BOOK OF JOEL
INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The day of the Lord passages are explicit in the book of
The biggest issues revolve around two things.
1. The need to recognize the passages that appear to have a current
application to the time of Joel.
2. And then, what exactly is the time frame for Joel's ministry.
There are no kings mentioned and no other prophets mentioned.
In order to properly interpret the "even now" context of Joel, it is
necessary to review some history.
I. The history of animal sacrifices:
The animal sacrifice was the primary ritual for teaching the reality of
man's sinfulness and God's promise to provide a solution by bringing a
savior into the world. Genesis 4:3-5.
The issue here is what God told to Cain in reference to the proper offering
to God. "If you do right."
The first place the animal sacrifice is mentioned after Abel's offering is
after the flood at Gen. 8:20.
There is no stated protocol given to Noah for building an altar and making a
burnt offering after the flood in 1657 AH. But they probably worshipped God
around a meal from the sacrificed animals. This is suggested based on Gen.
31:54, "Then Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain, and called his
relatives to the meal; and they ate the meal and spent the night on the
I also suggest that such a meal was enjoyed after each occasion of animal
The next mention of sacrifice is by implication 427 years later in 2083 AH.
A simple statement that Abram built an altar (Gen. 12:7). Then he moved and
built an altar between Bethel and Ai (Gen. 12:8). And then he moved and
built an altar to Yahweh by the oaks of Mamre (Gen. 13:18). In Gen. 22:9,
Abram built an altar for a burnt offering.
At Gen. 26:25, Isaac built an altar in Beersheba. At Gen. 31:54, Jacob
offered a sacrifice on a mountain in Galeed followed by partaking of the
At Gen. 33:20, Jacob built an altar in Shechem.
At Gen. 35:1-7, God instructed Jacob to build an altar to El in Bethel.
At Gen. 46:1, Jacob (Israel) offered sacrifices to Elohim at Beersheba in
After this there is no mention of altar, offerings or sacrifices until Ex.
3:18, in 2513 AH. But I think it is safe to assume that the normal practices
of offering sacrifices was observed in the family's worship activity up
until the Israelites migrated into Egypt in 2298 AH. It is also probable to
assume that while in Egypt normal sacrificing would have occurred until the
slavery began in 2374 AH, 6 years after the death of Joseph.
Furthermore, Jacob's family were not the only believers in Yahweh.
There were the descendants of the people of Salem, where Melchizedek was
priest of the Most High God (Gen. 14:18).
It appears that Hagar and Ishmael were believers. Gen. 21:17-20. "And God
was with the lad."
It appears that Laban's household are believers. Gen. 24:50, "the matter
comes from Yahweh, so we cannot speak to you bad or good."
There is no reason to think that none of Abraham's other sons and
descendants were believers.
In 2473 AH, there were people of the Midianites who were believers (Jethro,
the priest of Midian, Ex. 2:16; 18:9-12).
Also living in the land area of the Midianites, Balaam was a family priest
who was a believer in Yahweh. Numbers 22:18,
"But Balaam replied to the servants of Balak, “Even if Balak were to give me
his house full of silver and gold,
I could not do anything, either small or great, contrary to the command of
Yahweh my God."
Of course, later, he acted contrary to Yahweh and counseled Balak how to
cause trouble to the Israelites.
Balaam's sacrifices: Num. 22:41, "on the high places of Baal." Num. 23:2,
II. The idolatrous sacrifices of the Canaanites:
The idolatrous worship of the Canaanites revolved around various kinds of
sacrifices on the high places.
The Hebrew word for high place is bAmAh and simply means an elevated place;
a hill; a mountain.
The high places were in and of themselves, neutral elevations that adopted
easily to places of worship.
Animal sacrifices at a high place were acceptable to Yahweh at various times
in history if of course such worship activity was directed toward Him.
The Canaanite high places came into existence probably after the tower of
Babel, as the various family clans separated and carried with them the
religion of Nimrod.
Thus, at the time of Israel's exodus from Egypt the various idol gods of the
Canaanites were well established, and the worship involved is stated by Paul
at 1Cor. 10:20, "The things which the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice to
demons, and not to God."
That is why Israel was commanded to destroy these high places as they
conquered the land after their Exodus from Egypt. Num. 33:52.
The first occurrence of the high places is at Lev. 26:30. It refers to the
designated places of worship dedicated to idol worship by the Canaanites.
Here, it applies specifically to the places that were embraced by the
Israelites throughout their history when they departed from the true worship
of Yahweh. The word is also used to indicate man-made structures used for
sacrificing to the idol deities.
After Israel left Egypt and before the tabernacle was built they had to
build an altar in order to offer sacrifices: Ex. 24:4-6, "built an altar . .
. offered burnt offerings and sacrificed young bulls . . . the blood he
sprinkled on the altar."
After the tabernacle was built, the proper protocol for Israel's sacrifices
was for sacrifices to be made "at the doorway of the tent of meeting." Lev.
Instructions about the altars in Canaan. Ex. 34:11-17, tear them down.
But the Israelites developed a pattern of discontent and rebellion that
began in the first year after they left Egypt that never really stopped. 40
years later, Moses told them, "Remember, do not forget how you provoked
Yahweh your God to wrath in the wilderness; from the day that you left the
land of Egypt until you arrived at this place, you have been rebellious
against Yahweh." Deut. 9:7.
In 2552 AH, a large group of Israelites participated in idol worship and
sacrifices while they were in the land area of Moab. Num. 25:1-3. Verse 9,
24,000 died from God's discipline.
Joshua 22:10-34, the memorial altar, which was not for sacrifices.
At Joshua 18:1, the tent of meeting was set up in Shiloh.
But there were exceptions to sacrificing before the tent of meeting.
During the period of the judges:
Judges 6:25-26, "tear down the altar of Baal . . . and build an altar to
YAweh your God . . . and offer a burnt offering."
Judges 13:16-20, "Manoah took the kid . . . and offered it on the rock
(altar) to Yahweh."
And yet, for about 460 years, all throughout the period of the judges (from
about 2560 to 3022 AH) "the sons of Israel did evil in the sight of Yahweh
and worshipped the Baals." Judges 2:10-19
During Samuel's judgeship: 3003 - 3022 AH
1 Sam. 1:3, sacrifices at the tent of meeting in Shiloh.
1 Sam. 4:1-11, In 3002 AH, the priests moved the tabernacle into battle and
the Philistines captured it and it remained unavailable for worship activity
for 20 years (3003-3022 AH).
During this time, Israel's sacrifice protocol was conducted on various
elevated pieces of land by authorized members of the priesthood. The same
word for high place was used for some of these sacrifices.
1 Sam. 9:12-13, 19, 25, Samuel in the land of Zuph.
During the monarchy, starting with Saul in 3023 AH:
There was a proper high place located in the garrison of the Philistines. 1
1 Sam. 10:8; 11:15, Saul sacrificed at Gilgal.
1 Sam. 13:8-13, Saul's unrighteous sacrifice because Samuel was not there.
1 Sam. 16:1-5, sacrifice in Bethlehem.
1 Sam. 20:6, annual family sacrifice in Bethlehem.
In 3070 the ark of the covenant is taken to the city of David. 2 Sam.
(after leaving the house of Abindadab, the ark remained in the house of
Obed-edom for 3 months, 2 Sam. 6:3-11).
2 Sam. 6:17, David offered burnt offerings before Yahweh in the city of
2 Sam. 24:18-25, David builds an altar and offers burnt offerings at the
threshing floor of Araunah.
1 kings 1:9, 19, 25, Adonijah proclaimed himself to be king and sacrificed
by the stone of Zoheleth.
Solomon became king in 3103 AH and he "loved Yahweh, walking in the statutes
of his father David except he sacrificed and burned incense on the high
places." 1 Kings 3:3.
He is sacrificing to Yahweh but is not following proper procedure.
But at Gibeon his sacrifice on a high place was acceptable to Yahweh. 1
1 Kings 11:4-7, although Solomon built the temple for Yahweh, later in life
he abandoned the true worship of Yahweh and embraced the idolatry of the
other nations, and built many high places. 1 Kings 11:4-8.
And these high places were not destroyed until about 360 years later by
Josiah in about 3500 AH.
1 Kings 23:13.
In 3143 AH, after Solomon's death, Jeroboam rebelled against the house of
David and proclaimed himself king in the Northern part of the land, which
became designated as Ephraim or the kingdom of Israel. David's house in the
south became known as Judah and Solomon's son, Rehoboam became king.
Jeroboam quickly steered his people into idolatry. 1 kings 12:28-33.
And even the people of Judah in general did not remain faithful to God's
policy, "And the people of Judah did evil in the sight of the Lord, and they
provoked Him to jealousy with their sins which they committed, more than all
that their fathers had done. For they, too, built for themselves high
places, memorial stones, and Asherim on every high hill and under every
luxuriant tree. There were also male cult prostitutes in the land. They
committed all the same abominations of the nations which the Lord
dispossessed before the sons of Israel." 1 Kings 14:22-24
Thus, throughout the history of the nation of Israel, both the Northern and
Southern kingdoms, the people frequently abandoned the true worship of
Yahweh, and adopted the worship of the Canaanite idols, building and
sacrificing on high places according to the Canaanite rituals.
The Northern kingdom never recovered. 1 Kings 13:33-34, "After this event,
Jeroboam did not abandon his evil way, but he again appointed priests of the
high places from all the people; anyone who wanted, he ordained, and he
became one of the priests of the high places. This event also became a sin
of the house of Jeroboam, even to wipe it out and eliminate it from the face
of the earth." Years later, God removed the Northern kingdom from being a
721-719 BCE 2 kings 18:9-13.
III. The history of the Southern kings:
In the case of the kingdom of Judah, as the kings came and went, some of the
high places were destroyed and rebuilt many times.
But the people in general continued to worship other gods and were
unfaithful to Yahweh.
As seen above, the people of Judah in general did not remain faithful to
God's policy, "And the people of Judah did evil in the sight of the Lord,
and they provoked Him to jealousy with their sins which they committed, more
than all that their fathers had done. For they, too, built for themselves
high places, memorial stones, and Asherim on every high hill and under every
luxuriant tree. There were also male cult prostitutes in the land. They
committed all the same abominations of the nations which the Lord
dispossessed before the sons of Israel." 1 Kings 14:22-24
Rehoboam from 982-966 BCE: 1 kings 14:22-24
Asa from 962-922 BCE:1 Kings 15:14, "but the high places were not removed."
Jehoshaphat from 921 - 897 BCE: 2 Chron. 17:6, "he removed the high places
and the asherim from Judah." But later, the people rebuilt the high places.
2 Chron. 20:33.
Jehoram 905-897 BCE: 1Kings 21:11, "Furthermore, he made high places in the
mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to be
unfaithful, and led Judah astray."
886 BCE (3239 AH)
THE JEHOIDA REVIVAL
2 Chron. 23:1-24:14
Joash reigned for 40 years in Jerusalem.
Joash and Jehoida the priest restored the damaged temple, "and they offered
burnt offerings in the house of Yahweh continually in the days of Jehoida."
2 Chron. 24:14.
2 Kings 12:3, "Only the high places were not removed; the people still
sacrificed and burned incense on the high places."
C. 850-847 BCE
2 Chron 24:17-18
Jehoida died and Joash rebelled against Yahweh, "and the officials of Judah
came and bowed down to the king, and the king listened to them. 18 And they
abandoned the house of Yahweh, the God of their fathers, and served the
Asherim and the idols; so wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for this guilt
GOD SENT PROPHETS
Around 850 BCE, "God sent prophets to them to bring them back to Yahweh."
This is probably a summary statement for all the prophets that came at that
time and for years afterwards.
But "though they testified against them, they would not listen."
This is similar to the summary statement at Jeremiah 7:25-26.
"Since the day that your fathers came out of the land of Egypt until this
day, I have sent you all My servants the prophets, sending them daily, again
and again. 26 Yet they did not listen to Me or incline their ear, but
stiffened their neck; they did more evil than their fathers."
(It is possible for the abandonment of the house of the LORD to fulfill Joel
1:9, but there is no invasion going on such as is described at Joel 1:6).
The known prophets during the Assyrian crisis are:
Amos: C. 800-792 BCE
Hosea: C. 800-719 BCE (to the Northern kingdom)
Isaiah: 755-696 BCE
Joel: C. 750-724 BCE
Micah: C. 740-736 BCE
846 - 818 BCE
2 Chron. 25:1-28
Amaziah was twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned for
twenty-nine years in Jerusalem. And his mother’s name was Jehoaddan of
Jerusalem. 2 He did what was right in the sight of the Lord, only not
wholeheartedly; (2 Kings 14:3-4) yet not like his father David; he acted in
accordance with everything that his father Joash had done. 4 Only the HIGH
PLACES were not eliminated; the people still sacrificed and burned incense
on the high places.
2Chron. 25:3 (2Kings 14:5-6), "Now it came about, as soon as the kingdom was
firmly in his grasp, that he killed his servants who had killed his father
the king. 4 However, he did not put their children to death, but did as it
is written in the Law in the Book of Moses, which the Lord commanded,
saying, “Fathers shall not be put to death for sons, nor sons be put to
death for fathers; but each shall be put to death for his own sin.”
Amaziah prepares to battle the Edomites
Moreover, Amaziah assembled Judah and appointed them according to their
fathers’ households under commanders of thousands and commanders of hundreds
throughout Judah and Benjamin; and he took a census of those from twenty
years old and upward and found them to be three hundred thousand choice men,
able to go to war and handle spear and shield. 6 He also hired a hundred
thousand valiant warriors from Israel for a hundred talents of silver.
Amaziah sends the troops from Israel home:
25:7 But a man of God came to him saying, “O king, do not let the army of
Israel come with you, for the Lord is not with Israel nor with any of the
sons of Ephraim. 8 But if you do go, do it, be strong for the battle; yet
God will bring you down before the enemy, for God has the power to help and
to bring down.” 9 Amaziah said to the man of God, “But what are we to do
about the hundred talents which I have given to the troops of Israel?” And
the man of God answered, “The Lord has much more to give you than this.” 10
Then Amaziah dismissed the troops which came to him from Ephraim, to go
home; so their anger burned against Judah, and they returned home in fierce
Amaziah defeats Edomites
25:11 Now Amaziah gathered his courage and led his people out, and went to
the Valley of Salt, and struck and killed ten thousand of the sons of Seir.
(2 Kings 14:7 He killed ten thousand of the Edomites in the Valley of Salt,
and took Sela by war, and named it Joktheel, as it is to this day.)
12 The sons of Judah also captured ten thousand alive and brought them to
the top of the cliff, and threw them down from the top of the cliff so that
they were all dashed to pieces.
Israel's troops plunder cities in Judah
25:13 But the troops whom Amaziah sent back, those not going with him to
battle, raided the cities of Judah from Samaria to Beth-horon, and struck
and killed three thousand of them, and plundered a large amount of spoils.
Amaziah Rebuked for Idolatry
25:14 Now after Amaziah came from slaughtering the Edomites, he brought the
gods of the sons of Seir and set them up as his gods. Then he bowed down
before them and burned incense to them. 15 So the anger of the Lord burned
against Amaziah, and He sent him a prophet who said to him, “Why have you
sought the gods of the people who have not saved their own people from your
hand?” 16 As he was talking with him, the king said to him, “Have we
appointed you to be a royal counselor? Stop! Why should you be put to
death?” Then the prophet stopped and said, “I know that God has planned to
destroy you, because you have done this and have not listened to my
Amaziah challenges Joash of Israel to combat
2Kings 14:8 (2Chron. 25:17)
Then Amaziah sent messengers to Jehoash, the son of Jehoahaz son of Jehu,
king of Israel, saying, “Come, let’s face each other in combat.”
2Chron. 25:18-24 (2Kings 14:9-10)
25:18 But Joash the king of Israel sent a reply to Amaziah king of Judah,
saying, “The thorn bush that was in Lebanon sent word to the cedar that was
in Lebanon, saying, ‘Give your daughter to my son in marriage.’ But a wild
beast that was in Lebanon passed by and trampled the thorn bush. 19 You
said, ‘Behold, you have defeated Edom.’ And your heart has lifted you up in
boasting. Now stay home; why should you provoke trouble so that you, would
fall, you and Judah with you?”
DISCIPLINE FROM GOD
God uses Israel to discipline Amaziah
25:20 (2Kings 14:11-12) But Amaziah would not listen, for it was from God,
so that He might hand them over to Joash, because they had sought the gods
of Edom. 21 So Joash king of Israel went up, and he and Amaziah king of
Judah faced each other at Beth-shemesh, which belonged to Judah. 22 And
Judah was defeated by Israel, and they fled, every man to his tent.
Joash plunders Jerusalem
25:23 (2Kings 14:13-14) Then Joash king of Israel captured Amaziah king of
Judah, the son of Joash the son of Jehoahaz, at Beth-shemesh, and brought
him to Jerusalem and tore down the wall of Jerusalem from the Gate of
Ephraim to the Corner Gate, four hundred cubits. 24 He took all the gold and
silver and all the utensils which were found in the house of God with
Obed-edom, and the treasures of the king’s house, the hostages too, and
returned to Samaria.
King Joash of Israel died in 833 BCE.
2Chron. 25:25 And Amaziah, the son of Joash king of Judah, lived fifteen
years after the death of Joash, son of Jehoahaz, king of Israel. 26 Now the
rest of the acts of Amaziah, from the first to the last, behold, are they
not written in the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel? 27 From the time
that Amaziah turned away from following the Lord they conspired against him
in Jerusalem, and he fled to Lachish; but they sent men after him to Lachish,
and they killed him there. 28 Then they brought him on horses and buried him
with his fathers in the city of Judah (city of David, 2Kings 14:20).
It seems that during these final years of Joash, Jerusalem and the temple
were still in a chaotic condition. It is possible that there was no temple
activity during this time. This continued until the reign of Uzziah in 806
(Again, it is possible for the abandonment of the house of the LORD to
fulfill Joel 1:9, but there is no invasion going on such as is described at
Amaziah 846-818 BCE: 2Kings 14:4, "Only the high places were not removed;
the people still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places."
JERUSALEM DESOLATE for 11 years
There was no king in Judah for 11 years after the death of king Amaziah,
Amaziah 846-818 BCE (2 chron. 25:1). 29 years.
Year 2 of Joash (Israel) is 846 BCE (16 years).
Amaziah year 15, 832 BCE, Jeroboam (Israel) - 40 years.
Amaziah dies in 818 BCE; year 14 of Jeroboam.
Jeroboam year 27 806 BCE; Uzziah for 52 years.
This shows a gap between the death of Amaziah and the ascension of Uzziah of
Uzziah (Azariah) is made king for 52 years
2 Chron. 26:1 (2 Kings 14:21), "Now all the people of Judah took Uzziah, who
was sixteen years old, and made him king in place of his father Amaziah.
2 Kings 15:1-4
"In the twenty-seventh year of Jeroboam king of Israel, Azariah son of
Amaziah king of Judah became king. 2 He was sixteen years old when he became
king, and he reigned for fifty-two years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name
was Jecoliah of Jerusalem. 3 He did what was right in the sight of the Lord,
in accordance with everything that his father Amaziah had done. 4 EXCEPT the
HIGH PLACES were not eliminated; the people still sacrificed and burned
incense on the high places."
Verse 2 He built Eloth and restored it to Judah after the king lay down with
"He continued to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had understanding
through the vision of God; and as long as he sought the Lord, God made him
It is probable that Uzziah also restored the temple even though there is no
mention of it. But later, the altar is in operation as seen when Uzziah
violates temple protocol and enters the temple and offers incense on the
Uzziah's war machine
2 Chron. 26:6 "Now he went out and fought against the Philistines, and broke
down the wall of Gath, the wall of Jabneh, and the wall of Ashdod; and he
built cities in the area of Ashdod and among the Philistines. 7 God helped
him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians who lived in Gur-baal,
and the Meunites. 8 The Ammonites gave tribute to Uzziah, and his fame
extended to the border of Egypt, for he became very strong. 9 Moreover,
Uzziah built towers in Jerusalem at the Corner Gate, the Valley Gate, and at
the corner buttress, and he fortified them. 10 He also built towers in the
wilderness and carved out many cisterns, for he had much livestock, both in
the lowland and in the plain. He also had plowmen and vinedressers in the
hill country and the fertile fields, for he loved the soil. 11 Moreover,
Uzziah had an army ready for battle, which entered combat by divisions
according to the number of their muster, recorded by Jeiel the scribe and
Maaseiah the official, under the direction of Hananiah, one of the king’s
officers. 12 The total number of the heads of the households, of valiant
warriors, was 2,600. 13 Under their direction was an army of 307,500, who
could wage war with great power, to help the king against the enemy. 14
Moreover, Uzziah prepared for all the army shields, spears, helmets, body
armor, bows, and sling stones. 15 In Jerusalem he made machines of war
invented by skillful workmen to be on the towers and the corners, for the
purpose of shooting arrows and great stones. So his fame spread far, for he
was marvelously helped until he was strong."
THE END OF JEROBOAM'S LINE/END OF THE HOUSE OF JEHU
Independent kings in the Northern kingdom until the fall of Israel in 719
ASSYRIA COMES ON THE SCENE
768 BCE (year 39 of Uzziah); 3357 AH
Ascension year of Menahem over the Northern kingdom of Israel.
His year 1 is 767 BCE; 3358 AH - for 10 years; 758 BCE; 3367 AH.
2 Kings 15:17-18, "In the thirty-ninth year of Azariah king of Judah,
Menahem the son of Gadi became king over Israel and reigned for ten years in
Samaria. 18 He did evil in the sight of the Lord; for all his days he did
not desist from the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, into which he misled
767 BCE (3358-3367 AH; 767-758 BCE)
Menahem made alliance with the invading Assyrians (2 Kings 15:19-22).
"Pul, the king of Assyria, came against the land, and Menahem gave Pul a
thousand talents of silver so that his hand might be with him to strengthen
the kingdom under his rule. 20 Then Menahem collected the money from Israel,
from all the mighty men of wealth, from each man fifty shekels of silver to
pay the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria returned and did not stay
there in the land."
The alliance lasted for 32 years, until the last year of Pekah. 768-736 BCE.
755 BCE, year 52 of Uzziah
THE PRIDE AND SACRILEGE OF Uzziah
26:16-22, But when he became strong, his heart was so proud that he acted
corruptly, and he was untrue to the Lord his God, for he entered the temple
of the Lord to burn incense on the altar of incense. 17 Then Azariah the
priest entered after him, and with him eighty priests of the Lord, valiant
men. 18 They opposed Uzziah the king and said to him, “It is not for you,
Uzziah, to burn incense to the Lord, but for the priests, the sons of Aaron
who have been consecrated to burn incense. Leave the sanctuary, for you have
been untrue and will have no honor from the Lord God.” 19 But Uzziah, with a
censer in his hand for burning incense, was enraged; and while he was
enraged with the priests, leprosy broke out on his forehead in the presence
of the priests in the house of the Lord, beside the altar of incense. 20
Azariah the chief priest and all the priests looked at him, and behold, he
was leprous on his forehead; and they quickly removed him from there, and he
himself also hurried to get out because the Lord had stricken him. 21 King
Uzziah had leprosy to the day of his death; and he lived in a separate
house, afflicted as he was with leprosy, for he was cut off from the house
of the Lord. And his son Jotham was over the king’s house, judging the
people of the land. (2 Kings 15:5-7).
755 BCE (3370 AH)
Pekah over Israel for 20 years (755 - 735 BCE)
2 Kings 15:27-28, "In the fifty-second year of Azariah king of Judah, Pekah
the son of Remaliah became king over Israel in Samaria, and he reigned for
twenty years. 28 He did evil in the sight of the Lord; he did not desist
from the sins of Jeroboam son of Nebat, into which he misled Israel."
754 BCE (3371 AH)
Jotham becomes king in Judah
2 Kings 15:32-35, "In the second year of Pekah the son of Remaliah king of
Israel, Jotham the son of Uzziah king of Judah became king. 33 He was
twenty-five years old when he became king, and he reigned for sixteen years
in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Jerusha the daughter of Zadok. 34 He
did what was right in the sight of the Lord; he acted in accordance with
everything that his father Uzziah had done (however he did not enter the
temple of the Lord). 35 Only the HIGH PLACES were not eliminated; the people
still sacrificed and burned incense on the high places; (the people
continued to act corruptly," 2 Chron. 27:2).
754 -739 BCE
2 Chron. 27:4-9, "He built the upper gate of the house of the Lord, and he
built the wall of Ophel extensively. 4 Moreover, he built cities in the hill
country of Judah, and he built fortresses and towers on the wooded hills. 5
He fought with the king of the Ammonites and prevailed over them so that
during that year the Ammonites gave him a hundred talents of silver, ten
thousand kors of wheat, and ten thousand of barley. The Ammonites also paid
him this amount in the second year and in the third. 6 So Jotham became
powerful because he directed his ways before the Lord his God.
The year of King Uzziah's death and the year of Jotham's ascension to the
Isaiah began his ministry in the last year of Uzziah (755 BCE).
Even though Jotham was a good king, the people still sacrificed and burned
incense on the high places (2Kings 15:35), and continued to act corruptly (2
At Isaiah 6:9-10, God calls upon him to "“Go, and tell this people: ‘Keep on
listening, but do not understand;
And keep on looking, but do not gain knowledge.’
10 Make the hearts of this people insensitive,
Their ears dull, And their eyes blind,
So that they will not see with their eyes,
Hear with their ears, Understand with their hearts,
And return and be healed.”
The communication of truth to a rebellious people produces a hardening (of
heart) process that will result in a maximum saturation of spiritual and
moral rebellion. This rebellion began during the reign of Jotham and reached
a boiling point during the reign of Ahaz. If there is no recovery it will
lead to the 4th and 5th cycles of national discipline. Isaiah 6:11-13.
During the reign of Jotham for 16 years, Isaiah's ministry was thus directed
toward the people of Judah, who still sacrificed and burned incense on the
high places (2Kings 15:35), and continued to act corruptly (2 Chron. 27:2).
That message is recorded in the first 5 chapters of Isaiah.
In these chapters Isaiah reviewed past rebellion and discipline; prophesied
concerning the coming time of more severe discipline; and the distant future
time period of the day of the Lord.
MICAH also at this time ministered to the nation of Judah somewhere within
the time frame of 754 to 696 BCE. Micah 1:1.
When Ahaz took the throne, the nation's spiritual unfaithfulness to Yahweh,
had reached a "boiling point." Because of this, Yahweh began taking steps
for the administration of national discipline to the 4th cycle (occupation
by a foreign nation).
In his ascension year, the onslaught began.
At the end of Jotham's rule, and as Ahaz ascended the throne of Judah, "In
those days the Lord began to send Rezin the king of Aram and Pekah the son
of Remaliah against Judah." 2 kings 15:37
The corruption and unfaithfulness of the people had increased to such an
extent that Yahweh began His steps for bring the 4th cycle of discipline on
738 - 723 BCE
2 Kings 16:1-2, "In the seventeenth year of Pekah the son of Remaliah, Ahaz
the son of Jotham, king of Judah, became king. 2 Ahaz was twenty years old
when he became king, and he reigned for sixteen years in Jerusalem."
2Chron. 28:1-4, "He did not do what was right in the sight of the Lord as
his father David had done. 2 But he walked in the ways of the kings of
Israel; he also made cast metal images for the Baals. 3 Furthermore, he
burned incense in the Valley of Ben-hinnom, and burned his sons in fire,
according to the abominations of the nations whom the Lord had driven out
from the sons of Israel. 4 He sacrificed and burned incense on the high
places, on the hills, and under every green tree."
Ahaz: for 16 years: 738 - 723 BCE
Ascension year = 739 BCE. Year 17 of Pekah
His rule: year 1 = 738; year 2 = 737; year 3 = 736; year 4 = 735.
After Ahaz became king, the nation's spiritual unfaithfulness to Yahweh,
triggered by the actions of Ahaz himself, reached a "boiling point."
And it did not take long for Yahweh to start the administration of national
discipline to the 4th cycle (occupation by a foreign nation).
In his first year, the onslaught began.
1. ARAM: 2 Chron. 28:5a, " Therefore the Lord his God handed him over to the
king of Aram; and they defeated him and carried from him a great number of
captives, and brought them to Damascus."
2. ISRAEL: V. 28:5b-8, "And he was also handed over to the king of Israel,
who struck him with heavy casualties. 6 For Pekah the son of Remaliah killed
120,000 in Judah in one day, all valiant men, because they had abandoned the
Lord God of their fathers."
In 738 BCE, when the invasions came from Aram and the Northern kingdom of
Israel, Isaiah had a personal ministry to Ahaz. Isaiah 7:1-25.
He said not to worry about Aram and Israel, there is a bigger threat coming
upon you and "if you do not believe you will not be stabilized." Is. 7:9b.
The king of Assyria will neutralize Aram and Israel, but will then turn
against you, Judah. Isaiah 7:10-20.
This ministry to Ahaz occurred in 738 BCE.
Isaiah told Ahaz that the Northern kingdom would be destroyed within 65
years. This occurred from 721 BCE to 673 BCE.
He told him not to worry about this current attack and told him to ask for a
Hezekiah in his hypocrisy refused to "test" the Lord by asking for a sign.
As a result of this unfaithfulness, Isaiah told him that Assyria would not
only defeat Israel but would also conquer Judah.
Ahaz ignored the teaching of Isaiah and instead appealed to Assyria for
help; made an alliance with him; and paid him with treasures from the house
of Yahweh and from the king's house. 2 Kings 16:7-8.
Assyria listened and captured Damascus and killed Rezin the king of Aram. 2
But like Isaiah had been teaching, that alliance was a false peace and not
to be trusted. It lasted only 2 years.
4TH CYCLE OF DISCIPLINE FOR NORTHERN KINGDOM OF ISRAEL
Assyria made the alliance and in 736 BCE captured Damascus and killed Rezin
the king of Aram.
2 Kings 16:9.
Assyria also invaded the Northern kingdom and captured many cities and
carried the people away into captivity. 2 Kings 15:29. This placed the
Northern kingdom under the 4th cycle of discipline (occupation by a foreign
Later, that same year, Ahaz met with Tiglath-Pileser in Damascus; saw the
altar there and had it copied for himself in Jerusalem; and then had
sacrifices made upon it.
2 Kings. 16:10-16; 2 Chron. 28:22-23
Because of the continued unfaithfulness of Ahaz, Yahweh set two other groups
to attack Judah.
2Chron. 28:19, "For the Lord had humbled Judah because of Ahaz king of
Israel, for he had brought about a lack of restraint in Judah and was very
unfaithful to the Lord."
3. EDOMITES: 2Chron 28:17, "attacked Judah and carried away captives."
4. PHILISTINES: Verse 28:18, "The Philistines had also invaded the cities of
the lowland and of the Negev of Judah, and had taken Beth-shemesh, Aijalon,
Gederoth, and Soco with its villages, Timnah with its villages, and Gimzo
with its villages; and they had settled there."
ASSYRIA ADMINISTERS THE 4TH CYCLE OF DISCIPLINE
(occupation by a foreign kingdom)
Ahaz requested help from his ally, Assyria to deal with the Edomites and
Philistines, but Tiglath-Pileser broke the alliance and instead of helping
Ahaz, he subjugated Judah for the next 12 years.
"So Tilgath-pilneser king of Assyria came against him and afflicted him
instead of strengthening him." 736 -724 BCE. 2 Chron. 28:20.
Assyria's subjugation of Judah continued for the next 12 years, demanding
more and more resources from them, until in Hezekiah's first year as king of
Judah, he rebelled against Assyria and refused to be subservient any longer.
But the affliction upon Judah was not just from Assyria's oppression, which
stunted the nation's agricultural economy. It was also from the ungodly
activity of Ahaz, which intensified duirng his remaining years, and included
shutting down all activity in the temple. 2Chron. 28:22-25; 2 Kings 16:17-18
During this time Ahaz and the people rebelled even more against Yahweh.
2Chron. 28:22, "Now in the time of his distress this same king Ahaz became
yet more unfaithful to Yahweh."
2 Kings 17:19, "And Judah also did not keep the commandments of Yahweh their
God, but they walked in the customs which Israel had introduced."
Micah 1:9, "For her (Israel's) wound is incurable,
for it has come to Judah; it has reached the gate of my people, even to
Micah 5:13, "because in you were found the rebellious acts of Israel."
C. 736 to 724 BCE
And the prophets warned both the Northern and Southern kingdoms.
2Kings 17:7-23 gives a summary of the reasons for divine discipline on both
the Northern and Southern kingdoms.
Verse 13 refers to all the prophets who ministered to the two nations
throughout the years of their rebellion with specific focus on the time
period of the Assyrian crisis.
2 Kings 17:13, "Yet the Lord warned Israel and Judah through all His
prophets and every seer, saying, “Turn back from your evil ways and keep My
commandments and My statutes in accordance with all the Law which I
commanded your fathers, and which I sent to you through My servants the
Isaiah continued teaching throughout this crisis until the nation was
subjugated to Assyria in 736 BCE.
In the same way that Assyria will defeat Israel, so it will come upon Judah.
He warned Ahaz about the dangers of the false alliance.
Is. 8:9-15, "devise a plan but it will be thwarted, state a proposal but it
will not stand."
V. 12, "You are not to say, an alliance in regard to all that this people
call an alliance."
V. 13, "it is Yahweh of hosts whom you should regard as holy."
V. 14, "then he will become a sanctuary."
That is, for the trusting believer. But for the unfaithful -
"He will be a stone to strike and a rock to stumble over, and a snare and a
trap for the inhabitants of Jerusalem."
V. 15, "Many will stumble over them, Then they will fall and be broken; and
they will be snared and caught.”
736 to 711 BCE
From Isaiah 8:16 to 36:1 Isaiah no longer dealt with Ahaz. During the next
25 years his ministry was directed to the PEOPLE IN GENERAL, dealing with
near-future troubles like the Assyrian attempt to totally destroy Judah, and
the future invasion from Babylon; and inter-laced through all of this were
prophecies of both advents of the Messiah. He did not again deal directly
with the leadership of Judah until 711 BCE - the 14th year of king Hezekiah.
Also, during these final years of Ahaz, when Assyria had subjugated Judah
and oppressed the people and the land, Joel's ministry paralleled Isaiah's.
Joel ministered to the nation of Judah, pleading with them to recover from
their unfaithfulness and avoid the greater 5th cycle of discipline that
Isaiah also warned about. Joel 1:6, "for a nation has invaded my land." Joel
2:12-17, "Yet even now, declares Yahweh, return to Me with all your heart,
and with weeping, fasting and mourning . . . spare your people O Yahweh, and
do not make Your inheritance a reproach."
And Micah too warned the nation about Assyria, announcing both the invasion
and the deliverance.
Micah 5:5b-6, "When the Assyrian invades our land, when he tramples on our
citadels . . . and He will deliver us from the Assyrian, when he attacks our
land, when he tramples our territory."
736 BCE to 724 BCE
THE CONDITION OF JUDAH AND JERUSALEM at this time.
1. Edomites carried away many people. 2Chron 28:17
2. Philistines captured and occupied cities: 2Chron. 28:18
3. Assyria's invasion: afflicted the nation. 2Chron. 28:20
4. Ahaz closed the doors of the house of Yahweh. 2Chron. 28:24
This is the very crisis that both Joel and Isaiah addressed during the
reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah in Isaiah 7-39.
This is the crisis that is described by Joel at 1:6-12, 16-20.
"For a nation has invaded my land,
Mighty and without number;
Its teeth are the teeth of a lion,
And it has the jaws of a lioness.
It has made my vine a waste
And my fig tree a stump.
It has stripped them bare and hurled them away;
Their branches have become white.
Wail like a virgin clothed with sackcloth
For the groom of her youth.
9 The grain offering and the drink offering have been cut off From the house
The priests mourn, The ministers of Yahweh.
10 The field is ruined, The land mourns;
For the grain is ruined, The new wine has dried up,
Fresh oil has failed.
11 Be ashamed, you farm workers, Wail, you vinedressers, For the wheat and
Because the harvest of the field is destroyed.
12 The vine has dried up And the fig tree has withered;
The pomegranate, the palm also, and the apple tree,
All the trees of the field have dried up.
Indeed, joy has dried up From the sons of mankind."
EXHORTATION TO RECOVER
Sometimes there is dual fulfillment of prophecy.
But when there is DIRECT application to the "now" audience, then it needs to
be understood that way. There are multiple examples in the prophets -
When Joel exhorts the people to assemble at the house of Yahweh, it requires
that such assembly is possible and helpful. 1:14
If one makes this apply to either the trib or the DOL - it cannot be
possible or helpful.
In Jerusalem, especially in the temple area, during the trib, if you even
peek around the corner (let alone a huge assembly) without the mark - you
will be promptly dealt with.
THIS exhortation is for Joel's audience in his time and only for them.
Now - yes - the DOL is coming, just as you have been taught (1:15).
BUT right now there is a more urgent issue to deal with.
"A nation HAS invaded my land." 1:6
The temple services have been shut down. 1:9, 16; 2Chron. 28:24
Our economy is in ruins. 1:10-12, 17-20.
RIGHT NOW - "cry out to Yahweh." 1:14
Joel 1:1-14 is describing a PRESENT condition in the land of Judah, using
both past and present tenses.
1. An army has invaded my land. 1:6
2. Temple activity is shut down. 1:9, 13 with 2Chron. 28:24 and 29:7.
3. The agricultural economy is devastated. 1:10-12
4. He appeals to the priests to gather at the house of Yahweh.
THIS CANNOT BE DONE DURING THE TRIBULATION
At verse 15, Joel suddenly JUMPS to the DOL - a thing the prophets do quite
He reminds them of something that is far worse and coming in the distant
They had been taught about the DOL by other prophets. Obadiah, Isaiah, Amos
The Assyrian army thus becomes a type or foretaste of the DOL invasion.
The invasion of chapter 1 is "has invaded my land."
The mention of the DOL at v. 15 is "the DOL is near."
At 1:16-20, he returns to describing the PRESENT crisis.
Describes the condition of the land RIGHT NOW using both past and present
At 2:1-11 he describes the yet distant future invasion of a Northern army
during the DOL.
In chapter one, the invasion HAS OCCURRED.
In chapter two, the invasion is described as "the DOL is coming."
And then the description of THIS army uses present tense that simply
describes it and does not refer to a present TIME.
BUT at verse 2:12, he again returns to the present crisis, YET EVEN NOW,
return to Me, declares Yahweh.
Exhortation to recover so that the crisis does not worsen.
Again, at verse 17, "weep between the porch and the altar."
Again, this cannot be done during the tribulation.
Then at 2:18 to the end of the book, he writes about the DOL invasion of the
Northern army, Yahweh's deliverance and the blessing in the mil kingdom.
Except for 3:4-8, which is a separate PROSE section which deals with
historical judgments on Tyre, Sidon and Philistia.
CONDITION OF THE LAND IN 724 BCE
Again, Joel 1:16-20 describes the present crisis of the Assyrian invasion.
16 Has food not been cut off before our eyes, and
Joy and rejoicing from the house of our God?
17 The seeds have dried up under their shovels;
The storehouses have become desolate,
The grain silos are ruined,
Because the grain has dried up.
18 How the animals have groaned!
The herds of cattle have wandered aimlessly
Because there is no pasture for them;
Even the flocks of sheep have suffered.
19 To You, Yahweh I cry out;
For fire has devoured the pastures of the wilderness,
And the flame has burned up all the trees of the field.
20 Even the animals of the field pant for You;
For the stream beds of water are dried up,
And fire has devoured the pastures of the wilderness.
This is the situation when Hezekiah took the throne in 724 BCE.
In his first month he opened the doors of the house of Yahweh; assembled the
priests and levites; and told them to prepare for worship. In his speech,
Hezekiah summarized the condition of the land. 2Chron. 29:6-9.
"For our fathers have been unfaithful and have done evil in the sight of the
Lord our God, and they have abandoned Him and turned their faces away from
the dwelling place of the Lord, and have turned their backs. 7 They have
also shut the doors of the porch and extinguished the lamps, and have not
burned incense nor offered burnt offerings in the holy place to the God of
Israel. 8 Therefore the wrath of the Lord was against Judah and Jerusalem,
and He has made them an object of terror, of horror, and of hissing, as you
see with your own eyes. 9 For behold, our fathers have fallen by the sword,
and our sons, our daughters, and our wives are in captivity because of
A. The doors of the temple porch had been shut.
B. No burnt offerings offered in the Holy Place.
C. Many killed in combat: fathers killed by the sword. (For Pekah the son of
Remaliah killed 120,000 in Judah in one day).
D. Son, daughters, wives in captivity. (Edomites had carried away people.
E. Not mentioned but Assyria had been occupying the country for the last 12
As already seen, Joel summarized it.
Joel 1:6, "for a nation has invaded our land."
V. 7, "it has made my vine a waste and my fig tree splinters."
V. 9, "the grain offering and the libation are cut off from the house of
V. 10, "the field is ruined."
Verses 10-12 and 16-20 express extreme economic devastation.
It is at this time that the prophet Joel appealed to the priests and the
people to call out to Yahweh for deliverance. Joel 1:13-14.
Put on sackcloth and mourn, you priests;
Wail, you ministers of the altar!
Come, spend the night in sackcloth,
You ministers of my God,
For the grain offering and the drink offering
Have been withheld from the house of your God. Consecrate a fast,
Proclaim a solemn assembly;
Gather the elders
And all the inhabitants of the land
To the house of Yahweh your God,
And cry out to Yahweh .
And the answer is given through the kingship of Hezekiah who is described at
2 kings 18:5, " He trusted in Yahweh, the God of Israel; and after him there
was no one like him among all the kings of Judah, nor among those who came
3401 AH (724 BCE)
When Hezekiah became king, the very first thing he did: "In the first year
of his reign, in the first month, he opened the doors of the house of the
Lord and repaired them." 2Chron. 29:3.
Then as the "Hezekiah revival" picked up steam, "he rebelled against the
king of Assyria and did not serve him." 2 Kings 18:7.
Through the first 14 years of Hezekiah's reforms and promotion of proper
worship of Yahweh, "Yahweh was with him; wherever he went he was
Thus, the ministry of Joel during those last years of the reign of Ahaz, was
successful and the crisis in the nation was averted.
From the 1st year of Hezekiah to the 14th year, Assyria had its hands full
conquering and destroying the Northern kingdom of Israel (2 Kings 18:9-12)
and attacking Babylon.
THE SECOND ASSYRIAN CRISIS
711 BCE (3414 AH)
After things settled down from that, Sennacherib, who was co-reigning with
his father (Sargon II), invaded Judah, taking possession of 46 fortified
cities. 2 Kings 18:13.
The first response of Hezekiah is cowardly. 2 Kings 18:14-16.
"Then Hezekiah king of Judah sent messengers to the king of Assyria at
Lachish, saying, “I have done wrong. Withdraw from me; whatever you impose
on me I will endure.” So the king of Assyria imposed on Hezekiah king of
Judah the payment of three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of
gold. 15 Hezekiah then gave him all the silver that was found in the house
of the Lord, and in the treasuries of the king’s house. 16 At that time
Hezekiah cut off the gold from the doors of the temple of the Lord, and from
the doorposts, which Hezekiah king of Judah had overlaid, and he gave it to
the king of Assyria."
This totally failed and, "Then the king of Assyria sent Tartan, Rab-saris,
and Rabshakeh from Lachish to King Hezekiah with a large army to Jerusalem.
So they went up and came to Jerusalem."
But this historical crisis goes beyond the time-frame of Joel's ministry and
should be studied separately.
The book of Joel itself offers no evidence to indicate the time of Joel’s
ministry. But I believe there is evidence that dates Joel’s ministry during
the period of the Assyrian invasion of 736 BCE during the reign of Ahaz, as
is described at 2 Chronicles 28:20-24 and 2 Kings 16:1-7. He would then be
among the prophets mentioned at 2 Kings 17:13, which includes Isaiah, Amos
The Assyrian threat materialized in 736 to 719 BCE during which time,
beginning with Tilgath-pilneser, Assyria controlled, conquered, and finally
totally dispersed the Northern Kingdom of Israel.
In 738 BCE the northern kingdom of Israel, the Philistines and the Edomites
invaded Judah and captured many villages and possessed them. 2 Chron.
28:1-19; 2 Kings 16:1-7; Isaiah 7:1-2
Ahaz sent to Assyria for help and paid for this alliance with “the silver
and gold that was found in the house of the LORD, and in the treasuries of
the king’s house” (2 Kings 16:8). The alliance lasted for two years and then
in 736 BCE Tilgath-pilneser invaded Judah (2Chron. 28:20-21; Isaiah 7:17-20;
8:8) because of 2 Chron. 29:6-7, “For our fathers have been unfaithful and
have done evil in the sight of the Lord our God, and have forsaken Him and
turned their faces away from the dwelling place of the Lord, and have turned
their backs. 7 They have also shut the doors of the porch and put out the
lamps, and have not burned incense or offered burnt offerings in the holy
place to the God of Israel.”And Isaiah 7:9b, “if you will not be believe,
you surely shall not be stabilized.”
But instead of the invasion resulting in the 5th cycle of discipline on
Judah (total dispersion), it resulted in the 4th cycle instead (domination
by a foreign power). However, the Assyrians did a lot of damage to the land
through the invasion as is described in Isaiah 7:21-25 and Joel 1:7-12.
SEE: Five cycles of discipline
Assyria remained in control of Judah as is indicated by what Hezekiah says
at 2Chron. 29:9, “For behold, our fathers have fallen by the sword, and our
sons and our daughters and our wives are in captivity for this.”
It is this invasion that is in view at Joel 1:6, “for a nation has invaded
Joel 1:7-12 indicates the condition of the land as a result of Assyria’s
invasion. At verse 1:9, “both grain offering and libation are cut off from
the house of the LORD.”
This did not result from the economic hardship from the Assyrian invasion,
but rather refers to what Ahaz did as recorded at 2Chron. 28:24, “Moreover,
when Ahaz gathered together the utensils of the house of God, he cut the
utensils of the house of God in pieces; and he closed the doors of the house
of the Lord and made altars for himself in every corner of Jerusalem.”
With what Hezekiah says at 2Chron. 29:7, “They have also shut the doors of
the porch and put out the lamps, and have not burned incense or offered
burnt offerings in the holy place to the God of Israel,” it should be clear
that there is no temple activity because Ahaz shut it down. And it is not
restored until the Hezekiah revival of 724 BCE (2Chron. 29:1-24).
It is this advance of Assyria of which Joel prophesied, and he uses it as a
launching pad to speak of a much greater invasion that will come in the very
distant future during the Day of the Lord.
Isaiah also prophesied about and during the Assyrian threat.
Hosea and Micah also prophesied before and during it.
Joel is writing about a PRESENT military crisis that is affecting Judah. And
it is not a plague of locusts. I suggest that Joel is writing at the same
time as Isaiah, Hosea and Micah and writing about the same military invasion
It is claimed by most authorities that he prophesied around 850 BCE during
the reign of Josiah and before Uzziah (806 BCE).
The evidence that is adduced as proof is scant and unconvincing.
1. It is claimed that Joel predates both Amos and Isaiah because it is
claimed that both Amos and Isaiah quote from Joel.
A. Amos is dated from the first year of Uzziah (806 BCE).
1. It is claimed that Amos 1:2 quotes Joel 3:16.
Amos 1:2, “The Lord roars from Zion and from Jerusalem He utters His voice.”
Joel 3:16 writes the same thing. That is all.
In my opinion, two lines that clearly are talking about two different things
do not qualify as a quotation.
a. Amos is writing about God’s judgment on 8 separate national entities
culminating in the conquering of the
Northern kingdom of Israel by Assyria in 719 BCE.
b. Joel is writing about the judgment on all the nations at Armageddon, in
the valley of the verdict during the
day of the Lord judgments.
c. If anything, it is Joel who is referencing what Amos wrote.
2. And that Amos 9:13 quotes Joel 3:18.
Amos 9:13, (NASB) “Behold, days are coming, declares the Lord, When the
plowman will overtake the reaper And the treader of grapes him who sows
seed; When the mountains will drip sweet wine And all the hills will be
And – Joel 3:18 (NASB), And in that day The mountains will drip with sweet
wine, And the hills will flow with milk, And all the brooks of Judah will
flow with water; And a spring will go out from the house of the Lord To
water the valley of Shittim.”
Beginning at Amos 9:11-15, he writes about the future Messianic kingdom.
Joel also prophesies about the kingdom. It is not a quote for either prophet
to use the same imagery to explain prosperity in the kingdom. However, it is
not even a direct quote, for the Hebrew is not exactly the same. Joel 3:18,
“And it will be in that day”
Amos 9:13, “behold days are coming.”
Joel 3:18, “that the mountains will drip with new wine.” Drip: qal
imperfect, 3rd person plural, masculine from nAtaph.
Amos 9:13, “and the mountains will drip with new wine.”
Drip: hiphil perfect 3rd person plural from nAtaph.
Joel 9:13, “and the hills will flow with milk.” The verb, flow, is yAlak.
Amos 9:13, “and all the hills will melt away.”
The verb is "mug" as a hithpoel, and means to melt. The implication might
very well be the image of giving way to milk or honey or even still having
wine in view. BUT, it is certainly not a quote.
B. Isaiah prophesied for 60 years, from 755 to 696 BCE. It is claimed that
Isaiah 13:6 quotes Joel 1:15.
Isaiah: “Wail for the day of the Lord is near, It will come as destruction
from the Almighty.”
Joel: “Alas for the day For the day of the Lord is near and it will come as
destruction from the Almighty.”
Both verses are talking about the arrival of the day of the Lord. Both
Isaiah and Joel use “Almighty” only in these two verses, so that clearly
suggests a reference of one to the other. But since I have demonstrated that
Joel and Isaiah are contemporaneous, it does not matter whether Joel is
quoting Isaiah, or Isaiah is quoting Joel. Rather more precisely, both are
stating exactly what God revealed to them.