Verse 1
1. My little children: The word is teknion. At this point this is a term of affection and concern, but it also establishes the recipients as believers. However, later at verses 12-14, John uses the word to refer to the baby level of growth in connection with "fathers" and "young men."

2. I am writing thee things to you: the basic issues of salvation and fellowship; relationship and walk.
Proper understanding of both is the key to sinless consistency; habitual fellowship with the Godhead.
These are issues pertinent to all three levels of spiritual growth as all believers will be challenged by the world, the flesh and the devil. 1 Peter 5:8; Gal. 5:17; Titus 2:12.

3. so that: hina + the subjunctive mood of the verb indicates purpose which here, is to elicit a consistent application of truth in their lives.

4. you might not sin: aorist active subjunctive of the verb, hamartanō and refers to any personal sin committed at any specific point of time in their live. The subjunctive mood not only shows the purpose of John's words, but also the very real potential of the believer committing personal sin.
  A. sin is anything that violates the standards of light as
     found in the bible. It includes thought, speech and
  B. the potential is there because of the existence and
     ever present influence of the sin nature.

5. and if: 3rd class condition "if" clause to indicate the very real potential for the believer to commit personal sin.

6. anyone does sin: aorist active subjunctive of hamartanō.
"anyone" refers to the believer and not the unbeliever. Personal sin is only an issue for the believer. The only issue for the unbeliever is the one sin of rejecting Christ as savior; the sin of unbelief.
See topic: unpardonable sin

The issue here is the very real possibility for the believer to commit personal sin; any violation of God's standards. Such sin will not affect the believer's relationship with God (salvation), but it will produce a misalignment with God and remove rapport and fellowship with the Godhead.

7. we: believers are the only ones in view here and should be seen as distinct from the other group of people mentioned; "the whole world" at verse 2.
8. have: present active indicative of ech
ō. Continuous action. As members of the family of God we constantly and always have someone we can appeal to after we have committed sin and broken fellowship with God. This is the basis for confession of sin as discussed at 1 John 1:9.

9. an advocate: the noun is paraklātos. It means a helper, encourager, defense attorney. Our advocate is Jesus.
10. with the Father: the location of our advocate is the right hand of God the Father where He sits in victory over sin and death through the cross and resurrection.
  A. Jesus is our high priest: Heb. 4:14-16; 8:1ff
  B. Jesus is our intercessor: Heb. 7:25-27; 9:24, which is
     based on His 1 time sacrifice on the cross. Rom. 8:34.
  C. Jesus is a true spiritual servant on our behalf.
      Hebrews 8:1-2
  D. Jesus is a mediator between God and man. Heb. 8:6.
  E. The devil appears daily before the Godhead and accuses
     various believers of their many and often repeated
     offenses. Revelation 12:10.
  F. And Jesus is there to constantly "defend" each and
     every erring believer who uses the provision of 1John
     1:9. Not to excuse or defend the sin, but to simply
     claim that the personal sin has already been paid for
     and is no longer an issue. As earlier pointed out, this
     is the significance of "the blood of Jesus keeps on
     cleansing us from sin" as seen at verse 1:7.

11. Jesus Christ the righteous: adjective is dikaios, and
   in this context indicates sinless and perfectly conformed
   to the character and viewpoint of God in His humanity.
   Jn 8:29; 8:46; 9:30-33; Acts 3:2-5; 7:52; 22:4; Heb.4:15;
   7:26; 1Pet 2:22; 2Cor. 5:21; 1Jn 3:5; Is. 53:11.

Verse 2
1. and He is the propitiation: hilasmos means satisfaction.
   It is used for the mercy seat of Israel's temple. It is
   the place where divine satisfaction was symbolized
   through an animal sacrifice.
SEE TOPIC: Propitiation

2. for our sins:
  A. His work on the cross provided initial forgiveness
     for all sins. Eph. 1:7.
  B. Thus, our eternal positional relationship with God
     (salvation) is established. 2 Cor. 5:4-7. This is our
     permanent status in heaven.
  C. But experiential fellowship with God during our life on
     earth is lost when we commit personal sin.
  D. However, because of Christ's initial one-time sacrifice
     for sin, fellowship is restored by appealing to that
     sacrifice by confession of sin to the Father. 1Jn. 1:7

3. and not only ours: the primary issue in propitiation
  (satisfaction of the Godhead's character of righteousness)
   is salvation forgiveness.
  A. Without initial salvation forgiveness of sins for the
     one who trusts in Christ as savior, there can be no
     fellowship experience with the Godhead.
  B. The sins of the whole world: topic: unlimited atonement
     Jesus died for ALL and everyone's sins.

Verses 3-11
John returns to the issue of the believer's fellowship.
Verse 3
1. And by this: identified later as keeping His commandments
2. we know: verb gin
ōskō as a present active indicative.
   This is used to indicate an experiential knowledge and
   awareness of success in the growth process and
   consistency of fellowship with Jesus.

3. that we have come to know Him: The same verb but now as a
   perfect active indicative. The perfect tense views an
   action as something that has been completed in the past
   and the results continue into the present. It indicates
   arrival at a goal based on past activity.
  A. Him - refers to the Son as indicated by verses 1-6.
  B. know Him: experiential knowledge and rapport with Him
     through adherence to truth and character expression.
  C. The issue is the expression of genuine "divine" love
     as it is described in the bible.
     1. love of God is perfected in us: 1John 2:5
     2. to know the love of Christ: Eph. 3:19.
     3. His love is perfected in us: 1 John 4:12.
  D. love is directed toward Christ and reflected to others.
       1 John 4:21
  E. if you keep my commandments you will abide in my love.
      John 15:10.

4. if: another 3rd class condition "if" clause. This indicates the potential for both learning and application.

5. we keep: the verb is tāreō as a present active subjunctive to indicate CONSISTENT and diligent observance of the righteous standards of God's character and viewpoint.
6. his commandments: divine truth as communicated by Jesus
   and of course, as amplified throughout the new testament.
  A. His word: 1 John 2:5
  B. John 14:21-24, ultimately the Father's word.
  c. but centered around the character and application of
     LOVE. 2 John 5-6; 1 John 5:3.
  D. It is what I call, beneficent love. The quality of love
     that seeks the divine viewpoint benefit of the object.
  E. The various character expressions of love are detailed
     at 1 Corinthians 13:4-7
     SEE TOPIC: beneficent love
7. The building up of God's standards of truth in the soul
   cultivates the capacity to express beneficent love. Eph.
8. It is then the consistent expression of love which is the
   indication that we are partaking of the quality of life
   which reflects Christ's life and righteousness. 

Verse 4 False fellowship
1. The one who says: the verb is leg
ō as a present act. participle, and means to say or state. Here the force is greater than just a simple statement. It rather carries the force of contend, assert or make an authoritative claim.
The present tense sees this assertion as a constant or static viewpoint in the person's life. John is writing to believers about believers, but the principle can be applied to the unbeliever as well.

2. I have come to know Him: ginōskō as a perfect act. indicative. The perfect tense views this action as having occurred in the past with results continuing into the present. The claim is that the person has knowledge content and viewpoint that equals being likeminded as expressed by beneficent love. When related to verse 1:6, it is seen as having fellowship with Him and walking in the light.

3. and does not keep His commandments: The verb is tāreō as a present active indicative for the idea of "is not keeping." This refers to failure in the specific application of beneficent love in every area of life as illustrated at verses 3:7-18.
His commandments refers to the words of Jesus as taught by Him to His disciples and reflected in the apostolic letters.

4. is a liar: present indicative of eimi + pseustās.
This is a very stern indictment because they do not even come close to having a genuine love for God. Thus, instead of making the issue "being deceived" as at verse 26 (plan
), the stronger issue of intentional deception (liar) is established.

5. and the truth is not in him: there is no conformity to divine standards and viewpoint, which is the only basis for having positive spiritual reality. The evidence of positive spiritual reality is consistent expression of beneficent love as taught throughout the bible. At any given point or period of time when the believer is out of fellowship with God, that believer is experiencing negative spiritual reality which is walking in darkness.

Verse 5a True fellowship with God
1. But whoever shall keep: t
āreō again as a present active subjunctive which indicates the potential for obedience as well as the potential for disobedience.
2. His word: standards for everyday living which are opposite to the viewpoint and influence of the sin nature and the world as per verses 15-16.
3. in him: both within the soul and as expressed overtly; speech, thoughts and action.
4. the love of God: character standards of beneficent love as outlined at 1Cor. 13:4-7.
5. has truly been perfected:

  A. perfected: perfect passive indicative of teleio
  This refers to character consistency as taught at
  Eph. 3:16-19; 4:15-16; Philip 1:9-11; 2Peter 1:5-8;
  John 17:26 and 14:23.
  B. truly: the adverb al
s refers to genuine character
  expression of love as at Eph. 5:1-2. The imitation of
  Christ. It is not acted or hypocritical.
  C. The divine standards for moral and spiritual living are
   the only values that truly reflect the character of love.

Verse 5b, the evidence of salvation
1. By this: consistency of expressing beneficent love.
2. we know: present active indicative of gin
ōskō. We have
   experiential knowledge, awareness and even assurance
   based on the character expression of love.
3. that we are in Him: This is probably a reference to our
   positional status in union with Christ although it could
   refer to evidence of fellowship or perhaps even both.
  A. Christ's vocabulary as recorded by John at Jn. 15:1-8.
    "in Him" refers to our position of relationship with God
    the Father as also seen at 1 John 5:20, "we are
    IN Him who is true."
  B. But upon the glorification of Christ through His
     resurrection and session to the right hand of the
     Father, and the baptism of the Holy Spirit,
     relationship now involves an actual spiritual union
     with the Son with benefits that extend beyond our
  C. 2 Cor. 5:17, we are a NEW CREATION in Christ.
  D. summary
   1. All believers are in union with Christ. 1 Cor. 12:13.
   2. This union confers upon the believer the positional
      status of being one and partner with the glorified"
      humanity of Christ. Gal. 3:27-28.
   3. This union is described as a new creation that did not
      exist before. 2 Cor. 5:17.
   4. This union is permanent and unable to be disbanded by
      God or man. Rom. 8:38-39; Eph. 1:13; 2 Tim. 2:11-13.
   5. This union confers upon the believer the positional
      character of perfect righteousness and sinlessness.

      2 Cor. 5:21; Col. 2:10
   6. But in actual experience during life on earth, the
      believer must still contend with the world, the sin
      nature and the devil. Eph. 6:12; Gal. 5:17; Col. 2:8;
      1 Peter 2:11; 1 John 2:15-16.
   7. So the issue throughout the Christian way of life, is
      to use the word of God (standards, viewpoint and
      principles) and the filling ministry of the indwelling
      Spirit (1 Tim. 1:5; Gal. 5:16) to live a life that
      reflects our position of righteousness. Eph. 5:8;
      Col. 3:1, 9-10.
   8. There are actually 3 stages to our union with Christ.
     a. Stage 1 is placement into union with Christ at the
       moment of time that a person trusts in Him as Savior.
     b. Stage 2 will be accomplished at the rapture when
        every believer will receive a resurrection body
        exactly like Christ's. Phil. 3:20-21;
        1 Cor. 15:21-22, 42-53; 1 Jn. 3:1-2.
     c. Stage 3 is when the believer's works are evaluated
        at the reward seat of Christ and every expression of
        unrighteousness will be rejected by God.
        1 Cor. 3:10-15; Rev. 19:5-8

4. Character consistency is an indication of the believer's
   salvation status. Rom. 8:12-16
5. Abiding in Him is a perpetuation of salvation status
   into experience by walking in the light. Eph. 5:8
   Fellowship and character consistency via truth.
   Jn. 15:1-7.

Verse 6, the obligation and evidence of fellowship with God.
1. The one who says: the believer who makes a claim or
   assertion. The verb is leg
ō again as a present act. part.
2. He abides in him: lit: to be abiding in Him. Men
ō as a
   present active infinitive. This is a claim to fellowship
   and/or relationship.
3. ought himself: the verb is opheil
ō as a pres. act. indic.
   It speaks of an obligation imposed by the very nature of
   the case; fellowship by its very nature, demands it.
4. to walk: the verb is peripate
ō as a pres. act.
   infinitive. It means to maintain a way of life.
5. just as He walked: Same verb but as an aorist act.
   indicative that refers to the period of time of His
   earthly life. Character of love in every area of life.
  A. Eph. 5:1-2, imitators of God/walk in love.
  B. To love as He loved. 1 John 2:7-11
  D. Explained by what He taught.
  D. Illustrated by how He lived.


Verses 7-11, The commandment of love

1. Beloved: agapātos - indicates John's total dedication to providing them with spiritual benefit. They are the object of his beneficent love.

2. I am writing: graphō as a present active indicative.

3. not a new commandment: kainos - in contrast with palaios - not new in time.

4. But an old commandment: palaios - defined by the next line.

5. Which you were having: echo as an imperfect active indicative - continually from the past and NOW still having (now is implied).

The principle that it has always been with the church and all of God's people, and is available to you.

6. From the beginning:

A. From the time of Christ's ministry as He is the one who taught it in detail for His people. John 13.34; 15.12, 17

B. Also extends back to the command at Leviticus 19.18, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself."

7. But also from the beginning of their Christian lives through the apostolic teachings. Example: Paul - Rom. 13.8-14; Gal. 5.13; Eph. 5.1-2


Verse 8, on the other hand, (palin) - again, or furthermore. Used to provide amplification.

1. I am writing a new commandment: kainos - New because there is a new focus in time.

        A.   It is always fresh, powerful and vital for living the Christian life.

   B. Love is absolute and reflects the very
structure of God's essence. V.4.8, 16 - God is love; 4.7, love is from God. Verse 4.10, This is love, the fact that He loved us.

   C. As such it can never be a palaios commandment but is FRESH & LIVING & POWERFUL.

   D. But now because of the intensification of the angelic conflict, LOVE has an even more vital role and impact in the life of the believer.

2. Which is true: alāthās - the absolute nature and truth of love

A. In Him: in God for - God is love. Love is the absolute standard by which God deals with his entire creation.

B. And in you: the believer. The commandment, that is LOVE, is the absolute standard
for the believer's life.

3. Because: hoti answers the question WHY? Thus, why NOW, is the commandment/standard of LOVE  FRESH & LIVING & POWERFUL and why is it the governing factor for the believer's life and character?

4. The darkness: skotia - As controlled by Satan, it is the system of standards and values which operates independent from
God and in rebellion against Him. (self centered, arrogant, creature viewpoint.
At verse. 17, it is the world (kosmos).

5. is passing away: paraqō as a present passive
   indicative. It is being led off the scene.
    Para = away from; agō = to lead. The passive
    voice has the subject (darkness) receiving the
    action of the verb. The darkness is being led

    off the scene of the universe. The viewpoint
    and influence of darkness is slowly being
    dispelled by a greater and more powerful agent
    - the standards of the true light.

6. and the true light: alāthinos; the genuine and absolute standard of truth. The reality of the Divine character and plan revealed in the world from the perspective of Christ's ministry, death and resurrection.

7. is already shining: phainō as a present active indicative. The progress of light in the world by the Holy spirit and bible truth working through believers dispels the influence of darkness in the world. And it portends the ultimate defeat of Satan and darkness.

8. SEE TOPIC: Judgment on darkness

Verses 9-11, The sphere of life for both systems (light and darkness) centers around the issue of LOVE.
Verse 9
1. the one who says: leg
ō again to refer to making a claim,
   affirmation or contention. present act. participle.
   "The one who asserts to be in the light."
2. that he is in the light: present infinitive of eimi
   (to be) + preposition "en" and ph
   This is a claim to both relationship and fellowship with
   focus on the issue of fellowship; walking in the light.
3. and is hating his brother: the verb is miseō as a present
   active participle. While making this claim, he is
   expressing negative attitudes, speech or acts to another.
  A. Attitude opposite to the standards of LOVE. That is,
   thoughts that do not promote the benefit of someone else,
   but instead seeks the promotion of self in spite of
   and/or at the expense of someone else.
  B. He is operating under the self-centeredness and
    arrogance of the sin nature.
  C. And of course, more obvious are the deeds of speech or
     action that likewise contradict the standards of love.
4. is in the darkness: present indicative of eimi. He is
   living under the viewpoint and value structure of the
   darkness system; "the lust of the flesh (body), the lust
   of the eyes and the arrogance of life" Verse 16.
   This is amplified at verse 11.
5. Such a one has not lost his salvation, but has returned
   to a way of life that imitates the unbeliever.
   1 Cor. 3:1-3, "walking as men."

Verse 10
1. the one who loves his brother: present act. participle of
ō. sinless consistency through expression of
   beneficent love. Basically, love as Christ loved.
  A. verse 5:3, This is the love of God, that we keep His
  B. Following the standards and viewpoint of God's word
   automatically provides benefit for all who are affected.
2. abides in the light: men
as a present active indicative.
   Walking in the light and reflecting the standards of the
   light system in every area of life.
3. and there is no cause for stumbling in him: Lit, "There
   is not any stumbling in him." The noun is skandalon.
  A. As long as the believer is walking in the light (in
   fellowship; abiding in Him), there is no failure (sin)
   in his life.
  B. As long as LOVE governs every area of life, the
   believer will not sin.
  C. There must be a conscious choice to express viewpoint,
   speech or action contrary to the standards of light.
   1. Job 29:3, by His light I walked through darkness.
   2. Psalm 36:9, In your light we see light.
   3. 1 John 3:6, the one who abides in Him does not sin.

Verse 11
1. but the one who hates his brother: mise
ō, pres. act.
   part. This is the one expressing the self-centeredness
   of the sin nature.
2. is in the darkness: emphasis on function; not status.
   But he imitates the darkness status of the unbeliever.
3. and is walking in the darkness: peripate
, pres. act.
   indicative. Living under the influence of the darkness
   system with all its deception and lies; following the
   standards of the sin nature and/or Satan.
4. and does not know: the verb is oida which is a perfect
   active indicative to indicate an on going condition of
   total disorientation concerning the vital issues of
   human existence.
5. where he is going: indicates a course of life that has no
   positive spiritual value; no direction, purpose, goal or
6. Because the darkness: sin nature and satanic viewpoint
   and standards.
7. has blinded his eyes: the eyes of the soul so that there
   is no comprehension of positive spiritual reality.
  A. Life is guesswork as it operates on self-centered
     emotions and the physical impulses of the body.
  B. Seeking pleasure and fulfillment in these two areas is
     the only thing that matters in life.
  C. There is no stability, no confidence, security or hope.
  D. They are ripe for the philosophies and gimmicks of the
     world system that vainly promise to give more meaning
     and definition for life.
  E. But of course, the world provides no peace. John 14:27.
8. This condition of ignorance (not knowing -oida) is described as a condition of disorientation to the person of Christ at 1Jn. 3:6. The one who chooses to reject the standards of love in any given situation in life is sinning. Such a one is unable to relate to Jesus in a mature, rapport and fellowship experience. In that moment of time of personal sin, that believer has not come to see him or know Him.

Verses 12-14, fellowship truth applied to the 3 levels of
   spiritual growth.
The Bible teaches there are 3 levels of spiritual growth.
1. Principle:  Ephesians 4:11-16
2. 1 Peter 2:1-2; 2 Peter 3:18; Col. 2:6-7
3. 2 Peter 1:5-8
4. Matthew 13:18-23
5. John 21:15-17

verse 12, the youth stage; new believers; babes
   (Heb.5:1-14; 1 Cor. 3:1-3)
1. I am writing: graph
ō as a present active indicative.
   The present tense emphasizes the current urgency of the
   situation. The spiritual conflict rages on and every
   believer needs to be urged to function at their fullest
2. to you little children: teknion is different from teknon
   (child) and focuses on the beginning stage of life.
3. because: hoti is used to introduce that which is the
   focal point for the new believer and/or the believer who
   has not made progress in spiritual growth.
4. your sins: reference to the forgiveness of all past sins
   which was acquired at the moment of trusting in Christ.
   Ephesians 1:7; Col. 1:13-14
5. have been forgiven: the verb is aphi
āmi as a perfect
   passive indicative. The perfect tense refers to something
   that has occurred in the past with the results continuing
   into the present and into the future.
  A. Salvation reality is the primary focus for the new
  B. The magnitude of salvation is not yet fully understood,
   but his soul has been freed from a crushing burden and
   the reality of that release excites and motivates him.
  C. 1 Peter 2:2-3
6. for His name's sake: Literally, because of His name.
   Name, refers to the entirety of Christ's person; His
   character, His reputation and His work. As the savior
   appointed by God the Father, forgiveness of sins is
   because of Him and FOR Him.
7. And of course, everything is designed to ultimately bring
   honor and glory to God the Father. Eph. 1:6, 12, 14; 2:7;
   3:21; Romans 11:36.
8. The baby believer's growth process revolves around basic
   spiritual truths. Milk; elementary principles
   (1 Cor. 3:2; Heb. 5:12).
   John 21:15, gentle feeding; Greek verb, bosk
   "feed my lambs." (Greek noun arnion).
9. A general list of elementary teachings at Heb. 6:1-2.
   "the word of the beginning of the Christ."

a. Repentance from dead works and faith toward God -

1. Salvation doctrines
2. Morality
3. "Doubtful things"
4. grace orientation
5. faith rest
6. details of life (material things)
7. Suffering
8. Priesthood: prayer, service, giving

b. Washings: rituals; baptism and communion
c. Laying on of hands: Spiritual gifts and authority structure.
d. Resurrection
e. Eternal judgment

Verse 13a, the adult level
1. I am writing to you fathers: used to describe the mature
   level of growth where the believer manifests a stabilized
   responsible function in life.
2. because: introduces what is the focal point of maturity.
3. you have come to know: gin
ōskō as a perfect active indicative. This action is viewed as having occurred in the past with results that continue on into the present. Through the growth process, they have come to have an intimate rapport and consistent experience of fellowship with Jesus. They have come to a full knowledge and understanding of the person and plan of the Godhead.
  A. He who has been from the beginning: reference to Jesus
   as per verse 1:1.
  B. Full understanding of the knowledge of Christ as
   described elsewhere. Eph. 3:19; Eph. 4:11-14;
   Phil. 2:8-10; John 17:3; Heb. 5:14, solid food.
4. They need gentle "bosk
" type teaching because they
   express much greater consistency than the babe and
   adolescent. John 21:17, "feed my sheep." adult believers.
   Greek noun probaton.
5. But the mature believer is still challenged by the world,
   the flesh and the devil, and needs support and
   encouragement from teachers and other believers.

Verse 13b, the adolescent stage
1. I am writing to you young men: neaniskos
  A. Those who are faced with major life decisions in order
    to make transition from youth to adulthood.

  B. In the spiritual arena, the issue is coming to grips
   with the spiritual conflict we are in and establishing
   a consistent experience of stability and victory.
2. because: introduces that which is the focal point of this
   level of growth.
3. you have overcome: nika
ō as a perfect active indicative.
   You have established a victory in the past and have
   consistent victory in your lives as a result by using
   the resources that God has made available to His people.
4. the evil one: THE pon
ros refers to the one who promotes
   infectious evil in the universe.
  A. John's context:  1 John 3:12; 5:18-19
  B. What Jesus taught:  John 17:15
  C. What Paul taught: Eph. 6:16; 2 Thes. 3:3
  D. Peter's exhortation: 1 Peter 5:8-9
5. They can tolerate more solid food than the baby believer
   (meat rather than milk), but require a more exhortation
   type teaching; motivational and sometimes rough and
   John 21:16, "shepherd my sheep." The verb is poimaino and
   indicates a more severe, rougher, reproving type
   teaching. The word sheep is probaton and are older than
   the lambs.

Verses 13c-14, repetition for amplification.
1. The youth:
  A. I have written: grapho as an aorist active indicative.
    The change in tense is for emphasis. It still stresses
    the urgency of the message that elicits sinless
    consistency for all believers. And it still has the
    force of "I write." It is called an epistolary aorist.

  B. children: paidion. It is a different word from the
     first reference to the baby stage, but the word still
     carries the idea of new believer.
     1. teknion emphasizes birth and relationship.
     2. paidion emphasizes learning and growth through the
        discipline of instruction.
     3. Thus, it serves as an exhortation word to the newer
        believers that they might be diligent in growth.
     4. This is the immediate urgency of the epistolary
  C. because you have come to know the Father: gin
ōskō as a
     perfect active indicative. A present reality based on
     the past experience of coming to know God the Father.
     1. indicates salvation reality through relationship
        with the Father. children of God; John 1:12.
     2. The first time, he indicated salvation reality with
        emphasis on being cleansed from sin.

2. The mature believer:
  A. I wrote: the same epistolary aorist to focus on the }
     immediate urgency of maintaining sinless consistency.
  B. We can't stand still. There must be continued advance
     in growth and application to have a consistent impact
     in the angelic conflict.
  C. Repetition of there status communicates this urgency.
     Because you have known the one from the beginning.

3. The adolescent believer:
  A. I write: the epistolary aorist again. The immediate
     urgency directed to the adolescent believer concerns
     perpetuating their dramatic victories over the forces
     of darkness.
  B. because you are strong: eimi as a present indicative +
     the adjective, ischuros. The emphasis is on functional
     strength rather than capacity.
     1. The word, dunamis (power) emphasizes capacity and
     2. The word group, ischus, emphasizes the expression of
       that capacity, and in this context, the issue is
       strength  of character; spiritual integrity
       manifested by sinless consistency.
  C. and the word of God abides in you: men
ō as a present
     active indicative. This of course is the basis for
     strength of soul and sinless consistency.
  D. Thus, both together produce the reality of victory over
     the forces of darkness. You have overcome the wicked
     one (pon
ros). Eph. 6:10-17; 2 Cor. 10:3-6

Verses 15-17, loving the world removes fellowship with God.
Verse 15
1. do not love: agapa
ō as a present active imperative + the
   negative. The verb means to place such value on something
   that you give it priority in your life.

2. the world: kosmos refers to the organized system of
   creature independence from God as administered by Satan.
   It is used consistently to refer to the value system that is based
   on darkness standards; standards that are opposite to and in
   fact, antagonistic to the standards of the Divine value system as
   represented by God's written revelation found in the Bible.

4. nor the things of the world: identified at verse 16 as the soul occupation with details of life via the three philosophies of the world system; covetousness, physical lust, and creature arrogance. These philosophies have affinity with the sin nature and assist it in deceiving the soul (the deceitfulness of THE sin, Heb. 3:13).

5. if anyone loves the world: 3rd class condition "if"
   clause with the present active subjunctive of agapa
  A. Anyone, in this context refers to a believer who loses
     his focus on the divine value system and lives instead
     devoted to the world value system. Of course, it should
     go without saying that the principle applies to all
  B. The 3rd class condition indicates the possibility and
     very real potential for a believer to do this.
  C. The verb indicates an occupation with and devotion to
     the way of life of the world system.

6. the love of the Father:
  A. the love which is from the Father and is a reflection
     of His functional attributes as descried at 1 Cor.
  B. We know that the issue is a reflection or expression of
     His love because of the example at verse 3:17, "how
     does the love of God abide in him?"
  C. The failure to properly relate to the material needs of
     the brethren indicates a love for the things of the
     world instead of for God.
  D. Also at verse 4:12, loving one another is evidence of
     our fellowship with God and of His love being expressed
     in us.

7. is not in him: ouk eimi, present indicative + negative.
   Principle of mutual exclusion between the two value
   systems. Mat. 6:24; Mat. 110:34-36 with Lk. 12:51-53;
   Mat. 10:37-39 with Lk. 14:25-27 and 9:23-25l
   Mat. 12:30 with Luke 11:23; Mark 9:40; John 14:23-24.

1. all that is in the world: the word, pas, indicates that
   all kosmic viewpoint finds its expression in one or more
   of these areas.
2. lust of the flesh: epithumia + sarxz refers to the
   physical body and its senses. Sometimes the word, flesh,
   refers specifically to the sin nature, but since the
   other two philosophies emanate from the sin nature, the
   focus here is specifically on the physical body and its
   senses. Sensuality is the desire to fulfill the 5 physical senses
   of the body in order to experience pleasure, and through that
   pleasure experience a delusion of fulfillment in life.


3. the lust of the eyes: refers to what you see and the attitude of desire to possess it as expressed in the soul. This refers to covetousness, which is the desire and endeavor to possess everything that one perceives as attractive and in that possession, perceive it to be the means for true fulfillment in life.
The philosophy of materialism.


4. the boastful (arrogant) pride of life: The philosophy of
   independence from anyone and anything.
   A. This is the noun, aladzoneia.
      It refers to arrogant independence as illustrated at
      James 4:13-16, arrogance.
   B. of life: bios gives the emphasis on the function of
      life. This indicates that the person sees himself as
      the controller of his life and his destiny. This refers to the
      attitude and action of self-accomplishment and self-promotion,
      which is perceived as bringing true fulfillment in life.
   C. The ultimate in kosmic philosophy is creature
      arrogance & independence; prideful self reliance & sufficiency.
      1. It was the original sin of Satan. Ezk. 28:6-8;
         1 Tim. 3:6.
      2. It was the original sin of Adam and Eve. Gen. 3:6
         with 2:16-17
      3. And thus it becomes the natural expression of the
         sin nature. Mk 7:21-23; Ec. 7:29; Pr. 12:15; 16:2.
   D. General indictment on independence from God.
      1. Perversion: Isaiah 29:15-116; 45:9-10
      2. Heart not right:  Hab. 2:4
      3. senseless and stupid:  Psalm 94:8-11
      4. under delusion: Jeremiah 49:16
      5. self deception:  Gal. 6:3; Pr. 30:12; Rev. 3:17-18;
         Obadiah 3
      6. blind arrogance:  tupho
ō, 1 Tim. 6:4
   E. Rejection of divine authority and policy is the same
      as idolatry and the occult. 1 Samuel 15:1-23.

5.These correspond with the 3 areas of temptation that were directed to the woman (Ishah) in the garden of Eden, as recorded at Gen. 3:6. Notice that Ishah perceived 3 things about the forbidden fruit.

A. It was good for food: This is a bona fide observation and attraction. Mankind must eat. However, to make the food attraction superior to the divine viewpoint of God's mandate is practicing the philosophy of sensuality, thinking that the pleasing of the physical senses is one of the keys to true fulfillment in life.

B. It was a delight to the eyes: This likewise, is simple human perception that recognizes a bona fide factor concerning the tree. There is nothing wrong with beauty and enjoying that beauty as it is perceived through the eye gate. However, when beauty becomes a standard for evaluating good and bad to the denial of God's mandate, it is covetousness that seeks to find fulfillment in life by what one empirically perceives as having value.

C. It was able to make one wise: This is a false perception based on hearing and accepting the lie from the tempter. This is not something that can be determined by simply LOOKING at the tree. This is something that had to be suggested by a third party and accepted as true. It introduces the "arrogance of life" philosophy to Eve and suggests that she can be as good as or better than God.


6. is not from the Father:  ouk eimi ek (out from) indicates
   origin, source and conformity to.
7. but is out from the world: alla eimi. The propostion, ek,
   indicates origin, source and conformity to.
8. God's viewpoint and the world's viewpoint are totally
   A. one cannot be friends with the world and with God.
      James 4:4; Romans 8:5-8.
   B. One cannot serve God and wealth: Matthew 6:24
   C. This does not mean that a believer should not have
      material wealth. The issue is the LOVE of money.
      It is the LOVE of money that is the root of all the
      evils. 1 Timothy 6:10.

Verse 17
1. and the world is passing away: the verb is parag
ō as a
   present passive indicative. It means to lead away.
   The passive voice has the subject (world) receiving the
   action. It is in the process of being neutralized so that
   in the eternal age, the philosophy of independence from
   God will never be an issue.
2. and its lusts: the kosmic philosophies are in the process
   of being exposed and neutralized by the undeterred
   progress of the plan of God in the universe.

3. The statement that these things are in the process of passing away, describes the fact that the world system and its 3 philosophical sub-systems are under the influence of two effects.

A. The effect of its own nature: God is allowing the world system to run its "natural" course and by so doing, demonstrate itself to be totally inadequate and non-beneficial to God's creatures.

B. The effect of God's justice: God has placed the world system under the judgment of His righteousness so that in His own timing and in His own way, the entire system will be removed from being a factor for God's creatures.

4. Since this is being contrasted with the eternal destiny
   of the believer, it is evident that the emphasis here is
   in the final disposition of the world system and its
   philosophy of creature independence and rebellion.
  A. The plan of God: Psalm 92:5-9
  B. Genesis 3:15
  C. The strategic victory over darkness. John 12:31-32
  D. The future promise: 2 Peter 3:13
  E. The current conflict in time: Eph. 3:8-11; 6:12;
     2 Cor. 10:3-6
  F. The tactical victory: Rev. 20:1-3, 7-10
  G. The future reality: Rev. 21:-8

6. To escape the judgment that is to come upon the world system, one must "do the will of God." Doing the will of God is represented from two perspectives in the bible.

A. The initial decision to trust in the Messiah as Savior so that one is removed out of the kingdom of darkness and transferred into the kingdom of light. Mat. 7:21; John 6:29; 12:36; Acts 26:18; Col. 1:12-13; It is this that frees one from the judgment associated with the world system.

B. The continued function of faith through using the word of God and depending on the filling/control of the Holy Spirit. Col. 2:6; Gal. 5:16-25 It is this that frees one from the experiential effects of the world system, but has nothing to do with the status of salvation that is accomplished by initial trust in the Messiah.

6. but the one who does: poieō as a present act. participle.
   Refers to creature humility that conforms to the
   authority and policy of God.
7. the will of God: the strong contrast here revolves around
   salvation relationship with God. In order to  be saved
   from the penalty of sin and enter into an eternal
   relationship with God, one must accept God's policy for
   relationship and reject the philosophy of the world as a
   system for relating to God.
8. abides: men
as a present active indicative, describes
   the existence aspect of eternal life.
9. forever: unto the age (eis + aion, singular).
   The ultimate destiny and progress of the plan of God.

Verses 18-23, Warning about the spirit of antichrist through
              the presence and influence of false teachers.
1. children: paidion, emphasis on involvement in the growth
   process. At verse 2:1, the word is teknia and the
   emphasis is on the writers relationship and affection for
   the recipients. And then at verse 2:12, the word is
   teknion where the emphasis is on progress in growth
   viewed as beginner or baby believer.
  A. When this word is used, the writer wants to impress the
     recipients with the urgency to be under instruction,
     whether in general or for specific information.
  B. In this case it is for specific orientation to the
     advance and nature of false teachers. Verse 2:26.

2. It is a last hour:
  A. Hour (h
ōra) refers to a specific point of time within a
     time period (kairos).
  B. The specific hour may be a short or extended point of
     time, but it is a distinct event within an established
     time frame.
  C. It is used here to indicate a pivotal and critical
     event in the progress of God's plan. It does not refer
     to the "end times."
  D. Other examples of this use.
     1. Christ's messianic sacrifice. John 2:4; Mk. 14:35;
        Mt. 26:455; Jn. 2:23.
     2. Change in worship perspective. John 4:21, 23
     3. Change in salvation perspective. John 5:25
     4. The resurrection program. John 5:28-29
     5. The apostolic period of persecution. John 16:2
     6. Christ's 40 day resurrection ministry. Jn. 16:25-26
     7. Hour of divine judgment during the Day of the Lord.
        Rev. 3:10; 14:7, 15
     8. The 3 days of the scattered disciples. Jn. 16:32

  E. Kenneth Wuest says of this:

"The article is absent before, hour, and the emphasis is not therefore upon the fact of a particular, definite time, but upon the character of that particular, definite time. Vincent says that John uses the word, hour, as marking a critical season. He says, '. . . Hence the phrase here does not refer to the end of the world, but to the period preceding a crisis in the advance of Christ's kingdom, a changeful and troublous period, marked by the appearance of many antichrists.'"

While they both see the issue of this referring to a "critical season," they fail to realize that it is not the rise of the many antichrists that constitutes "a last hour," but rather it is the ARRIVAL of this "critical season" or TIME that has caused Satan to intensify his efforts to destroy the integrity of the inspired revelation of God.

  F. There has been previous teaching about the rise of
     false teachers.
     1. Just as: kath
ōs, establishes a standard of previous
     2. you heard: akou
ō as an aorist active indicative
        which indicates a previous point in time.
     3. It corresponds with what Paul taught at 2Tim. 3:-5
        (in the eschatos h
āmera; in the (last)days to come).
     4. It corresponds with Peter: 2Pet. 2:1 and 3:1-4
        (eschatos h
     5. Corresponds with Jude 17-19 and verse 4.
        (eschatos chronos - in the (last) time to come)
     6. Thus, John's vocabulary for the same time period is
        eschatos h
ra with emphasis on its present arrival.

3. All this previous teaching about false teachers can be summed up by John's vocabulary; an antichrist is coming.
  A. antichristos without the definite article (the) =
     an antichrist or simply antichrist.
  B. is coming: present middle indicative of erchomai.
      It refers to the arrival of a person or time which will be
      characterized by speech and lifestyle that is antagonistic
      to the Messiah (Christ).
  C. Anti: means against or instead of. It thus refers to
     both false prophets and false messiahs.
  D. The word antichrist refers to false teachers in general and is
not a title for the beast of Revelation 13 or the man of
lawlessness of 2 Thessalonians 2. Yes, traditionally, the title
has been almost universally applied to the beast, but the word
only occurs in John's letters and never is there a hint that it
refers directly to the future dictator of the tribulation.

  E. What have they heard concerning what is coming into the world?
If we go back to what has been written, then we go back to
several things, realizing that no one else uses ANTI so we have
to find its equivalent.
1. Jesus: Mat. 24:24, "for many FALSE christs and false prophets
will arise." 30 AD
2. Paul: the deceitful spirits of 1 Tim. 4:1. c. 65 AD
3. Peter: the false teachers of 1 Pet. 2:1. c. 68 AD

F. And yet the apostles acknowledge that there were false prophets who had infiltrated even as they wrote. And then Jude (which is more difficult to date, but is probably between 68 and 80 AD) writes that certain persons HAVE secretly infiltrated,
indicating there presence "already" just as John tells us.

4. John's vocabulary for the fulfillment of that previous teaching is "many antichrists."
  A. even now: kai nun, recognizes that the present rise and
     INCREASE of the false teachers indicates that something
     crucial and pivotal is about to occur in the progress
     of God's plan.
  B. many antichrists: described at v. 22; 4:3 and 2 Jn. 7.
     "the one who denies the Father and the Son."
  C. have arisen: ginomai as a perfect active indicative.
     They have become; have arrived on the scene - and probably
     are not going away.
  D. None of the apostles make any claims that THE man of
lawlessness has arrived, but simply that the "spirit" behind
the man of lawlessness has arrived. Thus we are warned of this
"spirit of antichrist" (based on John 4:2-3) as a CONCEPT rather
than a specific person.

  E. John continues telling us about the "spirit" who denies the
incarnation of Jesus, "and this is the one (spirit - based on
context) who is OF the antichrist, concerning which you have
heard that IT (spirit) is coming and NOW is in the world

  F. Even though the definite article is now used, it points
BACK to what is in context and not forward. John uses the
definite article at 2 John 7 also, where it very clearly refers
to what is NOW present in the world.

"For many deceivers have gone out into the world,
those who do not acknowledge Jesus Christ as coming in the
flesh (again - the issue revolves around the doctrine of
the incarnation).
THIS (what is then present) is THE deceiver and THE
antichrist." Ie, this is the "spirit" of antichrist which
he previously taught about.

  G. There is nothing in this context which should take us
forward to "the end times" (which have not presently arrived)
and have us apply the term antichrist to the man of lawlessness
and the two beasts of The Revelation.

  H. And of course believers overcome these false teachers by faith
and love - that is, they overcome the FALSE DOCTRINES of these
false teachers, but have ever been the recipients of great
physical persecution and can not boast of any PHYSICAL victory
over them.

5. from this: the rise of many false teachers.
6. we know: gin
ōskō as a present active indicative. We have
   experiential knowledge that the present unparalleled rise
   of the false teachers portends the arrival or imminent
   arrival of a unique, critical and pivotal time in God's

7. that it is a last hour: It is not the rise of antichrists that is "the critical hour." It is the unusual (although predicted) increase of the false teachers that INDICATES a critical hour is at hand.

8. This is NOT the last days of the church age. There are still 1900 years to go even though John does not know it.
  A. Under the principle of inspiration, John would not
     erringly say that it is time for Christ's return.
  B. But what he could know is that God's plan for the
     completion of His written revelation to the church is
     presently at hand.

9. John has in mind a pivotal event in the progress of God's plan. List of pivotal events.
  A. Birth of Messiah.  B. Baptism of Messiah
  C. crucifixion/resurrection.  D. birth of the church.
  E. Fall of Jerusalem. F. completion of the canon.
  G. rise of the man of lawlessness.
  H. Christ's return/rapture & start of the day of the Lord.

10. But what is THIS last hour?
     1. It is a period of time that was present at the end
        of John's ministry (c. 90 AD).
     2. It was not the end of the church age; IE. the time
        for Christ's return. John's dealing with that
        (verses 2:28; 3:2) is not different from how Paul
        and Peter deal with it.
11. In 90 AD, the only pivotal event in the progress of God's plan and which would elicit a major attack from Satan via false teachers would be the imminent completion of God's written revelation within about 7 years.

12. Thus, John actually addresses this issue in vs. 19-27.
  A. He brings attention to the truth and his reason for
     writing. Verse 21.
  B. He reminds them of an already established standard.
    Verse 24.
  C. He brings up the reality of those who are trying to
     deceive. Verse 26. That is to distract from the
    integrity of the already established doctrinal standard.
  D. Verse 27 refers to the ministry of the Holy Spirit
     who formerly taught what the established standard is.

Verse 19, A specific & unique origin of the false teachers.
1. They went out from us: aorist active indicative of erchomai + ek + us.
  A. Recognize fulfillment of Acts 20:29-30 (ek + you).
  B. Indicates the reality of Jude verse 4. secretly

2. Those who secretly infiltrated thus become "ek us" but at the same time, NOT (ouk) "ek us." This is because they do not establish genuine fellowship and doctrinal rapport with us. (2nd class condition if clause).
  A. If they had been of (ek) us: ei introduces the if
     clause (and they were not).
  B. They would have remained with us (and they did not):
     menō as a pluperfect active ind. + an + meta + us.
     The particle "an" completes the 2nd class if clause.
  C. The contrast in the whole section is between believer
     and unbeliever. The infiltrators of Jude are
     unbelievers as well (Jude 19).

3. But: alla introduces the historical reality of non compatibility between truth and error.
4. in order that: hina is used as a result clause to indicate the manifestation of false teachers based on their inability to hang with the truth.
5. That they all: hoti pas - there are no exceptions. Truth will always expose, convict and divide.
6. they might be manifest: aorist passive subjunctive of phaneroo. In other words, to establish their true colors.
7. that they all: hoti pas - no exceptions. Truth will always expose, convict and divide.
This is what Jesus meant when He said, that he came to bring a division and not peace on the earth (Luke 13:51-53; Mat. 10:34-37).

8. are not of us: eimi (present indicative) + ouk + ek + us.
Indicates no identification with believers who are following the truth.
  A. no compatibility, no rapport, no fellowship.
  B. They separated from us and still continue trying to
     neutralize us from the outside with their message of
     deception (V.26). Titus 1:10-11;
     Acts 20:30, "draw away disciples after them."
  C. Compare the two factors.
     1. 1 John 2:19, they left.
     2. Jude 4, they infiltrated.

Verse 20
Divine provision for perception of doctrinal knowledge.
1. But you:  alla indicates a strong contrast between the believers addressed and the false teachers who are unbelievers.

2. have: echō as a present active indicative. Possession of something which distinguishes them from the unbeliever; from the antichrist.

3. an anointing: chrisma. This is a special bestowment of blessing, rank or honor.
  A. Verb: Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27. chriō. both refer to the
     commission of Jesus as the anointed one; the Messiah.
     Thus, the Christos.
  B. Hebrews 1:9; symbolic of maximum blessing based on
     compliance with God's plan.
  C. Acts 10:38; reference to the Holy Spirit being given to
  D. 2 Cor. 1:21; chriō is used for the royal commission
     assigned to the believer.
    1. It refers to our ambassadorship and priestly
    2. It is totally separate from the provision of the
       Spirit that is mentioned in verse 22.
  E. The noun: chrisma; only occurs 3 times; 1 Jn. 2:20, 27.
  F. John's use parallels Acts 10:38 and refers to the
     provision of the indwelling Holy Spirit given at the
     point of salvation (1Cor. 12:13; Rom. 8:9).
  G. The purpose is for teaching. John 14:26; 16:13-15;
     1Cor. 2:12. This is how He leads us - through teaching
     and bringing to remembrance the principles and
     doctrines of God's word.
  H. The filling/control of the Spirit ENABLES the believer
     to perceive God's word (divine truth), but does not
     guarantee that what the believer accepts, concludes and
     holds to is necessarily the truth.

4. from the holy one: This is a reference to Jesus Christ as the provider of the Holy Spirit through God the Father.
  A. John 6:69; Acts 3:14; Rev. 3:7
  B. John 16:7 with 14:26
  C. The Father is also the provider: Jn. 15:26; Titus 3:5-6

5. and you all know: The verb is oida as a perfect act. indicative to indicate possession of facts which give insight and orientation to the attack against truth.
  A. What they know is explained in vs. 21-23. It is the
     truth of salvation relationship.
  B. The presence of the indwelling Holy Spirit and the
     reality of His filling-control enables them to
     understand the true issues of the gospel.
  C. This provides discernment as to the reality of their
     own salvation and insight concerning salvation reality
     in others.
  D. Then from this confidence of salvation, John will
     develop the mandate of Christian integrity as summed
     up by the word, love. 1John 3:23.

6. But the Spirit does not teach us DIRECTLY, but uses the specially equipped teachers that God has appointed to the church; apostles, teachers, prophets, evangelists, exhorters. Ephesians 4:11-12
As Paul explains, "which things we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual things to spiritual ones."

Eph. 3:16-19, Paul's prayer: "That He would grant you . . . through His Spirit in the inner man . . . so that you may be able to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, and to KNOW the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God."

John writes at 1 John 2:27, "And as for you, the anointing that you received from Him abides in you, and you have no need for anyone to teach you; but as His anointing teaches you about all things, and is true and is not a lie, and just as it has taught you, you abide in Him."

It is commonly believed that through the indwelling Spirit and more specifically, through the filling control of the Spirit, that the believer is able to properly and accurately understand the written word of God. This "leading" of the Spirit "guides" us into all truth, enabling us to discern truth from error, and protecting us from deception.
This is a wonderful principle IN THEORY. But what happens when several different "Spirit-filled" men and women disagree about the interpretation of the Scripture?
What are the commands from the Bible? "Be filled with the Spirit;" "walk by the Spirit."
I think I am and claim that I am "filled with the Spirit."
You think you are and claim that you are "filled with the Spirit."
And yet we differ on our understanding of various Biblical topics and often on serious issues.
The clear truth of the matter is, we cannot BOTH be right.
So, one or both of us cannot lay claim to be Spirit-filled.
Or, it really has nothing to do with the ministry of the Spirit. Proper interpretation of Scripture is ENABLED by the Spirit, but does not automatically mean that any particular believer is going to have the RIGHT interpretation of scripture. Proper interpretation requires the application of several principles and rules; comparing passage with passage, using the original languages and historical contexts. We are called upon to therefore, REASON together. But historically, that has proven to be quite futile and unproductive. But it seems that that is all we have.

Similarly, we have the issue of avoiding sin.
Galatians 5:16, "walk by the Spirit and you will not carry out the desires of the flesh."
But the real factor for avoiding sin is USING the principles and truths of God's word to make a conscious choice NOT to sin when faced with temptation. 1 Cor. 10:13; The way of escape is NOT the ministry of the Spirit STOPPING you from doing sin, but KNOWLEDGE and application of God's word. The truth of Psalm 119:11 is still the weapon to resist temptation. "Your word I have treasured in my heart so that I won't sin against you."
Peter wrote at 1 Peter 5:9, "resist him (devil) firm by the faith" THE faith refers to all the standards of truth found in the Bible.
And Paul at Ephesians 6:10-18, "Put on the full armor of God, that you may be able to stand firm against the schemes of the devil . . . and the sword of the Spirit which is the word of God."

It is true that the apostles had the ministry of the Spirit that gave us the INSPIRED New Testament, but even Paul CHOSE to ignore God's word and sinned on at least two occasions.
Likewise, Peter and Barnabas failed to apply "revealed" principles of grace, and sinned by shunning the Gentiles, being guilty of hypocrisy that was contrary to the truth of the gospel.  Gal. 2:11-14.

Accordingly, all of us must be wary of claiming a more accurate understanding of the text based on being Spirit filled. And likewise, wary of being over confident in the face of temptation, thinking that the Spirit will stop us from doing sin.

Verse 21
John's purpose is to confirm a previously established doctrinal standard.
1. I have not written to you: graphō as an aorist active indicative which indicates the fact of this present communication.
2. because you do not know the truth:
  A. The verb oida (perfect active indicative) indicates an
     established standard resident and functional in the
  B. the alātheia: the established standard of doctrine
     centered around the content of the gospel.
  C. His purpose is not to teach something new, but to
     confirm what they have been taught and presently know.

3. But because you know it: conjunction, alla, shows a strong contrast between knowing and not knowing.
  A. The information John is giving is meaningless unless
     the recipients have already been established in the
  B. John is writing because these believers have the
     necessary wisdom and understanding for insight into the
     nature of the attack on the foundation doctrines of the

4. and because: The second purpose for writing to them is to establish the integrity of divine revelation in view of the counterfeit doctrines which have come on the scene.
5. no lie: pas pseudos; every falsehood; anything contrary to that which you have received from the beginning.
  A. centered around the incarnation and work of the Messiah
    (Verse 1:1-2 with 4:1-3).
  B. And concerning the Christian way of life which is
     summed up by the doctrine of love.
6. is not of the truth: eimi + ouk + ek + alātheia.

Verse 22: the nature of falsehood
1. who is the liar: the pseutās; falsifier; the one who promotes falsehood; that which is contrary to the established standard of inspired truth.
2. except the one who denies: arneomai as a pres. middle participle. In order to promote falsehood, there must be a stated or implied denial of the established doctrinal standard.

3. that Jesus is the Christ:
  A. Jesus, refers to His humanity.
  B. Christos, refers to the divine Messiah.
  C. The combination makes the incarnation the ultimate test
     for truth.
  D. When Lord (kurios) is added, the emphasis is on deity.
4. Christos: the anointed one; refers to the divine
commission from God the Father.
  A. Jesus is the Messiah.
    1. Promise to Abraham: Gal. 3:16; Rom. 9:4-5
    2. At Jesus' birth: Luke 2:11
    3. Simeon's confession: Luke 2:25-32
    4. Confession of John the baptizer: Jn.1:19-20; 3:27-36
    5. Confession of Jesus: Jn. 4:25-26; Mat. 26:63-66
    6. Confession of Peter: Mat. 16:15-16; Acts 2:36
    7. Confession of John the apostle: Jn. 20:30-31
    8. Paul's conviction: Acts 9:22
  B. The Messiah is God:
SEE TOPIC:  Christ: Messiah is deity.

5. This is the antichrist: The real issue then is the incarnation.
6. the one who denies: present middle participle of arneomai. Rejects the claims and therefore the integrity of the Godhead.
7. the Father and the Son: The one who rejects the reality of the Messiah's presence on the earth in the person of Jesus Christ also rejects God the Father.
John 5:23; Luke 10:16.

Verse 23 This truth applied from a salvation perspective
1. Whoever denies the Son: pas = everyone who denies.
   present active participle of arneomai. This is a failure
   to make a faith acceptance as to the reality of the
2. does not have the Father: echō as a present active indicative + the negative. Indicates possession through having a relationship with God the Father.
  A. Only through Jesus: John 14:6.
  B. You don't have a "father" until you are born.
  C. Thus, Johnn 1:12, family relationship via faith in
3. He who confesses the Son: homologeō as a present active participle. It means to acknowledge and accept the truth about Jesus through trusting in the salvation provision of the gospel.
4. Has the Father also: present active indicative.
Also possesses relationship with God the Father.

Verse 24; A fellowship issue for the believer
1. As for you: believers who have already made the confession of verse 23.
2. Let that abide in you: menō; present active imperative.
3. which you heard from the beginning: previous teaching concerning the issues of the Christian way of life.
4. from the beginning: goes back to verses 7-11.
The commandment of love. Thus, all the doctrinal principles concerning love.
5. IF: 3rd class condition. Maybe you will and maybe you won't. If you learn and use the doctrinal principles of love, you will perpetuate fellowship with God and maintain sinless consistency.
6. you also will abide in the Son:
  A. Perpetuation of the salvation promise into experience.
     John 10:10, (1) life, spiritual life; relationship
     reality. and (2) abundance, the abundant life of peace,
     joy and inner security.
  B. The fellowship issue of verse 1:3; 2:3-6 and V.15.

7. This is similar to what Paul taught at Col. 1:13. The believer will be presented to God as "holy, blameless, and beyond reproach" IF indeed, you continue in THE FAITH."

8. This is not a salvation issue.
John 14:21, "
The one who has My commandments and keeps them is the one who loves Me; and the one who loves Me will be loved by My Father, and I will love him and will reveal Myself to him."
John 14:23, "if anyone loves Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come to him and make Our abode with Him."
John 15:10, "if you keep my commandments you will abide in My love."
John 15:14, "you are My friends if you do what I command you."

Verse 25, The salvation promise is the foundation for life, not only in eternity (heaven), but also here on earth.
1. And this is the promise: present indicative of eimi.
2. He Himself promised us: This makes it a personal issue that comes directly from the integrity of God.
3. eternal life: 1 John 5:11-12; the promise of Jn. 10:7-10, which involves two factors: (1) spiritual life through relationship with God. (2) abundant life through peace, joy and inner stability by learning and using bible truth.

John 10:1-18
There are two figures of speech that Jesus uses to teach the disciples. We need to keep the images in one figure separate from the other one. The first one is a SHEPHERD analogy.
After the people fail to understand the first figure that Jesus uses in verses 1-6, He uses a different figure in verses 7-10; the DOOR analogy. Then, in verses 11-18, He returns to using the SHEPHERD analogy to complete the picture of providing salvation according to God's plan.

John 10:9, "I am the door. If anyone enters through me, he shall be saved, and go in and out, and find pasture."
1. The fold represents the status of relationship with God the Father; eternal life.
2. The door to the fold is Jesus. This is the only way into the fold. John 14:6, I am the way, the truth and the life. No one can come to the Father except through Me."
3. Entering through the door is to trust in Christ as Savior.
4. Upon entrance into the fold; relationship with God, there are two results.
  A. He shall be saved: This is the place of security and safety for the sheep. It refers to forgiveness of sins and relationship with God through receiving the new birth of spiritual life.
  B. and shall go in and out, and find pasture: This indicates a contented life for the sheep. It refers to the quality of life that the believer can enjoy here on earth as he learns and uses the truths of God's word.

John 10:10, "I am come that they might have life and have abundance."
1. Again, two things are in view; salvation and quality of life here on earth.
2. "Life" corresponds with "saved" in verse 9.
  A. Romans 5:9, Saved from the wrath. Jude v. 23.
  B. 2 Tim. 1:9, saved us and called us.
  C. Mat. 1:21, save His people from their sins.
  D. 1 Tim. 1:15, save sinners.
  E. Luke 19:10, save what was lost
  F. John 12:47, save the world.
  G. John 10:28, never perish. John 3:16.
  H. John 5:24, has eternal life, and does not come into
     judgment but has passed out from death into life.

3. "abundance" corresponds with "finding pasture," and refers to a functional and satisfying life. The translation that makes abundance an adverb, "abundantly," misses the significance of the TWO things involved with our salvation.
  A. The experience of eternal life blessings in time.
  B. Mat. 11:29-30, rest for your souls refers to a quality
     of life here on earth.
  C. 1 Tim. 4:6-11; 6:11-12, 17-19; Taking hold of eternal
     life refers to experiencing the blessings of your
     salvation relationship while here on earth by learning
     and using the truths of God's word.
  D. Galatians 6:7-9, reaping eternal life refers to
     experiencing the spiritual blessings of being a child
     of God while here on earth.
  E. Peace and Joy:  Romans 14:17 with 15:13.
  F. Peace: John 14:27
  G. Joy: John 15:11

4. John 17:3: This is eternal life.
Jesus gives eternal life to those who trust in Him.
This does not teach "what" produces eternal life, but rather, what is involved with the possession of eternal life which one acquires at the very moment of time that he trusts in Christ as savior.
The NATURE of this eternal life revolves around knowledge; the experiential knowledge (ginosko) of the Father and of the Son.
Knowing Christ

Verse 26, The urgency of John's message is based on verse 18; many antichrists.
1. These things: the facts concerning the incarnation of Jesus and the salvation reality provided by Him.
2. Concerning those: the verb is planaō as a present active participle. They seek to deceive you and influence you to wander from the truth through the input of false ideas.
  A. Warning about their existence.
  B. Warning about the content of their message.

Verse 27
1. And as for you: specific exhortation for believers.
2. The anointing: chrisma
  A. which you received: aorist active indicative of lambanō
     refers to the point of time of salvation. The very
     moment in time that you trusted in Christ as savior.
  B. from Him: The Holy One of verse 20, Jesus Christ.
3. abides in you: present active indicative of menō indicates the permanent presence of the Holy Spirit.
  A. John 14:16, He will be with you forever.
  B. Romans 8:9, if anyone does not have the Spirit, he does
     not belong to Him.
  C. 2 Cor. 1:22, The Spirit is given as a guarantee.
  D. Ephesians 1:13, sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise.

4. and you have no need: present active indicative of echō.
The result of having received some specific truth from previous teaching and the ministry of the Holy Spirit.
5. for anyone to teach you: a specific category of truth which they already know. This is a hina clause with the present active subjunctive of didaskō.
"You have no need that anyone be teaching you."
(or guiding or leading).
Same principle that Paul taught at 1Thes. 4:9, "concerning the love of the brethren, you have no need for anyone to write to you."
Because you have previously been taught, an established standard of truth exists and you do not need any further input. Man's teaching cannot contribute to revealed truth.
And the Spirit is faithful to bring to remembrance the truths that have previously been taught.

6. but just as His anointing: the indwelling and filling of the Holy Spirit.
7. teaches you about all things: the all things refers to understanding the truths of God's revelation to His people.
The verb is didaskō as a present active indicative and refers to the general principle of 1Cor. 2:12-13.
"the things freely given to us by God."
The Spirit does not teach us DIRECTLY, but ENABLES us to understand the word of God as He uses the specially equipped teachers that God has appointed to the church; apostles, teachers, prophets, exhorters.
As Paul explains, "which things we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, interpreting spiritual things to spiritual ones."

8. and is true: alāthās; truthful, genuine, reliable, trustworthy.
9. and is not a lie: pseudos: not a deception in contrast with the falsehood of verse 26.
10. and just as it has taught you: the functional standards for living the Christian way of life (CWL) based on the reality of the incarnation and Christ's character example.
It revolves around the practice of beneficent love through learning and following standards of God's word.
This has been studied earlier at verses 6-7.
11. Be abiding in Him: present active imperative. Command.
This is accomplished through knowledge and application of God's word; keeping the commandments of Jesus, which revolve around love.
  A. John 15:5-7: abide in me and I in you; abide in me and my words abide in you. Verse 10, "if you keep my commandments, you will abide in my love." Verse 12, "This is my commandment that you love one another."
1 John 2:10, "the one who loves his brother abides in the light." 1Jn 2:6, "walk in the same manner as He walked."
1 John 3:24, "the one who keeps His commandments abides in Him."

  B. Abiding in Him is the experience of fellowship with Him through maintaining sinless consistency.
  C. If at any time the believer chooses to reject the viewpoint of the word of God by thinking or doing or speaking contrary to the standards of love, that constitutes personal sin and that believer breaks fellowship with God; quenches the influence of the Holy Spirit and ceases to abide in Him.
  D. But as long as the believer consistently chooses to allow the standards of God's word (love) to influence/govern the soul (life), that believer will not sin; will not commit unrighteousness. 1 John 3:6-9.
It is the SEED of the word of God abiding in the believer (influencing and governing the soul) that prevents personal sin and the doing of unrighteousness. When the seed of God's word ceases to govern the soul, the believer is prone to sin. The seed will cease to govern the soul when the believer CHOOSES to resist and not heed those truths.

Verse 28, application to the second coming of Jesus.
1. and now little children: exhortation to Christians.
2. be abiding in Him: present active indicative. Repetition for emphasis and to introduce a new focus.
3. so that: hina + subjunctive mood of the verb, have.
Introduces a secondary purpose for maintaining sinless consistency. Not only does sinless consistency fulfill our purpose on earth - to bring honor and glory to the Father and to Christ, but it also prepares the believe for a confident and shameless meeting with the Lord at His coming.

4. whenever He appears: ean + aorist passive subjunctive of phaneroō; temporal 3rd class condition indicates a temporal uncertainty but not a factual uncertainty.


5. we may have confidence: present active subjunctive of echō, goes with the hina purpose clause.
The result of maintaining fellowship with Him; abiding in Him; sinless consistency, is an enduring confidence of having no shame when we meet Him face to face at the rapture.
  A. confidence: the word parrāsia indicates both an OVERT and VERBAL expression. At 2 Cor. 3:1-12 it is used in connection with the word, hope (elpis), which expresses an ATTITUDE of confidence and assurance. (Rom 15:4, 13; 5:3-5).
  B. Hope, elpis, is also used here in 1 John in connection with our ATTITUDE of assurance concerning the second coming of Jesus. 1 John 3:3, "and everyone who has this HOPE in Him, purifies himself, even as He is pure."
The purification process is learning and using bible truth as the means to practice sinless consistency and imitation of the character of Christ (love).
  C. Being in fellowship at the moment of the rapture provides a smooth transition from experientially abiding in Him to a face to face rapport with Him.
  D. and not shrink away from Him in shame:
   1. The verb is aischunō as an aorist passive subjunctive.
     The subjunctive mood goes back to the hina purpose
     clause and indicates the connection between confidence
     and no shame.
   2. For the believer who is out of fellowship with God at
      this time, there will be initial shame and repulsion
      emanating from within us when we first meet Him.
   3. But He will embrace all believers equally at that
   4. This will dispel that initial shame, but there will be
      a vivid reminder of its cause at the reward seat of
   5. There is a hint of this potential shame at 2 Peter
      3:14. Since we are looking for the "things" related to
      the second coming of Jesus, we should be "diligent to
      be found by Him in peace, spotless and blameless."
   6. 1 John 4:16-17. As we abide in Him; in His love, His
      love is perfected within us and results in confidence
      at the reward seat of Christ; "the day of judgment."

6. See: Luke 21:34-36

Verse 29, The evidence of fellowship
1. If you know: 3rd class condition IF + perfect active subjunctive of oida. The verb refers to established knowledge concerning the quality of Christ's righteousness.
In other words, if you know WHAT constitutes righteousness.
The potential from the 3rd class condition is that MAYBE you know this effectively in your soul or maybe you do not.
2. that He is righteous: This is a fact. Present indicative of eimi + the adjective, dikaios. Back at verse 2:1, He is designated as "the righteous one."
  A. Comprehending that Christ is righteous requires spiritual growth; growing up into Him. It is seeing His image in the scriptures and allowing that knowledge to work in our soul in order to become conformed to His image. 2 Cor. 3:18, "we are being transformed into the same image."
  B. Righteous communicates sinless consistency. But in Christ's case there is never any interruption to His consistency.
    1John 3:5, "in Him there is no sin."
    2 Cor. 5:21, "Him, who knew no sin."
    Hebrews 4:15, "without sin."
    Hebrews 7:26, "holy, innocent, undefiled."

  C. From the practical standpoint, it communicates a righteous way of life; reflecting the character qualities of God the Father. The principle of Ephesians 5:1-2.
    "become imitators of God as beloved children."
    1. Mature perfection: Mat. 5:48. adjective, teleios.
    2. Mercy: Luke 6:36, oiktirmōn.
    3. Morally upright: Hebrew word, yashar.
    4. Justice: Job 34:12, "the Almighty will not bend
    5. No partiality: Rom. 2:11; Eph. 6:9, "there is no
       partiality with Him." prosōpolāmpsia.
    6. Love. John 3:16; 1 John 4:8, "God is love."
    7. Truth: Titus 1:2, "the not-lying God."
    8. Compassion, mercy, kindness: Exodus 34:6

3. then you know: present active indicative of ginōskō. Refers to experiential knowledge based on comparing the absolute standard with the mandate for living the Christian life.
4. that everyone who does: present active participle of poieō. This refers to both speech and action.
5.THE righteousness: dikaiosunā + definite article (the).
It refers to the specific righteousness which is a reflection or an expression of Christ's righteousness.
Righteousness and love should RADIATE from the believer.
  A. This is not just religious behavior:
     That is condemned. Matthew 6:1-5
  B. Not just a verbal expression: Is.29:13; 48:1; Mt. 6:7;
     1 John 3:18, "not in word or tongue."
  C. Not things simply done "in Jesus' name. Mt. 7:15-23
  D. Not the appearance of religion: Col. 2:23
  E. 1 Cor. 13:1-3: It revolves ONLY around beneficent love.
     1. Verse 1: not cultic emotionalism.
     2. Verse 2: not just having or using a spiritual gift.
     3. Verse 3a: not just generosity.
     4. Verse 3b: not enduring persecution or even dying.
     5. Without love I am nothing; without love, no profit.

6. Such a one as this has been born of God: This is evidence of genuine conversion because the imitation of Christ's character (love) is ONLY possible in someone who has become a child of God through trust in Christ.
It cannot be counterfeited; faked, pretended or legislated.
This knowledge sees through hypocrisy and legalism. It sees the jealousy and vindictiveness. It sees the arrogance and prejudice. It is knowledge that sees all the little words and actions that are contrary to true Christian love. It enables the oriented believer to properly evaluate and respond with prayer or exhortation "to restore such a one in the spirit of true humility." Gal. 6:1.
Gal. 6:2, "bear one another's burdens and thus fulfill the love of Christ."



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