THE TESTIMONY OF THE GOOD SHEPHERD
Part one: John 10:1-21
This is still in 29 AD, and probably still October. But it is after the
feast of tabernacles because the last day of this 7-day feast occurred at verse
7:37 on October 21st. The feast of John 10:22 was in December. This teaching probably
occurred during the week that followed the healing of the blind man of
chapter 9, because the people are still talking about it at Verse 10:21.
Review John 9:39-41
1. For judgment I came into this world: krima.
This refers to a specific aspect of judgment that is explained in the next
phrase. Each use of the word, krima (judgment) must be interpreted based on
context. Here, it does not refer to eternal judgment that results from
rejecting Christ as savior.
At John 12:44-50, the context of judgment is eternal judgment. If we keep
this in mind there is no conflict between "for judgment I came into this
world," and "I did not come to judge the world, but to save the world."
Likewise at John 3:17, "For God did not send the Son into the world to judge
the world, but that the world might be saved through Him."
Here, the issue of judgment is evaluation and exposure of
the spiritual condition of those who are resisting the person and work of
Jesus as indicating that He is the promised Messiah.
2. in order that: Purpose clause, hina + the subjunctive mood of the verb,
3. Those who do not see: blepō as a present active participle. This refers
to those who do not have the spiritual reality of relationship with God.
They have not as yet perceived the issues of trusting in Christ as savior.
4. might see: blepō as a present active subjunctive.
That they might see their spiritual need (sin humility) and see the provision
for spiritual life reality through trusting in Christ (salvation humility).
5. And those who see: blepo as a present active participle. This refers to
those who THINK they have and CLAIM to have a right relationship with God.
They think they are experiencing genuine spiritual reality. But these are
steeped in their religious arrogance and error.
Their attitude is indicated in several places.
A. John 8:33, "We are Abraham's seed and have never been
enslaved to anyone."
B. John 9:34, "You were born entirely in sins, and are
you teaching us?"
6. might become blind: ginomai as an aorist subjunctive.
Blind, is tuphlos and in the context (verse 41) it indicates a recognition
of one's spiritual deficiency and need. So that they might become aware of
having no genuine spiritual reality, and hopefully respond to the teaching
The Pharisees with an air of arrogance ask using a construction that expects
or assumes a negative answer.
"surely we also are not blind are we?"
They are obviously not physically blind, so it seems that they understand
that he is talking about some kind of religious or moral blindness. And
taking an affront to His suggestion, arrogantly deny it.
1. if you were blind: the 2nd class condition if clause expects a negative
answer. If you had true spiritual perception and awareness about your need,
but you don't.
2. you would not have sin: refers to the sin of rejecting Jesus as the
3. but since you now say: claim, assert. The verb is legō as a present
4. that we see: The claim that they are not spiritually deficient; they are
right with God, and right in rejecting Jesus as the Messiah.
5. your sin remains: the sin of unbelief; of rejecting Jesus.
6. John 15:22-24
A. If Jesus had not come and spoken to them: this refers to the deeds and
teachings of Jesus that demonstrate Him to be the promised Messiah.
B. they would not have sin: this refers to the sin of rejecting Him.
Obviously, if Jesus had not come in the flesh and demonstrated that He is
the Messiah, no one could reject that specific manifestation of Himself.
C. but now they have no excuse for their sin. The FACTS of His person and
work were clearly demonstrated and they have no excuse for rejecting the
D. But now they have both seen and hated Me, and My Father as well. This is
the sin of rejecting Jesus as the promised Messiah, and in so doing it is
also the sin
of rejecting the character and plan of the Father.
There are two figures of speech that Jesus uses to teach the disciples. We
need to keep the images in one figure separate from the other one.
The first one is a SHEPHERD analogy.
This is directed to the Pharisees who claim to be the leaders of the people;
God's representatives and teachers.
Earlier this month Jesus said of them, "you are of your father the devil,
and you want to do the desires of your father." John 8:44.
And a few months later, in April, Jesus labels the religious leaders some
very descriptive terms. Mathew 23:13-33.
"Hypocrites, blind guides, fools, blind men, serpents, brood of vipers."
But these religious leaders have corrupted the nation; corrupted the fold.
Many of the people who were listening to Him failed to understand the first
figure that Jesus uses in verses 1-6. He uses a different figure in verses
7-10; the DOOR analogy. Then, in verses 11-18, He returns to using the
SHEPHERD analogy to complete the picture of providing salvation according to
THE SHEPHERD ANALOGY: PART ONE
It is part one because after teaching the Door analogy, Jesus will return to
amplify the shepherd analogy.
This little analogy seems out of place to the hearers. All of a sudden Jesus
starts talking about shepherds and sheep and the people simply do not
understand what He is talking about. But there are spiritual truths hidden
in the analogy that will be revealed as Jesus continues. So the details can
be understood as we apply the details from the rest of His teaching.
In the contest of THIS first analogy the symbolism is:
THE FOLD: refers to the nation of Israel. This is based on verse 16, "I have
other sheep who are not of THIS FOLD."
The Gentiles are the other sheep.
THE DOOR: represents
the RIGHT authority and viewpoint for providing life to the sheep. Divinely
assigned authority through "thus says the Lord." And Divine viewpoint
through the word of God ("justice, mercy, faithfulness, and the love of
God," Mt. 23:23; Luke 11:42) is the right way to access the sheep. The
Pharisees have neither and Christ has both.
SHEEP: the people of Israel whom the Pharisees and Sadducees are attempting
to control and use.
SHEPHERD: The right one. The one who has the authority and divine viewpoint
to lead the sheep; the one who cares for the sheep and protects them.
STRANGER: the wrong "shepherd" is a thief and robber and seeks to steal,
kill and ruin. Verse 10a.
The application for this must go back to the judgment directed against the
Pharisees that they are blind.
The Pharisees are the wrong shepherd. And when the sheep are confronted with
the true nature of the wrong shepherd, they will resist him. And likewise,
when they are confronted with the true nature of the right shepherd, they
will follow him.
The wrong shepherd is the Pharisees, but the identification of the right shepherd is not in view
at this point. The focus is simply on the fact that there is a wrong
shepherd that threatens the sheep. Most of the people did not understand
what Jesus was talking about. When He returns to this analogy in verses
11-18, He does not mention the wrong shepherd again, but clearly identifies
Himself as the right shepherd.
1. Truly, truly I say to you: amān, amān. It is taken from the Hebrew verb,
aman, which means to confirm as true.
This is a very often used expression by Jesus to communicate His authority
and confidence. It carries the idea of "in absolute truth and authority."
Whether single or doubled, only Jesus used it in this manner. In the
synoptic gospels, it always occurs in the singular, and in John it is always
doubled. But I suspect that this doubling was always the way Jesus used the
word in the places where the synoptics record a singular.
Notice the response of the people upon hearing the words of Jesus. Matthew
7:28-29, "The result was that when Jesus finished these words, the
multitudes were amazed at His teaching, for He was teaching them as one
having authority, and not as their scribes."
Also, even the officers or "police" of the temple who were sent to seize
Jesus (John 7:32) were challenged by the manner in which He taught. John
7:46, "never did a man speak the way this man speaks."
Jesus always used it in continuation of a discourse and not the start of
one. This helps us understand that He is continuing with the teaching that
was started at verse 9:35 when He met with the formerly blind man. And also,
the response of the people at verses 10:19-21 indicates we have a unified
2. The one who does
not enter through the door: The door represents the right authority and
viewpoint for "coming to" the nation and offering spiritual life reality.
The Pharisees don't have the authority nor the viewpoint to properly
represent truth to the people.
They say, "thus says Moses" but ignore the LOVE of Deuteronomy 6:5 and Lev.
Mat. 23:23 and Luke 11:42 and Micah 6:8.
Of course, if they really believed Moses they would accept Jesus as the
Christ. John 5:45-47
3. into the fold of the sheep: The fold is the "home" of the sheep. And
as we have seen, the fold refers to the nation of Israel. But the nation has
become corrupted through the religious influence and control of the
Pharisees and Sadducees.
4. but climbs up some other way: he sneaks in because he
does not have the right credentials to properly help the sheep and wants to do harm to
5. is a thief: kleptās, usually indicates simple theft. But in contrast
with the robber, this one tries to use skill to accomplish his thievery.
6. and a robber: lāstās, is is more intense and indicates an intent to do
violence and injury to the sheep. This is the word used for the two
criminals next to Jesus on the cross and for Barabbas. John 18:40. They were
not just common thieves, but were violent criminals.
The Pharisees wanted to control the people religiously and to make many
disciples, even to the spiritual ruin of both (Mat. 23:15). The scribes, most
of whom were Pharisees, were occupied with money and even extorted the weak
people of the society to pad their pockets. Luke 16:14; 20:47; Mat. 23:25.
By "religion" I want to clarify that this word refers to anything that is
contrary to TRUE Christianity, which is the worship of God revolving around
trust in the true Messiah as
promised in the Old Testament and realized in the person of Jesus Christ.
True Christianity actually began in the garden of Eden with the promise of a
Savior (the seed of the woman; Gen. 3:15). Trust in God and in His promise is trust in
the plan of God for salvation. I call it the Messianic promise, and anyone
who trusted in that promise throughout the Old Testament period entered into
an eternally secure relationship with God and was thus "saved" from the
penalty of sin. Likewise, those who trust in the historical fulfillment of
that promise as it was realized in the person of Jesus are saved. The
Pharisees and Sadducees believed and taught a salvation through the works of
the law and not through faith. The issue for those who saw and heard Jesus
was to recognize that He was in fact the promised Messiah and to put their
trust in Him as the Savior of the world.
John 4:41-42; 5:24, 46; 6:40; 9:35-38.
1. but he who enters by the door: the one who has the proper authority to come for the sheep in the morning.
The application is that the RIGHT shepherd has the authority and the
viewpoint to present himself to the nation (the sheep in the fold) and offer
them spiritual life reality.
2. is a shepherd of the sheep: The one who truly cares for the sheep and
gives them sustenance. In this case the application is that the right
shepherd actually comes to RESCUE the sheep from the religious corruption in
the nation. He presents himself to the nation and offers them spiritual life
reality; both salvation from sin and quality of life on earth.
The analogy continues with the focus on the fact that there is a wrong
shepherd and a right shepherd. As already clarified, the analogy is pointing
to the Pharisees as the ones who seek to do harm to the sheep. In context,
this is demonstrated by the way they treated the blind man who was healed by
Jesus. Later, Jesus will claim to be "the shepherd of the sheep." As such we
can make a spiritual application in this analogy. The fold refers to the
nation of Israel that is in a corrupt state through the religious influence
of the Pharisees. The sheep are the people of the nation; believers and
unbelievers alike. The ones who are receptive to the message of
Jesus will go out through the door after hearing his voice and following Him.
These have seen through the religious falsehood of the Pharisees and
Sadducees that has oppressed them, and by following Jesus they totally
reject it. They follow the voice of Jesus and do not listen to the voice of
the Pharisees, Scribes and Sadducees.
A. his own: these are the ones who accept Jesus as the TRUE shepherd; the
savior of the sheep; the promised Messiah.
B. When He puts forth: The verb is ekbalō as an aorist active
subjunctive (of time). The sheep who believe are "cast out" of the
spiritually corrupt nation and become members of the "spiritual" flock (John
10:6). Jesus "casts
them out" into the pasture of living a fulfilled spiritual life. It is
interesting that Jesus chose to use the same word that described what the
Pharisees did to the blind man at John 9:34, "they cast him out."
Not only does this word relate back to what the Pharisees did, but it
indicates an extreme action that aggressively separates the sheep from the
"corrupted" fold of the nation.
C. He goes before them and they follow: a fulfilled spiritual life can
only be realized as the believer (the sheep) hears and heeds the words of
Jesus. John 14:21, 23; 15:10
D. They flee from the stranger: the verb is pheugō as a future active
indicative. The verb has the idea of avoiding and shunning rather than
physically running away from.
E. They do not know the voice of strangers: the verb is oida to indicate
a settled knowledge within the soul. There is now, no longer any attraction
from the false teachers or fear of their oppression. The voice of the shepherd; the doctrines and
principles of truth that they have accepted continue to reveal the errors
and failures of religion and give them confidence to stay focused on the
character and plan of God.
So, Jesus suddenly starts talking about sheep and shepherds, and I can
imagine the people and the disciples and especially the Pharisees, looking around at each other wondering
and asking, "what in the world is He talking about."
But of course, that is how it was with all of His parables, most of which He
Here, to help them understand, Jesus changes the focus and the subject. He
presents a new analogy that contains a metaphor that makes it very personal
and emphatic. After that, He will return to the shepherd analogy and explain
the significance of following the right shepherd.
THE DOOR ANALOGY
1. Truly, truly: again the statement reflects absolute authority and truth.
2. I am the door of the sheep: Jesus uses the same analogy of the sheep and
their fold, but now He changes what the fold is, and focuses on entrance
into the fold. The fold is the place of safety,
security and comfort. But there is only one way to get into the fold -
through the door.
The fold (the presence of which is only implied) represents the place of
SPIRITUAL security and comfort; the place of relationship with God; life
The door is the person and work of Jesus as per John 14:6, "I am the way the
truth and the life, no one comes to the Father except through me."
1. All who came before me: before is the preposition, pro, and refers to
previous in time; previous to the start of Christ's ministry to Israel.
It includes the organization of the Sanhedrin, who are the ones oppressing
the sheep at the present time. It applies to any and all false teachers,
some who claimed to be the Messiah, and some who just taught false doctrine.
Jesus previously warned of these "false prophets, who come to you in sheep's
clothing, but inward they are ravenous wolves." Matthew 7:15. It applies to
any who claim to be shepherds and guides to the sheep, and especially the
Pharisees, who are the false teachers standing in front of Him.
Later, He will warn of the false Messiahs and false prophets that will arise
throughout future history. Mt. 24:5, 11, 24.
2. are thieves and
robbers: This connects this allegory with the previous one. These two words
are the point of contact between the two. There should be no doubt at this
point that Jesus is referring to the Pharisees whom He already judged as
being blind. These seek to plunder the sheep and control the sheep for their
own religious purposes, as mentioned earlier.
John 10:9, "I am the door. If anyone enters through me, he shall be saved,
and go in and out, and find pasture."
1. The fold represents the status of relationship with God the Father;
2. The door to the fold is Jesus. This is the only way into the fold. John
14:6, I am the way, the truth and the life. No one can come to the Father
except through Me." Acts 4:12.
3. If any enters through me: The pronoun, tis, refers to a sheep that trusts
in Christ. Entering through the door is to trust in Christ as Savior. This
is a GENERAL principle that applies to all people even though the immediate
focus is on the people of Israel. Jn. 3:16; 12:47; 4:42, "Savior of the world."
This is a 3rd class condition "if" clause that indicates the potential for
the sheep. Maybe they will enter and maybe they will not. Maybe they will
trust in Christ and maybe they will not.
4. Upon entrance into the fold; the plan of God, there are two
A. He shall be saved: Often times, believers throw this word around without
considering that the hearers might not know what is being talked about.
Salvation refers to forgiveness of sins and relationship with God through
receiving the new birth of spiritual life. Mat. 1:21.
It is the place of security and safety for the believer.
The promise of salvation from sins was taught throughout the Old Testament
and was clearly "known" by the people although not always "understood."
Mat. 1:21, "He will save His people from their sins."
Luke 24:44-47; Acts 26:22-23
Acts 10:43, "of Him all the prophets bear witness that through His name
everyone who believes in Him receives forgiveness of sins."
And as Paul wrote, quoting David, "Happy are those whose lawless deeds have
been forgiven, and whose sins have been covered. Happy is the man whose sin
the Lord will not take into account." Romans 4:7-8 (Psalm 32:1-2)
B. and shall go in and out, and find pasture: using the "image" of a sheep,
this indicates a contented
and secure life for the sheep. Once IN the fold; in relationship with God,
there is life here on earth "outside" the fold, where the sheep graze in
peace and security. It refers to the quality of life that the believer can
enjoy here on earth as he learns and uses the truths of God's word. John
John 10:10, "I am come that they might have life and have abundance."
1. The thief
comes: erchomai as a present middle indicative.
It describes a general principle of truth regarding the false prophets
throughout all of history. But applies specifically to the oppressive
religious leaders of Israel.
2. only to steal,
kill and destroy:
The kleptās who normally is a simple thief is given the broader character
that corresponds with the klāstās.
The false teachers care only for themselves; their own prosperity and
reputation; and indirectly the promotion of Satan's agenda to hider the
progress of God's plan. To do this, they must tread upon the people of the
earth, around whom the angelic conflict revolves.
A. To steal: This has a two-fold focus.
1. Their followers suffer loss of possessions because
the religious leaders impose all kinds of
penalties that unjustly steal various
them. Mark 12:40a.
2. Satan (You are of your father the devil, John 8:44)
"steals" people away from choosing the plan
God through various religious, cultic and
pseudo-Christian teachings and activities.
Matthew 23:13, 15
B. to kill: Religion often seeks to kill those who resist.
Mat. 23:29-36; Mt. 12:14; 26:3-4;
John 5:18; 7:1; 8:37, 59; 10:31; Acts 8:3; 26:10
C. to destroy: apollumi means to destroy or ruin.
Religion enslaves people through its oppressive
regulations and legalism. Religion ruins quality of
life. Mark 12:40a; Gal. 4:9; 2Peter 2:18-19
3. I have come:
erchomai as an aorist tense. I am here; I have arrived on the scene in the
midst of all
this religious error. Provides a very strong contrast to the death and ruin
from false teachers.
Again, two things are in view; salvation and quality of life here on
4. that they might
have: hina purpose clause plus the present active subjunctive of echō.
5. life: corresponds with
"saved" in verse 9.
A. Romans 5:9, Saved from the wrath. Jude v. 23.
B. 2 Tim. 1:9, saved us and called us.
C. Mat. 1:21, save His people from their sins.
D. 1 Tim. 1:15, save sinners.
E. Luke 19:10, save what was lost
F. John 12:47, save the world.
G. John 10:28, never perish. John 3:16.
H. John 5:24, has eternal life, and does not come into
judgment but has passed out from death into life.
2. and might have: The verb echō is repeated to indicate the receipt and
possession of two different things.
3. abundance, is the
noun, perissos and corresponds with "finding pasture." It refers to a
functional and satisfying life. The translation that makes abundance
an adverb, "abundantly," misses the significance of the TWO things involved
with our salvation and is erroneous.
A. The experience of eternal life blessings in time; that
is, while we live here on earth.
B. Mat. 11:29-30, rest for your souls refers to a quality
of life here on earth.
C. 1 Tim. 4:6-11; 6:11-12, 17-19; Taking hold of eternal
life refers to experiencing the blessings of your
salvation relationship while here on earth by learning
and using the truths of God's word.
D. Galatians 6:7-9, reaping eternal life refers to
experiencing the spiritual blessings of being a child
of God while here on earth.
E. Peace and Joy: Romans 14:17 with 15:13.
F. Peace: John 14:27
G. Joy: John 15:11
Verses 11-18 The good
shepherd analogy applied specifically to Jesus.
Jesus as the DOOR to life and abundance is set up in contrast to the thieves
who bring death and ruin. But exactly HOW is He the door. Jesus here returns
to the shepherd analogy not just to contrast himself with the wrong
shepherds, but to show what the shepherd DOES in order to BE the door; the
way the truth and the life.
There is no difficulty in seeing Jesus as both the door AND the shepherd at
the same time. He presents two different analogies and two different
pictures to communicate the way to find true spiritual reality; relationship
and fellowship with God. He is also the bread of life, the light of the
world, the vine.
1. I am the good shepherd: the word, good, is kalos and in this context it
simply means, THE RIGHT ONE in contrast to the "strangers of verses 1-5. It
does not address QUALITY directly, but the further descriptions of the
shepherd amplify the quality aspects of the word, kalos.
2. the good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep: All of a sudden, this
takes on a very deep spiritual meaning for the hearers and especially for
those who heed His words.
A "normal" shepherd is not going to sacrifice his life for the sheep. If he
were to do that, the sheep would likewise perish and it would be a useless
and vain action. Exactly what happens when the hired hand flees as at verse
12. Now, of course, the shepherd will take any reasonable action to protect
the sheep, but not die for them.
So this statement should immediately get the attention of the people - this
man is actually talking about dying FOR the sheep.
The word, "lays down" is tithāmi (put or place) with several manuscripts
containing the word didomi (give) instead.
The committee for
textual criticism for the Greek text put out by the United Bible Societies
gives the choice of tithāmi, a B rating. This means "that there is some
degree of doubt" that
is really very little difference between the two words as both communicate
the idea of "giving self" to accomplish something for the sheep.
At verse 15, the choice is the same, with the committee giving tithāmi a C
rating. This "means that there is a considerable degree of doubt whether the
text or the apparatus contains the superior reading." That simply means that
both words have very good support in the manuscript evidence.
Verses 12-13 are pretty straight forward. The hired hand will not put his
life on the line just to protect the sheep.
He is not intimately or financially concerned about the sheep. Likewise, the
false teachers; the Scribes and the Pharisees, care only for their own
safety, comfort and welfare.
It should be obvious that the TARGET of Christ's teaching is the corrupt
religious leaders, but it seems there is no reason to try to find a
counterpart to the "wolf" in this analogy. The wolf represents ANY danger to
the sheep, which could include various aspects of Roman oppression that the
Pharisees condone. But the greatest danger to the sheep comes from the
Verse 14-15 I am the
1. I know My own: My own refers to the people of Israel when compared with
verse 16, which suggests that the other sheep would be the Gentiles. But
more specifically, "My own" refers to BELIEVERS out from the people of
Israel. That is, those who have accepted Him as the promised Messiah and
Savior as per Luke 2:30-32. And whereas, Jesus most certainly knows EVERYONE in the nation, only
of believers can it be said that they KNOW HIM.
Jesus certainly has in mind the ones whom the Father gives to Him as He
taught earlier in John 6:37-40.
2. and My own know me: both times the verb ginōskō is used as a present
active indicative. It refers to the experiential knowledge that comes from a
relationship with each other. As at verses 3-4, the sheep hear and know the
voice of the shepherd. At verse 15, a comparison is made with the
RELATIONSHIP knowledge between Jesus and the Father. The quality of
knowledge between Jesus and the Father cannot be the same quality of
knowledge between Jesus and the sheep. So QUALITY of knowledge is not in
view, but it's simply the issue of relationship that He has in view.
3. and I lay down my
life for the sheep: Here the fact of sacrifice is more personally stated.
Instead of "the shepherd" dying for the sheep, it is "I" lay down my life
for the sheep. The context shows us that Jesus has in mind specifically
those who have already believed in Him. He will die to confirm the fact of
their salvation from sin by His payment of the penalty required by the
justice of God.
But as an extension, He dies for all those who will believe in Him after His
death on the cross.
Likewise, His sacrifice for sin will confirm the promise of salvation that
was made to all Old Testament believers. Accordingly, those believers will
be taken to heaven when Jesus ascends after His resurrection. Heb. 12:23,
"the spirits of righteous men made complete"
4. As at verse 11, the verb is tithāmi as a present active indicative and basically means
to put or place, thus the idea of "lay down." It carries the force of "to
give." Actually, several later manuscripts have the verb for give (didomi)
instead of this one. The committee for textual criticism for the Greek text
put out by the United Bible Societies gives the choice of tithāmi, a C
rating. This "means that there is a considerable degree of doubt whether the
text or the apparatus contains the superior reading." That simply means that
both words have very good support in the manuscript evidence.
A. The object of the verb is MY SOUL: psuchā which in this context
refers to the physical sacrifice of Christ on the cross. The word psuchā,
is often used for a person's LIFE and in fact this combination of tithāmi
and psuchā occurs in other places.
1 John 3:16, "He laid down his life (psuchā) for us; and we ought to
lay down our lives (psuchā) for the brethren."
John 13:37, Peter said, "I will lay down my life (psuchā) for you."
Jesus is NOT referring to the judgment on His SOUL when all the sins of the
world were placed upon Him, but to the sacrifice of His life; the giving up
of His body to death on the cross.
It was necessary for Jesus to present (give over) His life (body AND soul)
to death in order to accomplish the whole salvation package for the human
However, it is not the physical death of Jesus that paid for sin in order
that we might be saved. It is His soul that actually carried all the sins of the world
and experienced a spiritual separation from God the Father and from the
B. At the same time, it is the physical death of Christ's body that paved
the way for the physical resurrection of the believer's body and a permanent
removal of the sin nature which is in the physical body; the mentality
C. Both "deaths" were necessary to accomplish the whole salvation package
in God's plan.
THE DEATH OF CHRIST
1. The need for Christ's death is the fact that the human race is born in
slavery to sin. And the wages of sin is spiritual and physical death.
A. Natural sin: presence of a sin nature.
SEE TOPIC: The sin nature
B. Personal sin: acts of sin committed throughout
C. Physical curse on the body: physical death
2. Christ's death provided payment of the penalty for sin for all who trust
in Him. Redemption.
A. Positional redemption: relationship with God
1. Forgiveness of all personal sins: Eph. 1:7
2. Delivered from the authority of the sin nature:
B. Forgiveness extended into experience: 1 John 1:7, 9
C. Victory over the sin nature in time: Rom. 6:12-14
D. Physical redemption through resurrection: Rom. 8:23
3. The price of
redemption from sins was the spiritual death of Christ. He carried the sins
of all the world upon His own soul within His physical body on the cross and
experienced judgment from God for all mankind (unlimited atonement).
A. 1 Pet. 2:24; John 1:29
B. Represented by the term "blood of Christ."
1 John 1:7; 1 Pet. 1:18-19.
C. Isaiah 53:10, His soul as a guilt offering.
D. Of course it was "in" His body, but it was the SOUL
that carried the sins and bore the experience of
separation from the Father and the Spirit.
"My God (The Father), My God (The Spirit), why
you forsaken Me." Mat. 27:46
4. The ransom was paid for all members of the human race. 1 Tim. 2:5-6; 1
John 2:2; Heb. 2:9; Titus 2:11
5. Christ died for all - there are no exceptions.
A. Titus 2.11-God's grace provides salvation to all men
B. Heb. 2.9 - Jesus tasted death for everyone
C. 2 Pet. 2.1 - He even bought the ones who deny him.
D. 1 Tim. 4.10 - He is the savior of all men (universal
sacrifice) especially of believers (limited application
based on faith).
E. 1 Tim. 2:6 - who gave Himself as a ransom for all.
John 10:16 THE NEW
1. And I have other sheep not of this fold: The other sheep are the Gentiles
who will trust in Christ. This fold refers to the Jews. The word, other, is
allos, which means others of the same kind. The word, heteros, which is not
here, means others of a different kind. The significance is that these
"other" sheep are of the same kind as the believers of Israel. The
"sameness" of these other sheep is that they also will trust in Christ when
they hear His voice; the message of the gospel.
A. John 1:9-13
B. Romans 1:16, To both Jew and Gentile (Greek).
C. Luke 2:30-32, a light of revelation to the Gentiles.
2. I must bring them also: present active infinitive of ago, which means to
lead. He leads them by giving them the gospel message. It is the word of God
that draws, but that "drawing" can be resisted.
SEE TOPIC Drawing
3. and they shall hear my voice: refers to a positive response to the gospel
4. and they shall become one flock: The word is poimnā, not aulā (fold). One
body of believers comprised of ALL who believe from among both Jew and
Gentile. Jesus mentioned this later at John 11:52 and 12:32, and even in His
prayer at 17:20.
SEE TOPIC: BODY OF CHRIST
THE SHEEP ANALOGY
(taken from RBThieme)
1. A sheep cannot guide himself. Our Shepherd, the Lord Jesus Christ,
provides guidance for us. We have no clue as to what is the divine viewpoint
or the divine will as we go through phase two (the Christian life here on
earth), so He has provided us with Bible doctrine. 1 Peter 2:2;
2. A sheep cannot cleanse himself. Our Shepherd provides for us rebound
(confession of sin). He has provided cleansing from sin, the basis for
getting back into fellowship. 1 John 1:9
3. A sheep is helpless when injured. A shepherd has to provide for every
problem, for every pressure, for every disaster for the sheep. Our
Shepherd provides for us, again through Bible doctrine, the basis
whereby we can meet any disaster in life. 1 Cor. 10:13
4. A sheep is defenseless, apart from the shepherd. Our Shepherd has
provided a wall of fire for us –
Zechariah 2:5; 1 Cor. 10:13
5. A sheep cannot find water. Our Shepherd has provided for us water,
the water of life; and He has
provided for us food.
6. A sheep is easily frightened. Our Shepherd, the Lord Jesus Christ,
provides Bible doctrine for us in
time of disaster. Philip. 4:6-7; John
14:27; 1 Peter 5:7
7. A sheep does not belong to a sheep. By this is meant that a sheep has
wool. The sheep grows
wool but is doesn’t belong to it. The
sheep’s wool is analogous to divine good. Divine good doesn’t
belong to us; it is the production of
Bible doctrine and the filling of the Spirit. Our divine good, as it
were, is sheared off, and that is the
last that we see it until eternity. So our Shepherd provides the
basis for our production of divine
You are not your own, you have been
bought with a price. Therefore glorify God in your bodies.
1 Cor. 6:19-20
1. For this reason: In general, because Jesus always does the things that
are pleasing to the Father. John 8:29.
John 4:34, "My food is to do the will of Him who sent me, and to accomplish
2. Because I lay
down my soul: tithāmi, present act. indic.
This refers to his physical life which He lays down
voluntarily on the cross as seen at verse 15.
3. in order that I
may take it again: hina purpose clause with lambanō as an aorist active
This refers to His resurrection.
1. No one takes it away from Me: airō, present act. indic.
As much as man and Satan wanted to kill Him, it was totally out of
their control. Even while hanging on the cross, no one could kill Him unless
He allowed it.
2. but I lay it down from my own choice:
tithāmi as a present
3. My choice: preposition apo - from the ultimate source of myself. John
19:30; Mark 15:37; Mt. 27:50; Luke 23:46
4. I have authority to lay it down: exousia. This was the purpose given to
me and the ability to do it out from my own free will. The verb
as an aorist active
5. And I have authority to take it up again: The verb lambanō as an
aorist active infinitive refers to the point of time of the resurrection.
This authority is in the realm of the Father's plan which here is called,
6. This commandment I received from My Father:
The verb, lambanō as an aorist active indicative.
Jesus always followed the plan of the Father obeying every command and
faithfully teaching the very words of the Father. John 17:4
Luke 2:49; Mat. 3:16-17; 17:1-5; John 8:28-29; 12:50; Matthew 26:36-46, 53;
The agents of His resurrection:
A. God the Father: Acts 4:24; Eph. 1:20
B. God the Holy Spirit: Rom. 1:4; 8:11
C. God the Son: John 2:19; 10:17-18; John 19:30
resurrection of Christ
The reaction from the people
1. division again: schisma + palin. This is what Jesus triggers quite
frequently, whether between the religious leaders (John 9:16) or between
members of the populace, as here and at John 7:43.
2. Because of these words: It seems quite insane to some of these people
that this man would be talking in this manner.
Verse 20 SOME OF THE
1. He has a demon: Not the first time for this accusation.
John 7:20; 8:48, 52.
2 and he is insane: Nor for this one. Mark 3:21
3. why do you listen to him: This is an attempt to ridicule and to shame
them, implying that it is likewise insane to even listen to his words.
V. 21 THE OTHERS OF
1. These are not the sayings of one demon possessed:
These have a bit more orientation to spiritual reality and recognize the
significance of His words.
2. a demon can't open the eyes of the blind, can he: This response
recognizes the divine miracle of healing that Jesus did earlier.
And John leaves us there with the crowds still in confusion, and he moves on
to the next critical event; the feast of Dedication about 2 months later in
December of 29 AD.