Revelation 16:1 is the command to begin the administration of the final judgments from God's day of the Lord (DOL) wrath.

"And I heard a loud voice from the temple, saying to the seven angels, "Go and pour out the seven bowls of the wrath (thumos) of God into the earth."

This follows on the heels of chapter 15, where the angels are seen with the bowls that contain the last of the plagues from God's wrath, "because in them, the wrath of God is finished."

Verses 2-21 gives the details of these 7 last plagues of divine wrath upon the kingdom of the beast and the unbelieving world.

These 7 judgments all take place within a 26 day period as they begin some time after the ascension of the two witnesses. Their ascension takes place on day 4 of the 30 day period which follows immediately upon the 1260 days of the last half of the week.
Revelation 11:3-15

By the end of these 30 days, the kingdom of the beast will be totally destroyed and the 45 days of preparation for the kingdom of Messiah will begin. Daniel 12:11-12.

Some believe that the 7 bowls are simply a RE-STATEMENT of the trumpet judgments. This theory ignores the evidence that there is no similarity between the trumpets and the respective bowls. For a comparison of the trumpets with the bowls see the article:
Trumpets and bowls compared

THE EXTENT of these judgments should be viewed as hyperbole.
In spite of the severe destruction and depletion of the essential resources, and the extreme hardship that these judgments will bring on the unbelievers of the world, there are still enough of the various resources to enable many to survive. And there are enough resources to support all the armies that are maneuvering into Palestine.

But still the kingdom of the beast is in chaos and his authority and influence has for all practical purposes, come to an end as was indicated at the announcement from the 7th trumpet. Rev. 11:15.
"The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord."

Bowl #1, Revelation 16:2: massive skin cancer develops upon all who have the mark of the beast.

"And the first one went and poured out his bowl into the earth; and it became a loathsome and malignant sore upon the men who had the mark of the beast and who worshiped his image."

Bowl #2, Revelation 16:3: Salt water pollution that kills EVERY living thing in the sea.

"And the second one poured out his bowl into the sea, and it became blood like {that} of a dead man; and every living thing in the sea died."

There is nothing that should be taken for granted in the language of Scripture, and that every point needs to be clarified. The term, "became blood," here and in other places where the image occurs, does NOT mean to literally become blood. It refers to the appearance of blood and communicates the severe pollution that discolors both water resources so that they are totally unusable and deadly. The blood of a dead person is a very dark red.
While not wanting to violate the literal interpretation of Scripture, there is still room to apply some common sense and logic.
This image is used in the same way that it is used at Rev. 6:12, "the moon became LIKE blood." With the word, like (hōs), there is no confusion. But we can compare it with Acts 2:20, "the moon (was turned) into (eis) blood." Obviously, the moon does not BECOME BLOOD. The issue is the very DARK color that the moon will become. When Jesus references this same event, he states it as to its MEANING, "the moon will not give its light," (Mat. 24:29). I think it is quite reasonable to apply the same idea here and at Rev. 16:4 to communicate the DARK color that the waters will become.
By way of a counter argument, the context at Ex. 7:17-21, seems to indicate that the water was turned into LITERAL blood and not just a dark red pollutant.
The ability of the two witnesses of Rev. 11:6 to turn water into blood could refer to literal blood or the dark color of blood.
Perhaps it can't be solved. But regardless, the dark red pollution will be a physical reality that will cause the stated effects.

Bowl #3, Revelation 16:4: Fresh water pollution which appears to extend to the entire fresh water supply in the world.

"And the third {angel} poured out his bowl into the rivers and the springs of waters; and they became blood."

Again, this refers to severe pollution that discolors the natural fresh water supply in the world.

Bowl #4, Revelation 16:8-9: Intensification of the sun's rays so that people are severely scorched.

"And the fourth one poured out his bowl upon the sun; and it was given to it to scorch men with fire. (v.9) And men were scorched with fierce heat; and they blasphemed the name of God who has the power over these plagues; and they did not repent, so as to give Him glory."

NOTICE that at verse 9, those who are the recipients of the plagues do NOT change their minds (repent) about their rebellion against God, and continue to reject any expression of thanks and praise.
The same negative attitude is expressed in response to the brutish attack of the army at the 6th trumpet judgment. Rev. 9:20-21.
The required response is stated at Rev. 14:6-7.

The gospel message that the 144k SERVANTS will take to the world is described in verses 6-7.
John sees in His vision another angel who brings “the everlasting gospel to proclaim to those who live on the earth.” This is still a VISION showing John SYMBOLICALLY what will happen. The angel is seen to SYMBOLICALLY have the gospel. This is simply to show to John that the message of the 144 thousand will be the same gospel that has been proclaimed all throughout history. It is the EVERLASTING gospel.
This is the message of the 144 thousand bondservants. It does not refer to an angel who proclaims the gospel. It does not say that the angel proclaims the gospel; it says that the angel HAS the gospel. It is the ones who follow the Lord who will be responsible for proclaiming the message.
The content of the message is described at verse 7, “fear God, and give him glory, because the hour of His judgment has come; and worship Him who made the heaven and the earth and sea and springs of waters.”
Reverencing (fear) God is the attitude of humility that recognizes His authority. To give Him glory refers to accepting His plan of salvation. And worship is the expression of love and devotion shown to God in view of being saved, and in recognition of His Creator status.
Notice that this exhortation to respond to God is associated with the THREAT of judgment. This is as it is with all the gospel messages. That is in fact, what the idea of SAVED is all about; saved from judgment. John 3:16-18, 36.

Bowl #5, Revelation 16:10-11: This is an opposite effect on the sun which diminishes its light and heat so that there is extreme cold and even artificial heating techniques will provide no help. Many will be unable to find relief from the cold and they will be in great pain.

Because of the judgment on the environment and the control of resources by the beast, both electricity and fossil fuels will be in very short supply.

"And the fifth one poured out his bowl upon the throne of the beast; and his kingdom became darkened; and they gnawed their tongues because of pain, (v.11) and they blasphemed the God of heaven because of their pains and their sores; and they did not repent of their deeds."

NOTICE again that the spiritual rebels continue to blaspheme God and continue in their deeds of lawlessness.

In fact, not only do these peoples of the world continue to blaspheme God, but they have also become quite dissatisfied with the beast's ineffectiveness in providing necessary resources to those who have sworn allegiance to him. The result will be, starting with the military resistance of the 6th trumpet, a massive troop movement against the kingdom of the beast and specifically into the land of Palestine where there exists a large supply of natural resources under the control of the beast and his armies.
This is described at Daniel 11:40ff.

Bowl #6, Revelation 16:12-16: The assembly of troops to Armageddon.
This takes place in two stages.

STAGE ONE is the arrival of the kings of the East into the land of Palestine.

Verse 12, "And the sixth one poured out his bowl upon the great river, the Euphrates; and its water was dried up, that the way might be prepared for the kings from the east."

This is specific reference to the movement of the kings of the East as they attack the king of the West (the beast) and his troops which are stationed in Palestine.

This incident is just briefly mentioned at Daniel 11:44 in the phrase, "rumors from the East . . . will disturb him."

The details of this maneuvering of troops before and at Armageddon are taught in detail in the lengthy study.

But as in the case of the other bowl judgments, this movement of the kings of the East is a direct assault on the kingdom of the beast.

The significance of the Euphrates River in this scenario is that, historically, it has stood as a barrier to the advance of the Far Eastern societies into the Middle East.
Today, the existence of the river does nothing to hinder the advance of armies. However, in a typical sense, it represents a deterrent to such advances and therefore when it is "dried up," we see the deterrent removed and the subsequent movement of Eastern troops into Palestine.
That deterrent is apparently the power of the beast as is described at Rev. 13:4, "and they worshipped the dragon because he gave his authority to the beast; and they worshipped the beast, saying, who is like the beast, and who is able to wage war with him?"
But when the judgments from God weaken the beast, it enables the other nations to rebel and attack him. Dan. 11:40-44.

STAGE TWO of this 6th bowl judgment is the movement of troops other than the kings of the East, verses 13-14, 16.

Verse 13-16, "And I saw {coming} out of the mouth of the dragon and out of the mouth of the beast and out of the mouth of the false prophet, three unclean spirits like frogs; for they are spirits of demons, performing signs, which go out to the kings of the whole world, to gather them together for the war of the great day of God, the Almighty. . . And they gathered them together to the place which in Hebrew is called Har-magedon."

This movement corresponds with the invasion of Palestine discussed at Zechariah 12:1-3 and 14:2.
Zechariah 12:1-3
"The burden of the word of the LORD concerning Israel. {Thus} declares the LORD who stretches out the heavens, lays the foundation of the earth, and forms the spirit of man within him, Behold, I am going to make Jerusalem a cup that causes reeling to all the peoples around; and when the siege is against Jerusalem, it will also be against Judah. And it will come about in that day that I will make Jerusalem a heavy stone for all the peoples; all who lift it will be severely injured. And all the nations of the earth will be gathered against it. "

Zechariah 14:2,
"For I will gather all the nations against Jerusalem to battle, and the city will be captured, the houses plundered, the women ravished, and half of the city exiled, but the rest of the people will not be cut off from the city."

1. Actually only the armies of the king of the North and the West (beast armies) will be IN Jerusalem.
2. The other armies will be gathering throughout Palestine and moving toward the valley of Megiddo.

Through the PERMISSIVE will of God ("I will gather") the demon forces of Satan will influence the kings of the world to send their troops into Palestine.

Prior to this, the king of the North and king of the South have been pushing against the King of the West at geographical locations all over the world as is referenced at the 6th trumpet (Revelation 9:13-19) and Daniel 11:40, "the king of the South will collide with him, and the king of the North will storm against him."
This massive horde of warriors will bring death throughout the kingdom of the beast to the tune of 1/3 of the earth's population.
The his army will eventually encroach into Jerusalem and brutally afflict the civilians.

The "practical" reason for such movement would be the severe economic conditions which exist worldwide. The movement into the Middle East is an attempt to alleviate those conditions by physically confronting the King of the West (the beast) and taking possession of the natural resources which are controlled by him.

But the possession and control of resources that the world believes the beast possesses, is simply an illusion. Remember that the trumpet judgments have almost totally depleted those resources:
The trumpets have already:
Trumpet #1: one third of the earth's vegetation has been destroyed.
Trumpet #2: massive pollution and death in and on the seas of the earth.
Trumpet #3: one third of the fresh water resources have been destroyed.
trumpet #4: Extreme darkness throughout the earth will dwindle heating resources.

And the bowls have contributed.
Bowl #2: All sea life is dead.
Bowl #3: All natural fresh water sources are polluted.
Bowl #5: Heating resources are depleted (gas, oil, coal, wood)

The details of this massive troop movement are taught in the study:   WHEN ARMIES MOVE

Now, right in the middle of describing this troop movement, we find an exhortation from Jesus as a reminder of personal accountability. This is a parenthetical section addressed to the readers of the book of Revelation, both believers and unbelievers, to warn them of the event of the 6th seal that will begin the "end-times" judgments of the Day of the Lord.

"Behold, I am coming like a thief. Blessed is the one who stays awake and keeps his garments, lest he walk about naked and men see his shame."

The phrase, "come like a thief," occurs only 5 times and always refers to the return of Jesus at the arrival of the Day of the Lord (1Thessalonians 5:2, 4; 2Peter 3:10; Revelation 3:3; Revelation 16:15). The use of this term originated based on the parable Jesus taught at Matthew 24:43-44

"But be sure of this, that if the head of the house had known at what time of the night the thief was coming, he would have been on the alert and would not have allowed his house to be broken into.
"For this reason you be ready too; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour when you do not expect it."

As the prophetic account of God's wrath progresses to the FINAL showdown in the valley of Megiddo, God gives the readers ANOTHER warning and opportunity to be RIGHT with God before Jesus returns.
This is not a warning before Armageddon, it is a warning that back tracks to the 6th seal arrival of Jesus.

Believers will thus, be reminded of the urgency for testimonial consistency throughout their lives that they might not "be ashamed, and shrink away from him in fear at His presence," 1 John 2:28.
The same warning is given by Jesus at Luke 21:34-36.
And Paul at 1Thes. 5:4-11. Verse 5:6, "so then let us not sleep as do others, but let us be alert and in fellowship (The word, sober, means spiritually in control, as at Eph. 5:18)."

Any unbelievers who read this will once again be reminded that if they are not spiritually prepared through salvation relationship with God, they will be left behind at Christ's return, and they will come under the judgment and wrath of God as expressed through the trumpets and bowls.
And many of the men and women, if not killed by one plague or another, will end up as part of this troop movement into the Valley of Megiddo where they will face the sword of Jesus. All the others who are not adjusted to God's justice through salvation-relationship with Him, will then be removed from the earth and go to Hades to await the last judgment of Rev. 20:11-15. (Mat. 25:31ff; Ezek. 20:33-38.

At all times throughout history, God has been faithful to provide the information people need to enter into relationship with Himself. This time of great judgment from God is no exception. The 144,000 "servants" of God are still present on the earth representing the truth of God to all who will hear. The message of these "servants" is found at Revelation 14:6-7 and is called, "an everlasting gospel."

The quote from God at this point in the scenario, indicates not only, God's concern for His own people, that they be "prepared" through fellowship abiding with Him, but that He is still concerned for all who are willing to come so that all who "call upon the name of the Lord will be saved."
"For God does not desire for anyone to perish, but for all to come to repentance." 2Peter. 3:9.
And He "desires all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth." 1Tim. 2:4.

Not only is this a grace warning to all people BEFORE Christ's return to the earth, but it also indicates that until a person actually dies physically, OR takes the mark of the beast, there is opportunity to get right with God; and escape the forthcoming final stage of God's wrath through trusting in Christ as Savior.

When Jesus descends to the earth to face the nations at Armageddon, He will already have been present in the clouds for over five months, having come "in the clouds of the sky with power and great glory (Mat. 24:29-31; Rev. 6:12-14).

Prior to the arrival of Jesus in the clouds of the sky at the 6th seal, when many unbelievers will NOT be experiencing judgment, but instead will be facing the "peace and security" issues of association with the beast (1Thes. 5:3: Mat. 24:38-39), there will be no thought of the second coming of Jesus or of judgment.
Jesus will come like a thief in the night at an unknown day and hour.
At that time, the unbelieving earth dwellers will express great fear and panic and even "try" to hide from the presence (face) of God.

Revelation 6:15-17
"And they said to the mountains and to the rocks, fall on us and hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb; for the great day of their wrath has come; and who is able to stand?"

However, AT the physical descent TO the earth, He will not come like a thief. It is true, that no one will know EXACTLY what hour or even day He will descend, but the judgments will have been on-going for over FIVE MONTHS already (Rev. 9:5), and an "any time" arrival is really not an issue at this point. The world will have ALREADY experienced the "signs in the sun, moon and stars," SEEN the arrival of Jesus in the clouds, and witnessed the VISIBLE rapture of the church. At that event of the 6th seal, the world will know that judgment is impending.

But at Christ's physical DESCENT onto the earth, the armies of the nations that are gathered in Palestine, will NOT try to hide, but rather, will turn their attention from fighting with each other and seek to defeat the Lord Jesus.
That is why this warning is placed here. It is given just before the vision tells about the FINAL judgment that comes in the Valley of Megiddo, and warns all who will listen that it is the second coming that will initiate the events leading up to it. Of course, for the beast-worshippers, who will already have taken the mark of the beast, their destiny in the lake of fire is irreversible. But for the many who will be experiencing only a TASTE of the benefits of beast worship, there is still a chance to trust in Christ and be saved.

Jesus gives the same warning at the close of the book of Revelation.
Revelation 22:12, 17

"Behold, I am coming quickly, and my reward is with Me, to render to every man according to what he has done . . . And the Spirit and the Bride say, COME. And let the one who hears say COME. And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who wants to, take the water of life freely."

The 7th bowl judgment expresses the final wrath of God on the nations in the Middle East and throughout the world.
Jesus will physically descend from THE cloud and proceed to make war with the armies of the angry nations gathered in Palestine.

While armies are maneuvering in and around Jerusalem, being gathered to the valley of Meggido, the rest of the world is being devastated by the effects of the great earthquake and the storm of huge hail stones.
Revelation 16:17-21,
"And the seventh one poured out his bowl upon the air; and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying, "It is done."
And there were flashes of lightning and sounds and peals of thunder; and there was a great earthquake, such as there had not been since man came to be upon the earth, so great an earthquake {was it, and} so mighty."

I have shown that Revelation 14 is a summary vision that begins right after the rapture. It starts with the 144k servants of God who will minister on the earth as evangelistic messengers of the everlasting gospel. Rev. 14:1-13.
That vision concludes with the administration of God's final wrath in two stages. Rev. 14:14-20.
Stage one is a general judgment on the unbelieving earth dwellers, which probably includes the trumpets and bowls. Rev. 14:14-16.
Stage two is a specific judgment on the nations that are gathered in Palestine to fight against Jesus. Rev. 14:17-20.
It is this specific judgment that is included in the 7th bowl judgment.

When Jesus descends physically ONTO the earth, He will go first to Edom and judge that land area. He will then go to Jerusalem to rescue the believers there and prepare to fight at Armageddon.
In Jerusalem, Jesus will stand on the Mount of Olives which causes a very great earthquake.
Rev. 16:18-20
"And the seventh {angel} poured out his bowl upon the air; and a loud voice came out of the temple from the throne, saying, "It is done." And there were flashes of lightning and sounds and peals of thunder; and there was a great earthquake, such as there had not been since man came to be upon the earth, so great an earthquake {was it, and} so mighty."

Zechariah 14:4-5
"And in that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives, which is in front of Jerusalem on the east; and the Mount of Olives will be split in its middle from east to west by a very large valley, so that half of the mountain will move toward the north and the other half toward the south. And you will flee by the valley of My mountains, for the valley of the mountains will reach to Azel; yes, you will flee just as you fled before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. Thus, Yahweh, my God, will come, {and} all the holy ones with Him!"

Ezekiel 38:19-20
In reference to the invasion of Palestine and Jerusalem by Gog, the king of the North, when Jesus stands on the Mount of Olives, "on that day there will surely be a great earthquake in the land of Israel."

And the great city was split into three parts. . ."

There is still difference of opinion as to the identification of "the great city." It seems that since Babylon is mentioned in the next sentence as coming under a separate judgment, the mention here of "the great city," probably refers to Jerusalem which is identified as "the great city . . . where also their Lord was crucified," at Rev. 11:8.

Jerusalem being split into three parts is not at all inconsistent with what will result when the Mount of Olives is split in two at Zechariah 14:4.
The city itself is divided into three sections, and the splitting of the mountain simply causes the valley "pathway" that leads out of the city to safety. This of course is for the women and children, as the men will remain behind to fight. (Zech. 12:4-8; 14:12-15).

Rev. 16:19b
". . .and the cities of the nations fell."

This is in the entire time frame of Christ's confrontation with the armies in the valley of Megiddo, that will start with His stand on the Mount of Olives. There will be dramatic affects worldwide, from this earthquake.
The details of "fell" is not provided here, but the implication is that the damage is so severe that the governmental, economical, and societal structure of the "cities of the nations" (perhaps hyperbole) collapses. Not only will this massive earthquake affect the cities of the world, but the horrendous "fiery" hail storm of Rev. 16:21 will also cause severe ruin and death.
Revelation 16:21, "And huge hailstones, about one hundred pounds each, came down from heaven upon men."
Ezek. 38:22, "and I shall rain on him, and on his troops, and on all the people who are with him, a torrential rain, with hailstones, fire and brimstone."
Ezek. 39:6-7, "and I shall send fire upon Magog and those who inhabit the coastlands in safety."

Rev. 16:19c
"And Babylon the great was remembered before God, to give her the cup of the wine of His fierce wrath."

This is the final judgment on Babylon (Babylonian evil), the ideology that empowers and controls the king of the west (beast) through the influence of Satan himself. The history of that ideology and its final demise is later summarized in Revelation chapter 17 and Revelation 18.
The judgment is also on the CITY that is "housing" Babylonian evil and is the "throne" of the beast at that time, which is probably Rome.
There has been much discussion as to the identification of this city of "Babylon." Three views have the greatest feasibility.

1. The city refers to an actual "restored" city of Babylon which the king of the west (the beast) possesses for his headquarters.
2. The city which carries all the "characteristics" of ancient Babylon and the "mysteries" of Babylonian evil, which would be Rome.
3. The city refers to Jerusalem.

Walvoord summarizes it: "Babylon however, according to Scripture is destined to be completely destroyed. Whether this refers to Rome which is spiritual Babylon or, as some have understood it, to a rebuilt city of Babylon on the Euphrates, it is clear in any case that Babylon is the special object of the judgment of God."

See commentary on Revelation 17.
The religious power base of the beast.
Babylonian religion history
The destruction of Babylon

Rev. 16:20, "And every island fled away, and the mountains were not found."

This is hyperbole. The significance is that every island and every mountain are AFFECTED so that they are NOT as they were before. It does not mean that the whole world is now "flat as a pancake." Even Olives is not "flattened." It simply says that the mountain is split in half.
However, in Palestine, from Geba (about 6 miles north) to Rimmon in the South (about 33 miles southwest), the land will be flattened so that Jerusalem itself will remain elevated above all the land. Zech. 14:10.

Notice that during these final expressions of God's wrath, there is still time for people to continue in their blaspheming of God and in their rejection of His salvation provision.

The judgments from God throughout the world will elicit various negative responses from the people.
Later they will all be evaluated and the righteous will enter the kingdom while the unrighteous go to the place of torments in Hades.
(1) on the one hand we have the blaspheming of God because of the hail storm. Rev. 16:21,
"and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail, because its plague was extremely severe.

(2) and we also have the mourning at the loss of the city of Babylon. Rev. 18:9-19.

(3) And still the unbelieving earth dwellers did not change their mind and turn to God, just like at Rev. 9:20-21.

This final judgment upon the nations and especially those gathered in Palestine is probably what Jeremiah spoke about at Jeremiah 25:30-37, which has a worldwide focus as judgment upon the "peaceful folds" of these nations.
Jeremiah 25:31, "a clamor has come to the end of the earth, because Yahweh has a controversy with the nations.
He is entering into judgment with all flesh. As for the wicked, He has given them over to the sword, declares Yahweh."

The details of Babylon's history, character and identification are found in Revelation 17 and 18.
After that, the chronology of events picks up again at chapter 19.

Chapter 19 picks up from where chapter 16 ends, and after the parenthetical description and judgment on Babylon in chapter 18.

We again have the response from the heavenly observers to the "vision" which they have all been watching.

Verses 6-11 returns to the vision "screen" as we are told that the marriage of the Lamb has arrived. The use of the word, "arrived" indicates that it has not as yet taken place, but is now ready to be completed. Accordingly, "His bride has made herself ready" through the evaluation that takes place at the justice seat of Christ.

The "betrothal" period began for each individual believer at the moment of his salvation through personal trust in Jesus as the Messiah (2Corinthians 11:2).

During the time of the believer's stay here on earth, he is to cultivate God's righteousness in His life through growth and the filling of the Holy Spirit. It is fulfillment of this purpose which produces good works which are acceptable to God (Romans 14:17-18) and which will be rewarded at the Justice Seat of Christ (1 Corinthians 3:10-15). The positive result of the evaluation of all believers at this time will collectively constitute the wedding garment of the bride as "fine linen, bright and clean" which is "the righteous deeds of the saints," (Revelation 19:8).

Individually, of course, each believer will be personally rewarded according to the quality of his works as a Christian, whether they be good (agathos) or useless (phaulos), (2 Corinthians 5:10).

It is for this reason that Paul writes at 2 Corinthians 11:2, "that I might present you a pure virgin," and mentions his concern about their unfaithfulness at verse 3.

After all the evaluation of works is completed, the bride will be viewed as one "entity," prepared and ready for the wedding.
According to Revelation 19:9, there will be a marriage supper of the Lamb, which would obviously take place AFTER the wedding itself.

Now whether the marriage and/or supper take place before Revelation 19:11, is not clearly stated, but the implication is that Christ will first "destroy those who destroy the earth" at the battle of Armageddon and then participate in both the marriage and the supper at the beginning of His 1000 year earthly reign. There is no clear evidence that the marriage takes place in heaven and the supper, upon the earth. I suggest that both take place AFTER Christ's victory at Armageddon and at the beginning of the kingdom. Those who are invited to the supper will be those who are left alive after Armageddon (Zechariah 14:16-21) and who survive the evaluation of the nations of Matthew 25:31-46 as believers in Christ.

Accordingly, Revelation 19:11-21 now describes that final confrontation between Christ and the armies of the nations.
The vision of verses 11-16 sees the INITIAL second-coming arrival of Jesus in the clouds of the sky with power and great glory with all the holy ones (angels) with Him. This was shown to John previously at the 6th seal vision of Rev. 6:12-17.
Zech. 14:5c, "THUS, Yahweh my God will come and all the holy ones (angels) with Him."

Then the vision "skips over" everything that will occur AFTER Christ's arrival, and jumps directly to the final confrontation at "Har-Mageddon," as is seen at Rev. 14:19-20 and 16:16.

Zechariah 14:3-4.

"Then the LORD will go forth and fight against those nations, as when He fights on a day of battle."

See the article, WHEN ARMIES MOVE for details on the Armageddon campaign. See the study, WHEN ARMIES MOVE for details on the Armageddon campaign.


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