(See Orientation to First Peter via the SEVEN THEREFORES)

Verse one

1. Peter: Identifies the human author
     A. Written about 65 AD
     B. From Babylon - verse 5:13 (although could be symbolic for Rome)
     C. subject: maximum participation in the quality of life provided by the plan or God
          in the midst or an antagonistic environment.

2. An apostle of Jesus Christ: establishes his authority based on

3. To the elect: eklektos - refers to participants in the plan of God through salvation relationship with Him. So here immediately we are presented with controversy.
Controversy not only regarding the doctrine of election itself, but also the significance of the three factors mentioned in verse 2 which help orient us to the plan of election.


4. Aliens: parepidāmos - a visitor and therefore a temporary dweller.
     A. We have been transferred into a new kingdom. Acts 26:18: Col. 1:13
     B. Therefore, we are not or this world. John 17:16
     C. And since this transfer was of the plan of God, we are called ELECT sojourners .

     D. Accordingly, our citizenship is in heaven. Phil. 3:20
     E. We live here on earth as aliens. paroikos - 1 Pet. 2:11
     F. Old Testament anticipation of a heavenly city: Heb. 11:13-16
     G. And our purpose for being here is ambassadorship. 2 Cor. 5:17
     H. But since there is a natural antagonism between light and darkness,
          the environment in which we live here on earth is antagonistic toward us.

          1. John 3:19-20
          2. John 15:18-20: 17:14

     I. In addition, since we have a natural physical affinity to this world, there will be the natural
        physical distractions to our ambassadorship purpose. Details of life -- I Cor. 7:29-35-

     J. Thus, we must cultivate the “alien mentality” - Col. 3:1-3
         1. Mat. 6:19-24, we are here for service not pleasure
         2. Mat. 6:25-34, Seek first the kingdom
         3. 1Tim. 6:17, trust in God
         4. Peter covers it at verse 1:17, conduct yourselves in fear

     K. The alien mentality requires maximum utilization of time in order to fulfil our ambassadorship
          with minimum distractions.
         1. Eph. 5:16, because the days are evil
         2. Ps. 90:12, to build wisdom in the soul
         3. 1 Cor. 7:35, Benefit, SOP for the Christian way of life. Un-distracted devotion.

     L. Thus the first character factor in our spiritual growth is mastery of “material” details via
          self control. 2 Peter 1:6


5. scattered: dispersed. The Greek word is diaspora. It is an adjective which indicates the placement of people in geographical locations other than their place of “Natural” residence. In this case they are
located all throughout the Roman Empire, as represented by the 5 provinces mentioned.

     A. This was basically prophesied by Jesus at Acts 1:8
     B. It began to be fulfilled upon the persecution initiated by Saul of Tarsus in about 36AD.
          Acts 8:1 and 11:19.

Verse 2a
The two steps to election

1. According to: This is the preposition, kata, which takes us back to the noun
which describes our status in the plan of God and states the basis for that status.

2. The first step is the foreknowledge of God the Father.
The plan of God is based on the fact that the Father knows the end from the beginning.

3. The second step is BY the sanctification of the Spirit. This is a reference to the baptism of the Holy Spirit which places the believer into union with Christ.
See Topic: SANCTIFICATION: Positional

     A. At the moment of time that one trusts in Christ as saviour,
          God the Holy Spirit “sets him apart” in the body of Christ.

     B. This constitutes entrance into God’s plan of “election” which has as its purpose
          to glorify both the Father and the Son (1 Pet. 2:9; Eph. 3:10-11).

4. The Purpose for our election: Unto obedience is eis + hupakoā

     A. The preposition, eis, indicates direction towards or purpose.
          It indicates the “earthly” purpose for our election and that is to obey the words of our Lord
          Jesus Christ and apply the temporal effects of His sin sacrifice into our life through consistent

         This is reflected by the translation of the NASB, which reads,
         “that you may obey Jesus Christ.” However, even though the
          translators have recognized the right IDEA, they have not
          translated the entire sentence correctly.
          It should read, “unto (for the purpose of) obedience and the sprinkling
          of the blood of Jesus Christ.”

     B. The obedience in view is represented by the phrase,
         “and the sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ.”

          1. Sprinkling: hrantismos refers to the application of the blood of the animal sacrifice
               onto the item (s) which are dedicated to bringing glory to God.
          2. Sometimes this sprinkling of blood typified the initial “salvation” relationship,
              such as at Ex. 29 and Lev. 8.

          3. But other times, clearly the sprinkling typified restoration to fellowship,
              such as at Leviticus 1-7.

          4. Blood of Christ is a technical term that refers to his spiritual sacrifice on the cross
               in paying for the sins of the world. See Topic: THE BLOOD OF CHRIST

          5. When we trust in Christ, we receive the results of that sacrifice, the forgiveness of our sins
               (Eph. 1:7) with the result that we begin the Christian life, in fellowship with God.

          6. We continue to apply the results of that sacrifice throughout our Christian way of life,
               because that is the basis for realizing temporal fellowship with God. Heb. 10:22

          7. The same principle is taught by John at 1 John 1:7, “the blood of Jesus Christ His Son,
              continually cleanses us from all sin” as we maintain fellowship with God.

     C. This “purpose” for our salvation status is also taught by Paul at Eph. 2:10,
          “Created in Christ Jesus, FOR good works, which God pre-designed
            that we should walk in them.”

     D. It is true that the preposition, eis, which primarily has the idea of direction or “purpose,”
          also has the idea of “cause” or “reason,” depending on the context.
          Mt.12:41; Lk. 11:32; Rom. 4:20; Mt. 3:11

     E. But in this context, the possibility of translating “eis” as “because of” loses its viability
          in view of the fact that the preposition “eis” occurs 37 times in 1 Peter and NEVER
          does it mean, “because of.”

     F. Accordingly, the idea of, “because of Christ’s obedience” or “because of the believer’s
          obedience through faith, is not justified even though “faith” on the part of the unbeliever is
          absolutely necessary in order to be born again into the family of God and be placed into
          the body of Christ through the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit.

5. We also find here a reference to the 3 members of the Godhead in
one context under one theme.
Compare others: Mt. 28.19; Rom. 15.30:1 Cor
inthians12.4-6; 2 Cor. 1:21-22; 13:14: Eph.4:4-6; Phil. 2:1: Titus 3:4-6; Revelation 1.4-5


Verse 2b
Exhortation to experience abundant life blessings

1. Grace to you: charis - This is the writer's desire for the believers to make full use
of all God's grace provisions.

     A. The provisions are available as per Rom. 8:32 and 2 Pet. 1:3-4
         They are based on the Hebrew word, chesed,  in the Old Testament.

     B. But the believer must choose to use those provisions.
          Heb. 4.16; 1 Pet. 5.12 - you stand firm in it!

     C. This then will result in soul strength through character growth

2. And peace: eirānā - perfect soul relaxation, free from guilt and antagonism toward other people, circumstances or things.

     A. The peace of the abundant life which Jesus promised at John 14.27 and 16.33
     B. Paul referred to it at Phil. 4.6-7
     C. Romans 15.13 - peace and joy and confidence

     D. thus the peace of God is the result of using God's grace provisions in order
          to endure the pressures of the antagonistic environment in which we live.

3. be multiplied: plāthunō – aorist passive optative

     A. aorist tense: refers to any given point of time in your future.
      B. passive voice: it is given to you through the supernatural
          workings of the Word in your soul and the Holy Spirit.

     C. optative mood: indicates the strong desire of the writer that they experience the reality of the
           abundant life.

Verses 3-11 orientation to salvation doctrines and motivation
Verses 3-5 - the believer's inheritance

Verse 3
1. Blessed be: The adjective eulogātos, means to have good speech toward someone.

     A. when used toward people, it means to speak well of them either verbally or mentally.
          Thus, to do and act that which will promote their benefit (blessing). 1 Pet. 3:8-9

     B. When used toward God, it means to speak well of Him in the sense of praise and adoration.
          Thus, praised be ----

2. The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ:
See Topic: God and Father of Jesus
3. Who according to his great mercy: (parenthetical description of why he should be praised.
     A. according to: Preposition kata - the standard of God's functional essence via mercy.
     B. great: The adjective polus describes its character and its extent.
          1. Human language is always inadequate to fully explain the fullness of God.
          2. Polus communicates quantity - thus the idea of MUCH.
          3. and then to the word abundant or unlimited to describe the fact that it is enough to provide
              for man what he needs to resolve his spiritual dilemma.

      C. mercy: eleos - the functional expression of God's absolute essence in the area of
          wisdom and love.
          1. From God's wisdom and love comes compassion - rachum (Hebrew).
              This is the attitude that results from God's perfect wisdom and love applied to his creation.
              The attitude which has full understanding of what his creatures need and the desire to meet
              those needs for their benefit.
          2. From the attitude (compassion) comes action from 2 perspectives.
              a. The act of doing something - channun  (Hebrew) which comes into the Greek as
                  eleāmōn and oiktirmōn and charis - mercy and grace
              b. And then the actual thing provided is called chesed in the Hebrew and comes into the
                  Greek as eleos (directly) and charis (indirectly). (or both mercy and grace)

          3. The perspective from Lamentations 3:21-23
          4. So then, mercy here refers to both the act and the provision which meets man's need for
              relationship with God.

4. Has regenerated us: anagennaō as an aorist active participle = has given us a new birth.

     A. Aorist tense: the point of time that the person makes a faith decision to believe
          in Christ as saviour.

     B. Active voice: God the Father is the one who plans and initiates.
     C. participle: focuses our attention on why God is to be praised.


5. To a living confidence: the present assurance of eternal life from two
     1)The present possession of a new quality of life: experiential and positional
     2) and the future reality of resurrection.

     A. Living: zaō – present active participle - adjective in function to describe the
          quality of this confidence. It is not dead or impotent - but alive and vibrant.

     B. confidence: elpis-the issue is assurance and confidence-not a potential hope.



6. Through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead.
The seal and proof for the salvation that was promised by Jesus and the Father.


Verse 4

1. To an inheritance: eis klāronomia - the future benefits assigned to the heir.
Therefore, that which shall be the future life of the believer. Characterized by 4 factors.

     A. imperishable: aphthartos - unable to decay or wear out.
         And in the context of the Divine plan, it is something which cannot be destroyed.

     B. And undefiled: amiantos-unable to be polluted with darkness viewpoint and sin.
     C. and unfading: amarantos-unable to lose its luster, attractiveness and value.

     D. Reserved: tāreō, as a perfect  passive participle, indicates that it is reserved
          from the time of the past assignment through the present and up until it is
          delivered in full to the raptured believer.

2. In heaven for you: The place of our citizenship & the place from where Jesus
will return to the earth. Phil. 3:20; John 14:1-3


Verse 5

1. Who are being guarded: phroureō, as a present passive participle, indicates the present
     and continuous fact of Divine security over the believer.

2. by the power of God: dunamis -the inherent and active power of the Godhead to guarantee what He has promised.

     A. The promise:
          1. By Jesus: Jn. 14.1-3; Mt. 19.29
          2. By Paul: Rom. 8.16-17; 1 Thes. 5.9-10; Titus 3.5-7
          3. Paul's commission: Acts 26.17-18
          4. Reflected in poetry: 2 Tim. 2.11
          5. The power of the gospel: Acts 20.32

     B. The guarantee:
          1. Ephesians 1:13-14 - The seal of the Holy Spirit.
          2. The faithfulness of God's character. 2 Timothy 2:13.


3. Through faith: dia pistis - This is our part. We must accept the promise.
But once we enter into salvation through faith, we automatically fall into the protective sphere of God's power from which nothing can release us. Romans 8:38-39


5. with reference to a salvation: eis sōtāria  is a deliverance which is here viewed as incomplete until the return of Jesus at the rapture.

6. ready: hetoimos - prepared, indicates conformity to an established plan.

7. To be revealed: apokaluptō as an aorist passive infinitive, indicates that in a point of time the fullness of our salvation will be realized as the redemption of the body is completed at the rapture. Romans 8:18, 23

8. At the last time: eschatos kairos - identified in verse 7 as the revelation of Jesus Christ.

9. See Topic: THE RAPTURE

Verses 6-9
The attitude of the believer in the antagonistic environment

Verse 6

1. In which: relative pronoun, masc. singular, points back to the nearest antecedent unless the context dictates otherwise.
     A. Here it goes back to the previous verse, but not to the word, salvation.
          Salvation (sotāria) is a feminine noun, and the gender of the antecedent (noun)
          must be the same as the pronoun (masc.)

     B. The nearest antecedent is kairos (last time), which refers to the time of our
          Lord's return for us at the rapture.

     C. Rejoice refers to the excitement and anticipation concerning Christ's return.

2. You greatly rejoice: agalliaomai as a present middle indicative. This word communicates excitement and anticipation which is the normal attitude within the believer’s soul.
     A. This refers to the outward expression of the inner joy and confidence concerning the promise
          of Christ's return.

     B. It is anticipation of both His presence and the fulfilment of the entire salvation package
          through resurrection.

     C. The attitude is mentioned at 2 Timothy 4:8 as loving his appearing (agapaō).

     D. The anticipation is summarized by 4 Greek words.
          1. Titus 2:13 - prosdechomai – present middle participle (Jude 21)
          2. 1 Corinthians 1:7 - apekdechomai - present middle participle (Galatians 5:5)
               Phil. 3:20; Heb. 9:28; Rom. 8:23,25
          3. 1 Thes. 1.9-10 - anamenō – present active infinitive (only place)
          4. 2 Pet. 3.12 - prosdokaō – present active participle

     E. This rejoicing is based on comfort: 1 Thes. 4:13, 18
     F. The attitude is to be one of confidence: I Peter 1:13
     G. and patience: James 5:7-8

     H. It will result in motivation for fellowship and growth: 2 Peter 3.10-15; 1 Jn. 3.1-3
     I. And motivation for service: 1 Cor. 15.58

3. Even though: This translation is based on the concessive participle (distressed) and it recognizes the reality of the antagonistic environment in which we live.

4. Now: arti. This refers to the present reality because the pressures of living
for light in the sphere of darkness do not subside.

5. For a little while - oligos - a relative issue concerning time.
Compared to the unlimited eternal life we will share with God, this time on earth
is a drop in a bucket.

6. since necessary: ei deon - 1st class condition to communicate the reality and the axiomatic principle of persecution pressure. 2 Tim. 3:12
     A. Because of the inherent nature of darkness: John 3.20; 15.19
     B. To enhance the growth process: Rom. 5.3-5; Jas. 1.3-4
     C. To proclaim to the fallen angels the reality of Divine justice. Phil. 1.28-29
     D. to promote the glory of God through your victory: 1 Pet. 1.7

7. You are distressed: lupeō means to be grieved, pained, distressed.
It is an aorist passive participle.

     A. Aorist tense: views the reality of persecution as taking place in the past,
          but in conjunction with the word NOW, it makes it a present reality as well.
     B. Passive voice: indicates that the believer is the recipient of the adversity.
     C. participle: concessive- which is the basis for the translation, even though.

8. By various testings:
     A. various: many different kinds - Rom. 8.35-37
     B. testings: peirasmos - a test or enticement for the purpose of causing you to fall.
          In other words, it is an antagonistic test from the darkness environment and the cursed earth.

Verse 7
There is a glorification purpose for all pressure in the Christian way of life.

1. In order that: hina plus subjunctive to indicate purpose

2. the testing: dokimion - approved evaluation - this indicates that you pass
the test through consistent application of truth to the testing situation.

3. of your faith: pistis – In this case the noun refers to the function of faith in the
Christian way of life, which involves total dependence and trust in the
character and plan of God.

4. being more valuable than gold which perishes: describes dokimion.
     A. It is the value of Divine approval for your Christian way of life faith which is in view,
          not the personal value you receive through passing the test.
     B. more valuable: polutimos - reminds us that there is a Divine value system which far
         surpasses the human viewpoint value systems of the kosmos (world system).
         1. The principle: 1 Sam. 16.7 with Is. 55.8-9
         2. Statement of value: Ps. 19.7-11; Pr. 3.13-18
         3. Orientation to details: Luke 12.15-23

     C. Which perishes: apollumi (present passive participle) describes the temporal
          and deficient value of material things. Mt. 6:19-21

     D. Even though tested by fire: dokimadzō (present passive participle)
          establishes the gold as having the greatest possible human value.

5. May be found: heuriskō means to discover or to find. But in the aorist passive subjunctive, the subject (faith) receives an examination and discovery through the Divine analysis system of FIRE (1Cor. 3:13).

6. to result in (eis):
     A. praise: epainos - overt laudation, applause, commendation, recognition.
         The verbal accolades - Mt. 10.32-33; 2 Tim. 2.11-13 cf. 1 Jn. 2.28
     B. glory: doxa - reference to the 3 crowns
         1. Crown of glory: 1 Pet. 5.2-4
         2. Crown of righteousness: 2 Tim. 4.7-8
         3. Crown of life: Rev. 2.10; Jas. 1.12

     C. honor: timā - the prestige and honor of special reigning assignments in the kingdom
         and throughout eternity.
         1. All believers: 1 Cor. 6.2; Rev. 5.10
         2. different responsibilities based on production in time.
              Revelation 2.26; 2 Tim. 2.12

    D. See Topic: REWARDS

7. At the revelation of Jesus Christ: The noun is apokalupsis and refers to Christ's visible and physical return which includes the rapture of church age believers and the subsequent reward seat of Christ.
1 Cor. 3.10-15; 2 Cor. 5.9-10
See the verb, apokalupto at Luke 17:30.
The noun also occurs at 1Corinthians 1:7; 2Thes. 1:7; 1Peter 1:7, 13; 4:13

Verse 8

1. And though you have not seen him: CT (corrected translation)
Whom having not se
     A. whom: relative pronoun pointing back to Christ in verse 7.
     B. seen: horaō as an aorist active participle plus the negative.
         The aorist indicates not ever at any time in the past.
         The recipients of this letter had never seen the physical presence of Jesus.

     C. The concessive idea (though) comes from the participle
         and the context; for we have a particular attitude expressed
         (even though) the circumstance which would normally produce
         that attitude is not present (having seen Jesus.)

2. You are loving: agapaō is a present active indicative to indicate a mental attitude of occupation with Christ expressed as a dedication to the character and plan of God which is evidenced by abiding in Him through knowledge and application of His word.

3. In whom: eis + relative pronoun to indicate the object of faith and contentment; toward or unto whom.

4. though not seeing now: arti (now) + horaō.
This time it’s a present active participle
     A. Jesus has ascended to the right hand of the Father and makes
         no physical appearances to believers during this church age.

    B. There were specific appearances in dreams and visions to the
        prophets and apostles in order to provide new covenant
        revelation from God, but such appearances were very restricted
        and totally discontinued after 96 AD.

     C. So this language represents the normal Christian way of life
        (CWL) with regard to seeing Jesus. It just does not happen.

     D. We operate on faith which provides our soul with spiritual sight
         so that we actually see Jesus and the entire Godhead through
         the supernatural quality of God's written revelation.

5. but believing: de + pisteuō as another present active participle.
It refers to our salvation faith perpetuated into the CWL through knowledge and application of the written Word of God.

6. You are rejoicing: agalliaomai as a present middle indicative to indicate the overt expression of excitement and zeal.

7. with joy: chara indicates inner contentment and animation.
     A. inexpressible: aneklalātos is an adjective that indicates
         something that is unable to be adequately expressed or verbalized.

    B. And full of glory: doxadzō as a perfect passive participle that
        functions as an adjective to give further description of the
        believer’s joy. Literally, having been glorified. This indicates
        that joy is based on the recognized reality of God's salvation
        promises concerning the future GLORY of the resurrection of the body.

Verse 9
explains that the basis for the believer's joy is the reality of the final completion of God's salvation provision.

1. obtaining: komidzō is a present middle participle (concessive), and should be translated as “since you obtain.”

The concessive participle recognizes the established reality based on one's initial salvation faith.

2. The end result: to telos. The ultimate goal and completion of the present STATUS of relationship with God (salvation status).

3. of your faith: pistis is the noun that indicates the volitional expression of trust in and acceptance of God’s salvation provision as proclaimed in the gospel.

4. salvation of souls: The possessive (your) is not present but it is implied. This is loosely constructed to communicate the principle.

5. It is the reality of our present salvation status and future salvation glory - confirmed in the soul - that produces the animated and excited joy of the abundant life.

Verses 10-25
Salvation from the viewpoint of the prophets

Verse 10

1.  Concerning which salvation:  This refers to the future fulfilment of the salvation promised ever since Gen. 3.15  ( CF. Titus 1.2 - before the times of ages)

2.  The history of salvation:

     A. Gen. 3.15
     B. Gen. 3.21; 4.3-8 (I Jn. 3.12); Gen. 8.20
     C. Gen. 12.1-3  with Gal. 3.8
     D. Family priests:  Noah, Melchizekek, Abraham, Job, Jacob,
         Jethro, Balaam

     E. Law of Moses:  Heb. 9.1-14; 10.1-10;
         National priesthood - Ex. 19.1-6

     F. Psalms:  2, 8, 16, 22, 40, 45

     G. Prophets:  Is. 7, 9, 11, 28-35, 40, 42, 48-55;
5-6; Joel 2-3; Micah 4-5

3.  The prophets:  Old Testament communicators

4.  who prophesied:  prophāteuō as an aorist active participle refers to the general period of time throughout the Old Testament period when the gospel was proclaimed.

5.  of the grace:  charis - refers to participation in the redemptive plan of God based on Messiah's arrival and sacrifice.

     A. All believers of all ages will benefit from the sacrifice of Christ.
     B. But, those who partake of the royal priesthood have a unique
         privilege and function in the plan.

6.  that would come to you:  They knew that Messiah would come in a future generation, but the time specifics were not revealed until Daniel chapter 9:24-27.

7.  made careful search:  ekzāteō as an aorist active indicative views the time of their prophetic ministries as a single idea.  The verb indicates interest and inquiry.

8.  and examined:  exzeraunaō as another aorist active indicative refers to the same period of time. This verb refers to the analysis of revealed truth - comparing scripture with scripture.


Verse 11

1.  seeking to know:  eraunaō as a present active participle.
     This refers to looking for the specific details.

     A. the present tense communicates the constant activity of the
         prophets during their ministries.

     B. They received information concerning the arrival of the Messiah
         in 2 advents. His sacrifice and His royal reign

     C.  But they did not know who to expect or when to expect him until
          Daniel. 538 BCE  (3587 AH)  Daniel 9:24-26

     D.  Before Daniel, they knew:

          1. Tribe of Judah
          2. family of David
          3. Born in Bethlehem
          4. Born of a virgin

     E.  So they continued looking for the Messiah during their lifetime
          until Daniel came on the scene.

     F.  It was revealed to Daniel that Messiah would be cut off
          (the sacrifice) in the year 4071 AH. Dan. 9.26

2.  What person:  details that go beyond the revealed prophecies.

3.  and what time:  prior to Daniel they had no idea what the time scheme was.

4.  the Spirit of Christ:  The Divine presence of the Messiah through the
     empowering  ministry of the
Holy Spirit.

5.  Within them:

     A. Doctrine of Inspiration explained at 2 Peter 1:20-21
     B. Doctrine of the empowering of the Spirit during
         the Old Testament.
         (See Topic under The Holy Spirit baptism.)

6.  Was indicating:  dāloō as an imperfect active indicative indicates the
     continuous activity of the Spirit in the lives of the prophets.

7.  as he predicted: promartureō as a present middle participle indicates that the specifics were prophetic in nature.

8.  the sufferings of Christ:  Isaiah 52-53;  Psalm 22

9.  And the glories to follow:  doxza – plural
     Resurrection, ascension, day of the Lord, kingdom.

     Isaiah 52:13; 53:12a; Hebrews 2:10; Philippians 2:9-11; 
Isaiah 9:6-7;  11:1-10


Verse 12

1.  To whom it was revealed:  aorist passive indicative of apokaluptō.

      Made clearly visible. This is the verb that is used at Luke 17:30
      for when Jesus appears at His second coming.

     A. In general it would be a future generation.
     B. But the specifics were not known until Daniel 9.

2.  That they were (not) serving:  diakoneō as an imperfect active indicative refers to the continuous activity of service in the past. The prophets served through communication – the people of a future generation. The negative (not) is not with the verb but with the pronoun, themselves.

3.  Not themselves:  not their generation

4.  But you: Not you specifically, but the generation which would see and experience Messiah's arrival.

5.  With regard to these things:  the details of Christ's first advent.

6.   which now have announced to you:  angellō as an aorist passive indicative, refers to the time period of the proclamation.

7.  by those who proclaimed the gospel to you.  The verb is euangelidzomai as an aorist middle participle to indicate the entire period of time that the gospel was proclaimed. These are the eyewitnesses of Hebrews 2:3-4.

8.  By the Holy Spirit:  As at Ephesians 3:5

9.  Sent from Heaven:  apostellō as an aorist passive participle refers to THE ADVENT OF THE SPIRIT that Jesus announced on several occasions. Acts 2:2-4

10. into which things:  the details of the Messiah’s career and the progress of Messiah's brethren during the church age.

11. Angels desire:  epithumeō as a present active indicative refers to a continuous activity.

12. to look:  parakuptō as an aorist active infinitive. It means to investigate or observe  (The Greek means -to stoop beside, which is the kind of action performed when looking very closely at something).


Verses 13-17 
Exhortation to trust in basic salvation doctrines
and express dedication to the plan of God. Verses 1:12-13.

     A. Having prepared your minds: utilized equipping grace.
     B. Being balanced: mental stability based on basic salvation doctrines.
     C. Express trust:  Faith-rest that utilizes support grace (promises) concerning salvation reality.

Verse 13

1. THEREFORE:  based on the character of our salvation status,

2. gird:  anadzōnnumi, as an aorist middle participle means to put on a piece of clothing - thus- prepare.
The aorist participle indicates that this action must precede the action of the main verb, which in this case is the aorist active imperative of FIX YOUR HOPE at verse 13.

CT: Having prepared - your minds

3. your minds:  dianoia - Lit:  the loins of your minds.  This is the understanding. It is the place in the heart where information is stored and utilized by the self consciousness.
See detailed study of THE MIND

Verse 13

4. Keep sober:  nāphō, as a present active participle describes the condition of the soul after proper preparation. The participle explains the result of being dressed for action (proper preparation).
It indicates a soul that is controlled by Bible Truth and not human viewpoint or the influence of the sin nature. Thus, the image of being sober rather than intoxicated.
CT: being balanced or maintaining balance.

5. fix your hope:  (MAIN VERB)  elpidzō as an aorist active imperative. The verb means to express confidence.

6. completely: teleiōs is an adverb which indicates full dedication without compromise. No doubt, no indecision, no worry.

7. on the grace:  charis - reference to the benefits of God's plan waiting for fulfilment at the moment of Christ's return.

     A. To be brought:  pherō, is a present passive participle, used as an adjective to describe as specific factor of God's plan of GRACE.
Literally: "The being brought to you grace." It could be viewed as a
futuristic present tense, in which case it would carry the idea of a relative clause. Thus, "which will be brought to you." The present tense communicates the vividness and reality of the promise that will be fulfilled at that moment.

     B. At the revelation of Jesus Christ:  As at verse 7, this is the moment of time that Jesus will return in the clouds of the sky with power and great glory . . . and will gather together His elect.
Matthew 24:30-31; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-17; Titus 2:13

Verse 14

1.  As children of obedience:  analogy of devotion and dedication as at Ephesians 5:1. Children should be characterized as obedient.

Obedience is the true indicator of having confidence in the plan of God.

2.  Do not be conformed:  This is a present passive participle that carries the force of a command of instruction. The verb is suschāmatidzō, and means to be formed like or molded to.
It refers to participation in and imitation of the old way of life governed by the sin nature

3. the former lusts:  epithumia refers to the dictates of the sin nature.

    A. former:  proteros - prior to entering your salvation relationship.

    B. in the sphere of your ignorance:  agnoia - not having any
        Divine viewpoint.
        This is the status and experience of the unbeliever -
        Eph. 4:17-19

    C. it is these lusts which now continually wage war in the believer's
        soul trying to promote independence from God. 1 Pet. 2:11;
        Gal. 5:17; Jas. 4:1
    D. See Topic THE SIN NATURE

    E. Paul's same exhortation:  Rom. 6:12-13;  12:1-2

Verse 15

1.   But: alla - strong contrast between the two types of life style.

2.   just as:  kata - according to the standard that is mentioned next.

3.   the one who called you: kaleō as an aorist active participle, refers to the
      point of time of entrance into the status of salvation. Sometimes,
      "called" has the invitation in view and sometimes it has the result
      of having accepted that invitation. In either case, it is the activity
      of God that is in view.

4.   is holy:  The adjective, hagios, refers to the unique and special
      character and behaviour of God as perfectly righteous.

5.   be holy yourselves also:  ginomai as an aorist passive imperative
      plus the adjective hagios. It means to be set apart as special -
      characterized by the expression of God's righteousness.

      A. The aorist tense of the command is governed by the present
      tense of the participle in verse 14, and refers to a CONTINUOUS
      expression of God's righteousness throughout the believer's life
      here on earth.

      B. Plus the meaning of ginomai (become) indicates that Christian
      way of life holiness is a process of neutralizing the pull of the sin
      nature through knowledge of bible truth.

      C. in your whole manner of life: 
- every area of life is involved.

      D. See Topic: SANCTIFICATION
          See Topic: Experiential Righteousness

Verse 16 - Old Testament documentation to orient to Divine policy

1.  because it is written:   dioti + graphō as a perfect passive indicative.
    This is a reference to the Old Testament.

2. You shall be holy because I am Holy:  context of conformity to both spiritual and moral standards.  Leviticus 11.44-47; 19.2; 20.1-27

3. 2 Corinthians 7:1

Verse 17 
exhortation to the fear of the Lord

1. And if you address as Father:  epikaleō as an aorist middle indicative in a 1st class "if" clause. The first class condition recognizes the action as a fact and can often be translated as "since." The fact that a person can GENUINELY call God his Father indicates the reality of the salvation relationship that exists.

2.  The one who impartially evaluates:  krinō as a present active participle DESCRIBES God's impartiality and justice as He evaluates every member of the human race on the same terms.

    A.  The adverb, aprosōpolāmptōs means without prejudice or bias
to receive someone according to his face or appearance)

    B.  God uses the same value system for everyone, that is, His own
         standards of right and wrong, good and bad.

    C.  According to each one's work:  kata + ergos. We are accountable
         to Divine standards in order to be in a place of fellowship and
         rapport as well as future reward.

    D.  Personal accountability:  Hebrews 4:13

    E.  The reward seat of Christ:  2 Cor. 5.9-10;  1 Cor. 3.10-15

    F.  Impartiality:  Col. 3.23-25; Eph. 6.7-8

    G.  The basis for acceptability before God is genuine humility
    (the fear of the Lord) that recognizes the authority, viewpoint and
     policy of God as having absolute jurisdiction over one's life.

3.  Conduct your manner of life:  anastrephō as an aorist passive imperative (2nd Aorist) means to live your life.

4.  in fear:  phobos is the attitude that recognizes Divine jurisdiction over your life in authority, viewpoint and policy.  Thus, as in verse 13, total dedication.

5.  during the time of your stay upon earth:  chronos + paroikia-as at verse  2:11.

    A. dwelling beside rather than part of - thus an alien. This contrasts
        our heavenly citizenship with the old life style as an unbeliever.

    B. But, the English word pilgrim communicates the true Christian
        perspective as having a spiritual agenda to follow and promote
        during this stay.

        1.  We have been transferred into a new kingdom: 
             Acts 26.18; Col. 1.13

        2.  Therefore, our citizenship is in Heaven.  Phil. 3.20

        3.  And we are not of this world:  Jn. 17.16

        4.  We live here on earth as aliens:  paroikos - 1 Pet. 2.11

        5.  And since this status is of the plan/God, we are called
            "elect dwellers." 1 Pet. 1.1 - eklektos parepidāmos

        6.  And our purpose for being here is to promote Divine truth.
             2 Cor.5.20; 1 Pt.2.9

        7.  Thus, the attitude of humility dependence on God in every
             area.  I Pet. 1.17.
             a. the commission:  Mt. 28.18-20
             b. message:  2 Tim. 3.16-17
             c. power source:  Acts 1.8
             d. details of life:  Mt. 6.31-33
             e. Vindication:  Is. 55.17

        8. see THE ALIEN MENTALITY                           

6.  Capacity for the fear of the Lord is built by learning Bible truth.
     A. It begins with a focus on salvation reality via the doctrine of
         redemption.  Verses 18-19
     B. But the more we learn the greater value we will recognize in Him
         and the greater capacity we will have to fulfil our servant status
 here on earth.


Verses 18-21
True humility is based on knowledge of salvation reality.

Verse 18

1. phobos (fear) is an attitude of humility dependence on God,
    Who He is and what He has done.

2.  The basis for this attitude is knowledge of salvation reality, knowing.
     A.  The verb oida as a perfect active participle refers to information learned in
          the past and is now present in the conscious mind for application
          to any and every situation of life.

     B.  AT this point, the basic premise for reverence is a confident
          assurance concerning one's relationship with God.

     C.  Salvation reality from knowledge of the doctrine of redemption.

3.  That you were (not) redeemed:  lutroō as an aorist passive indicative refers to the POINT in time that redemption was accomplished both (1) on the cross when Jesus paid for sins and (2) at the moment of faith that applied that payment to the person. The verb means to set free
by paying a ransom.
The negative (not) is not with the verb.

1 Corinthians 1:30,
wisdom, righteousness, sanctification and redemption.

4. Not with perishable things - phthartos - material things subject to decay and destruction.

5. like silver or gold:  reference to the most common item used in man's attempts to buy peace, joy and security (money).

6. From your futile way of life:
    A. futile:  mataios means empty, vain, useless.
    B. way of life:  anastrophā - the life of creature independence;
        living with an attitude of independence from God and God's

    C. inherited from your fathers:  the heritage of philanthropy,
        humanism and religion which seeks to make man right with
        God on terms other than what the creator determines.

7.  The redemption price contains nothing from man and the acquisition of spiritual freedom and relationship with God does not come from man. John 1:13
    A. NOT of blood: it is not based on heredity.
    B. NOT the will of the flesh: nothing that comes from the sin nature.
    C. NOT of the will of man: Man's "collective" philosophies and
        religions and "isms."

Verse 19
The only price for redemption

1.  But:  alla - strong contrast between God's way and man's.

2.  with the precious blood: timios - invaluable - no material value can be attached to the spiritual sacrifice of Christ on the cross.

3.  of Christ:  refers to the sacrificial price paid by Jesus for redemption.
But what is that price?
     A.  As of a lamb:  hōs - introduces an analogy. Therefore blood is symbolic
           and does not refer to physical blood paying for sins.

     B. Jesus was not a lamb.  No four legs, no tail - but John 1.29.
         "Behold the lamb of God---"

     C. Therefore we must orient to the symbolism involved and realize
         that the term blood typifies something which accomplished
         redemption, for physical blood can't resolve a spiritual problem.


4.  As of a lamb:
     A.  unblemished:  ammos - without blame,
          totally innocent and without guilt.
          1.  For a lamb, no physical defect.
          2.  For Christ: The emphasis is on his inner character of total
               dedication to the character and plan of the Father.
     B.  and spotless:  aspilos - no stain, spot or blemish.
          1. For a lamb: no discoloration or visible alteration
              from a perfect specimen.
          2. For Christ: It indicates the moral perfection of Jesus
              throughout his life.

Verse 20
Further description of the Messiah

1. For on the one hand:  part one of a "men-de" clause.  provides an emphatic contrast between the plan of God designed in eternity past and the historical fulfilment of that plan via the incarnation.  Gal. 4.19

2. Foreknown:  (no "for he was") The verb is proginōskō as a perfect passive participle. Thus, "having been foreknown," but the simple adjective is acceptable. It refers to the plan of the Godhead with reference to the Messiah.
Corrected translation:  On the one hand, foreknown before . . .

     A. Known according to the plan of God prior to his arrival on the
         scene - as contrasted with the next statement.

     B. But also foreknown as to his humility obedience as
         described in Philippians 2:6-8.

     C. Word group proginōskō --
         1.  The Verb:  5 times
             a. Two times with a normal knowing beforehand idea.
                 Acts 26.5; 2 Pet. 3.17
             b. Three times with theological significance:
                 Rom. 8.29; 11.2; 1 Pet. 1.20

         2. Noun:  prognōsis occurs two times, both with theological
            significance. Acts 2.23; 1 Pet.1.2

3. From the foundation of the world:  pro + katabolā
    A. reference to the creation of the universe as at Gen. 1.1
    B. preposition pro - indicates from before the creation. 
    C. Thus, in the mind of God and part of the plan during the
        period of time described at Jn. 1.1 as "in the beginning."
        (eternity past)
    D. See Topic: Foreknowledge

4. And, on the other hand (de - completes the contrast)

5. manifested:  phaneroō as an aorist passive participle indicates  brought on the scene at a specific period of time in human history.
    A. John 3:16, God gave - didōmi
    B. Acts 2.23,  delivered up - ekdotos, This adjective occurs only here,
        but the verb, ekdidōmi, occurs at Mt. 21.33; Mk. 12.1; Lk. 20.9
        for renting out a vineyard.
    C. The refers to the FACT of the incarnation.
        1. John 1.14 - The Word became flesh
2. Phil. 2.6-8

6. in these last times:  technical term for the duration of the first advent.
    A. epi eschatos chronos:
       1. Paul's vocabulary: 1 Cor. 10.11, telos aiōn,
           the ends of the ages
           a. The consummation of the 2 previous ages,
               that is, what they pointed to.
           b. The focal point for the consummation of the entire plan
               for human history as it centers around Messiah's doctrine
               and work.

       2. It is called the fullness of the time at Galatians 4.4. 
           plārōma chronos
           a.  The bringing together of all human history.
                Thus completion is in view.
           b.  Also the idea of at the perfect time.
                Thus timing is in view.

    B. for you: 1st century recipients of Messiah's salvation provision
       which serves as a vindication of all that was promised by the
       Father in the Old Testament.

Verse 21
The ultimate direction of faith is in the character and plan of the Father.

1. Who through him:  dia + genitive case to refer to Messiah's work on the cross.

2.  are believers:  pistos - principle of faith thinking for salvation directed to the Father.

3.  in God:  reference to the Father as the originator and vindicator of the plan.

4.  who raised him from the dead: physical resurrection as proof of the Father's promises. Acts 17.30-31

5.  And gave him glory: This is an aorist active paritciple of didomi + doxa, and refers to the promotion of the humanity of Christ because of his obedience to the Father's plan - Phil. 2.9.


7.  So that:  hōste is an adverb the points to the result. Thus, it refers to what the resurrection and ascension accomplishes.

8.  Your faith and confidence are in God:
     A. God's plan and character are vindicated.
     B. your self-conciousness recognizes the Father as the source and
         directs its primary grace orientation to Him.

     C. Faith:  pistis - the function of faith with regard to the promise of
        salvation status as well as eternal life blessings in time.

     D.  and confidence:  elpis - personal stability through experiencing
         eternal life blessings via the abundant life of peace and joy.

         See Doctrine of FAITH REST    

     E. Any attitude directed toward Christ must be consciously applied
         to the Father as well.

     F. Such expressions of trust and confidence are expressions of
        TRUE WORSHIP.                  

        1. The real issue in worship is directed to the Father.  Jn. 4.21-24
        2.  Glorification:  Eph. 1.6, 12, 14, 21
        3.  Reflection:  Jn. 12.45;  14.7-9; 8.19;
        4.  John 5.23 - equal honor
        5.  John 15.23-24 - equal hate
        6.  relationship:  1 Jn. 2.23
        7.  fellowship:  1 Jn. 2.24   with 1.3

     G.   Survey of worship in the NT
        1.  Christ was only worshipped during the earthly stage of the incarnation.
           a.  by angels:  Heb. 1.6
           b.  The Magi:  Mt. 2.2, 11
           c.   the disciples:  Mt. 14.33
           d.   the blind man:  Jn. 9.38
           e.   After the resurrection:  Mt. 28.9, 17

        2.  In the book of Acts:  only God is worshipped

        3.  in the Epistles:  only God is worshipped

        4.  In the Revelation:  only God is worshipped,
but Jesus is given equal honor.

Verses 22-25 - Exhortation to express love based on progress in growth

Verse 22

1. Since you have purified:  hagnidzō is a perfect active participle.
    A. Used at Jas. 4.8 and 1 Jn. 3.3
    B.  The perfect tense indicates past activity in growth which produces
          a present doctrinal content in the soul.
    C.   your souls:  psuchā - the place of real life function and that which needs
          to be purified from human viewpoint distortion.

2.   by the obedience: hupakoā - positive response which accepts and uses the principles
      and truths of God's word.

3.   to the truth:  the truth which commands and explains the nature of love.

4.   for:  This is the directional preposition, eis - unto or toward. In this case it indicates
     the result of obedience; what obedience produces or promotes.

5.  a sincere:  The adjective, anupokritos, means unhypocritical.
This is a theatrical term that describes the expressions of an actor who portrays the
character of the MASK that he wears, which is obviously not is true character.
     A.   not phony or put on as a mask
     B.   not partial or prejudiced

6.  love of the brethren:  philadelphia -
    A.   The noun, philos, refers to rapport love; compatibility and affection from a humiity
    B.    The noun, adelphos, means brethren, and refers to fellow members
            in the spiritual family of God.
    C.   Learning about the character and plan of God puts in perspective our relationship
           with other believers from the standpoint of equal position, resources and responsibility.

    D.   When the believer comes to understand these factors, the soul will be purified from
           selfishness, self-centeredness and petty competition with fellow believers.

    E.   What is then exhorted is the volitional application of these factors through the attitude
          and expression of beneficent love.  (agapā)

7.  fervently love: The verb, agapaō, is an aorist active imperative.
    It means to express beneficent love.

    A.  fervently:  extenōs - intenssive adverb which communicates zealousness and consistency.
     and thus also, the idea of constantly.

    B.  from the heart:  intellectual evaluation of the occasion based on the logic of Divine viewpoint,
        and not using emotions or human viewpoint.

    C.  Love is to be expressed according to 3 growth factors.  1 Tim. 1.5

        1.   from a pure heart:  actually cleansed, and therefore, pure. 
             Obedience to the truth weeds out human viewpoint and emotionalism in order to have
              sensitivity to that which is truly beneficial for the object of love.

        2.    from a good conscience:  positive standards which determine taht which is beneficial
            according to the standards of God's character and plan.

        3.  and an unhypocritical faith:  total trust in the standards of Truth as the
             guidelines for every activity in life.

    D.      See Topic:  BENEFICENT LOVE


Verse. 23
motivation for the expression of beneficent love is one's salvation status.
That is, since we understand the fantastic nature of what Christ did for us in paying
for our sins and giving us forgiveness and eternal life with God, we are motivated to
try to live the quality of life that He wants us to live.

1.  having been born again:  The verb, anagennaō, is a perfect passive participle to indicate
 the n
ew birth status which exists prior to both the purification of the soul and the application of love.

2.   not from decayable seed:  The adjective, phthartos, indicates a seed which rots in the soil
and fails to produce a crop. 
Review at verse. 18, decayable things (non-productive things). 
Man's terms
- logic, emotions, philosophies, etc. Again - as at John 1:13.

    A.    not from blood:  human heredity
    B.    not from the will of the flesh:  personal viewpoint and logic from the sin nature.
    C.    not from the will of man:  organized religious logic.

3.    But non-decayable: aphthartos, Divine power source which produces a successful crop
      according to the design of the planter.

    A.   That power source is the word of God in the form of the gospel.
    B.   The gospel gives God's terms based on Christ's work on the cross  totally independent
          from anything man can contribute.  Eph. 2.8-9, NOT of works.
    C. Romans 10:17, Saving faith comes through HEARING the word of Christ.
         It is the message of the gospel that causes faith to be expressed.

4.         The word of God:  logos theos

    A.   living:  The verb, zaō, as an adjectival participle (present active) means life-producing.
          By its very nature it imparts, sustains and lives the quality of life which is God's.

    B.    Heb. 4.12 - living and active - energās - energizing -  as at 1 Thes. 2.13 - The word
            of God energizes itself within you - energeō, as a present middle indicative.

    C.    and abiding:  The verb, menō, as a present active participle is explained by verse 24
           as transcending both in character and endurance anything about mankind.


Verse 24 - quote from Isaiah 40:6 to establish the enduring quality of God's word.

1.    For:  gar - introduces a quote for explanation.

2.    The message of Messiah's 1st advent herald proclaiming the inadequacy of human logic
       and works and the reliability of God's solution.

3.    all flesh:  the human animal
4.    is like grass:  a stem of a flower - fragile and short-lived.
5.    and its glory:  man's logic and works
6.    like the flower of the grass:  relatively pretty in its appearance, but has no lasting value.
7.    the grass (and man) withers:  looses all ability to sustain life. That is, it cannot make
       any kind of impact in life either for his own benefit or for the benefit of others.

8.         and the flower falls off:  There is no lasting value to man's logic and works.

Verse 25

1.   But the word of the Lord:  rāma - spoken word - emphasis on what God has    
      communicated to man.

2.    abides:  menō as a present active indicative indicates perpetual existence.

3.     forever:  unto the age - eis + the aiōn (sing.)  Reference to the age to come as mentioned
       by Jesus at Mt 12.32 which refers to the eternal time period that exists outside the time frame
       of the human race extending from the creation of Adam to the end of Christ's 1000 year reign.
       1 Cor. 15.24-28

4.    And this is the word:  rāma-spoken word via the Messiah and his first advent messengers.

5.    which was proclaimed to you:  the verb is euangelidzō as a present passive participle.
The primary reference is to the gospel, but verse 2:2 extends it into exhortation doctrine
living the Christian way of life.


Questions and comments are always welcome

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