul.

7. In the presence of: enōpion - indicates observation
8. His holy angels and the Lamb: apparently the saints will not take part in this "observation."

1. And the smoke: the visible sign of the fire. Although it does not consume, it produces smoke as indication of the effects it is producing.

2. Of their torment: basanismos
3. goes up: present active indicative of anabainō.
4. Forever: unto ages of ages (eis + accusative plural of aiōn + genitive plural of aiōn). Cf. Heb. 1:8 for the extent of time involved (unto the age of the age, singular).

5. And they do not have: echō, present active indicative + negative
6. Rest: anapausis = cessation (of torment in this case).
7. Day or night: idiom for perpetual. This indicates the duration of the pain.

6. Thus, it is a literal place with a literal fire that produces a literal soul and body agony.

A. Rev. 19:20, beast and false prophet (lake of fire which burns with brimstone).
B. Rev. 20:10, the devil (lake of fire and brimstone, unto the ages of the ages).
C. Rev. 20:14-15, all unbelievers of all ages = 2nd death.
D. Rev. 21:8, all unbelievers identified by their character and deeds. (Lake of fire which burns with fire and brimstone which is the 2nd death).

E. Mat. 25:30, outer darkness; weeping and gnashing of teeth.

7. The real issue of this everlasting torment is the fact of separation from God. 2 Thes.1:9

A. Who will pay: tinō - future indicative = experience or undergo
B. the penalty: dikā - expression of divine justice as the enforcer of righteousness.
Romans 6:23
C. Of eternal: aiōnios
D. destruction: olethros - not annihilation, but a total spiritual and physical RUIN characterized by separation from God.

E. Away from the presence: apo prosōpon = face
(The outer darkness of Mat. 25:30)
F. of the Lord: no association with Jesus Christ
G. And the glory of His strength: ischus - emphasis on the basic essence of the Godhead.

8. The sentence to the lake of fire does not take place until the Great White Throne judgment at the end of the Millennial reign of Christ. Rev. 20:11-15

A. In the meantime, at physical death, the unbeliever's soul is placed in the "torment" section of hades. Luke 16:23

B. At the last judgment, hades delivers up all its unbelievers to the throne (Rev. 20:13). Death is in apposition to hades.

C. The "sea" probably refers to the living unbelievers at the end of the kingdom age, and they too are delivered up to the throne.

D. Then all are put in the lake of fire based on the fact that their name had been blotted out of the book of life.

9. Summary:

A. Hebrews 6:2 - the doctrine of everlasting judgment is a basic doctrine.
B. It is an expression of divine wrath. John 3:36 - orgā.
C. It is divine judgment because of rejected saving truth. 2 Thes. 2:12
D. John 3:36 - it is denial of life with God.

1. The wages of sin is death. Rom. 6:23
2. John 5:24 - talks about passing from death to life.
3. Rev. 20:14 - calls it the second death.

E. It is designated as a spiritual destruction.

1. John 3:16 - perish = apollumi - aorist middle subjunctive
2. 2 Pet. 3:7 - and destruction - apoleia
3. Mat. 10:28 - apollumi - both soul and body
4. Defined in 2 Thes. 1:9 as an existence totally separated from God.
5. But it is not annihilation. Rev. 14:10-11



This is a summary. For details about evaluation of each believer at the time of their physical death see The Reward Seat of God

1. Statement of fact: 2 Cor. 5.10

A. For: gar - explains motivation to be pleasing to Him - v. 9

B. It is necessary: dei - present indicative

C. For us all: believers only - pas - all those who qualify under v. 5

D. To appear: phaneroō-aorist passive infinitive- in the future at Christ's return for his church.

E. before: emprosthen - before the face of (in front of)

F. the judgment seat: bāma - a place where justice is administered. Humanly speaking - a trial or judicial bench.Mt. 27.19; Jn.19.13; Acts 12.21;18.12,16-17; 25.6, 10,17
Paul uses this human judicial structure to symbolize the fact that every believer will have his life and deeds evaluated by God and Jesus. It will not be a formal or a collective evaluation, but each believer will be individually and privately evaluated.

G. Of Christ: it is in the presence of Jesus where Divine justice will evaluate the life and deeds of the believer.

H. So that: hina + subjunctive mood indicates the purpose for appearing

I. each one: emphasis on individual and personal responsibility.

J. May be recompensed: komidzō - aorist middle subjunctive -receive back upon self based upon some action.

(See 1 Pet. 1.9 - salvation as a result of faith)

K. the things done: prassō - aorist active indicative- during your life on earth

L. through the body: dia + sōma - only while on earth.

M. Whether good: agathos-good of intrinsic value-lines up with God's standards.

N. Or bad: phaulos - useless, worthless, rotten-all that was done independently from God.

O. This Divine good can only be produced by the Holy Spirit as the believer maintains sinless consistency. Rom. 8.8 - they that are in the flesh cannot please God.

Gal. 5.16-walk in the Spirit; Rom. 14.18 - acceptable to God;

Ps. 66.18 - sin shuts down fellowship with God.

2. Each believer then will take personal responsibility for his every decision here on earth.

Rom. 14.10-12

A. v. 10

1. We have no business putting ourselves up in authority over someone else's life.

2. For: gar - God's authority and policy is the only judge

3. We shall all: every believer - in this context.

4. stand: paristāmi - future middle indicative

5. At the bāma of God - theos: It is the justice seat of God, but Christ administrates

the evaluation and justice. Jn. 5.22-23 (CF bāma of Christ at 2 Cor. 5.10)

B. v. 11 - Old Testament documentation to establish Divine authority in judgment.

1. As it is written: graphō - perfect passive indicative

a. Is. 45.23 -not quoted, but the doctrinal principle is represented accurately.

(Not quoted from LXX either)

b. The context is salvation provision during the Day of the Lord judgments and ultimate accountability to God alone.

2. Every knee shall bow: humility recognition of Divine sovereignty.

3. Every tongue give praise: exomologeō-future active indicative- confess agreement with God.

Acceptance of the Divine justice evaluation of the believer's life.

C. V. 12 - Personal accountability

1. So then --- us: believers only

2. each one: individual and personal responsibility for my decisions.

3. Concerning himself: peri + heautos - further emphasis on personal responsibility concerning the issues of light and darkness - good and bad.

4. Shall give account: 2 words

a. Shall give - didomi - future active indicative - at the future time of the judgment seat.

b. a word: logos - statement - determined by the context.

c. This is not giving an explanation for failures or successes.

d. It is a confession - accepting the verdict of Divine justice and giving glory

to God. - V. 11 -- exomologeō

3. This evaluation from justice results in reward or oss of reward according to God's standards.

A. 2 Cor. 5.10 - agathos vs. phaulos; good vs. worthless

B. 1 Cor. 3.10-15

V. 10-11 - The foundation of salvation relationship is Christ.

V. 12a --- Building on the foundation is living the Christian way of life.

V. 12b - 2 categories of building material -perishable/non-perishable.

V. 13 -- The fire of Divine justice will test the quality of the building.

V. 14 - non-perishable is not burned; corresponds with agathos at 2 Cor. 5.10 and is rewarded.

V. 15a -Perishable is burned; corresponds with phaulos at 2 Cor. 5.10, and is not rewarded or punished.

V. 15b - Regardless of loss or reward the believer remains saved.

4. In anticipation of this future evaluation, the believer is exhorted to dedication and consistency.

A. 2 Cor. 5.9 - our value priority in life is to be pleasing to Him

B. 2 Cor. 5.11 - communicators persuade - peithō - present active indicative

C. 2 Cor. 6.1-3 - Paul exhorts - parakaleō - present active indicative

1. Not to receive: aorist middle infinitive-dechomai (via instruction in this case)

2. the grace of God: all the resources God makes available for the Christian way of life.

3. In vain: eis kenos - to no purpose-ie, without acceptance and consistent application of the truth. CF. Jas. 1.21-25

4. The acceptable time is now: God wants your attention now! Both Salvation and the Christian way of life.

D. Rom. 14.16-19 - V. 18 - acceptable to God - euarestos

E. 1 Jn. 2.28-shame vs. confidence (fellowship consistency via character consistency.

F. 1 Cor. 9.24-27 -- Run to win

1. self discipline/control: V. 25 - egkrateuomai - present active indicative

2. confidence and purpose: V. 26 - ouk adālōs (adverb) - not without purpose

3. detail of life control: V. 27 - control my body-hupōpiadzō-present active indicative

4. Run with endurance: Heb. 12.1-2 - hupomonā

5. According to the rules: 2 Tim. 2.5 -Divine viewpoint standards and policy.

G. The danger of false worship - Col. 2.18; and false doctrine - 2 Jn. 8


5. This evaluation of all church age believers takes place when each individual believer is brought into the presence of God.
        A. At death the believer is brought face to face with the Lord (2 Cor. 5:8) and receives
            the evaluation of his life and deeds at that time.

B At the rapture all living believers who come face to face with the Lord will receive evaluation of life and deeds either at that instant, or more likely after the arrive in heaven.
 (1) 1 Cor. 4.5 - when the Lord comes - erchomai - aorist active subjunctive
 (2) 1 Jn. 2.28 - at his coming - parousia
 (3) 1 Pet. 5.1-4 - when he appears - aorist passive participle - phaneroō

6. The judgment seat of Christ accomplishes the preparation of his bride for her eternal purpose. Rev. 19.7-8

A. His bride is the church: Eph. 5.25-27; 2 Cor. 11.2

B. Made herself ready: aorist active indicative - hetoimadzō - prior to his 2nd descent.

C. Fine linen: purification from 2 perspectives

1. salvation righteousness: Rev. 3.5; 2 Cor. 5.21

2. Experiential righteousness: 2 Cor. 11.2-3; Col. 1.22-23

Rev. 19.8 - righteous deeds of the saints.

7. SUMMARY PASSAGE: 2 Peter 3.10-18

V. 14 - Character consistency/sinless consistency

V. 17 - Standing guard over your doctrinal content and stability

V. 18 - Diligence in spiritual growth.



1. Justification is the act of God which imputes Divine righteousness upon the one who trusts in Christ as savior. Justification is "being declared righteous." Rom. 3:22, 24.

"The righteousness of God upon all who believe by being declared righteous."

2. Justification is based on the perfect plan of God. Romans 8:29-30; 1 Cor. 1:3.
Accordingly, it is said that God is the one who justifies. Rom. 8:33; 3:30

3. Justification is made available to man through the grace of God. Titus 3:7; Rom. 3:24

4. Justification is provided by the work of Christ on the cross which through his ransom for sin made available redemption from sin for the human race. Isaiah 53:11; Rom. 3:24; 5:9
Accordingly, it can also be said that Jesus is the one who justifies.

5. The act of justification is executed by God the Holy Spirit at the point of salvation.
Accordingly, the Holy Spirit is also one who justifies. 1 Cor. 6:11

6. Justification is appropriated by man through faith in Christ apart from any recourse to human merit or works. Acts 13:39; Rom. 3:28; 4:1-5; Gal. 2:16; 3:24

7. It is at that moment of "faith-trust" in Jesus as the savior, the believer is placed into union with Christ through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, and it is that very "positional status" IN CHRIST

8. The resurrection of Christ occurred to demonstrate that justification had been provided on the cross.
Rom. 4:25, "because of our justification."
The resurrection demonstrates that Christ IS who He said He is and that He accomplished what He came to do. It is PROOF - Acts 17:31.

9. Justification is the basis for peace with God (reconciliation). Romans 5:1

10. Justification cancels our appointment with divine judgment. Heb. 9:27; Rom. 5:9; 8:1-2.

11. Because the believer is righteous in union with Christ, he is viewed by God as blameless and above reproach.  1 Corinthians 1:7-8, ""awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, WHO SHALL ALSO CONFIRM you to the end, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ."
The word means, above reproach, without blame or guilt due to one's character flaws.
Character flaws are not an issue once we are placed into union with Christ and possess His righteousness.

12. Experiential justification (righteousness) is the production of God's quality of rightness as reflected in the morality standards that He designed for the entire human race.
Topic: Experiential Righteousness





©Ron Wallace, Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


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