1. The title: Eph. 4:11, poimān kai didaskalos
A. Technical use of kal as a hyphen
B. The separate gifts are joined by "de" but
the last gift is formed by adding two words as is
indicated by "kai."
C. poimān means shepherd. It comes from the
verb poimaino, which means to tend the flock; which entails feeding, comforting,
1. This describes the overall purpose of the gift.
2. Non-teaching elders also have responsibility of shepherding. Acts 20.17,
28 1 Tim. 5:12
D. didaskalos: is the word for teacher and describes how
he fulfils the function of shepherding. He shepherds by teaching truth.
E. He is responsible for guidance, comfort, instruction
and protection in every area of the sheep's life that is covered in God's
word. The Word of course is his authority.
F. This is done on an impersonal level through teaching
in public assembly, which provides an environment that allows for personal attention
without invasion of privacy, brow-beating, or emotional pressure.
G. Personal level counseling is not the way the teacher
gift fulfills his function.
1. all counseling issues car be solved ideally from the
teaching of the word in public assembly.
2. When immediate attention is needed, the spiritual gift
of counselor should be consulted.
3. The pastor-teacher is capable of providing insight
and help for those in need, simply through the application
of bible truth to the situation.
4. But the counselor gift has divine ability to evaluate
the emotional environment of the people involved, and thus is able to enter
more personally into the solution.
5. The teacher's divine ability and responsibility is
in the area of correlating and teaching the word of God. The presence and
function of the counselor gift "frees" up the pastor to fulfill
that responsibility. This is the principle found at Acts
2. Other titles that indicate the function of the pastor-teacher.
A. presbuteros: elder or old man as a term of authority
1. The authority of the teacher is through the
2. There is also a ruling elder whose authority is through
B. episkopos: overseer. It comes from
means to look upon from the standpoint of care and protection.
1. The teacher oversees by his a teaching.
2. The ruling elder oversees through his particular gift.
C. diakonos: servant or minister.
The teacher serves through his teaching.
3. Responsibility of the pastor-teacher
A. Titus 1.9 (v. 8 deals with general character qualities)
1. holding fast: present middle participle of
The verb means literally, "to have out in front of you."
It thus comes to mean to cling to or be dedicated to something.
2. The faithful word: pistos logos = the dependable word,
which actually refers to divine truth as it is revealed
in the bible.
3. According to the doctrine: kata THE didachā
refers to the details of the faithful word as it is revealed through the
apostles and prophets and ultimately preserved on the pages of the bible.
Compare with Rom. 12:6-7, "according to agreement with THE faith,"
4. Purpose: hina + subjunctive = in order that
5. You might be able: This is a present subjunctive of
eimi (the "to be" verb) with the adjective, dunatos, to indicate
the possession of an ability that comes from knowing the truths of God's
Power and ability to represent truth is only possible
as the communicator, indeed any believer, has that truth constantly before
his face. He needs total dedication to learning and applying truth in his
own life before he can have the capacity to represent truth to others.
6. To exhort: parakaleo, is an application and motivation
Usually, this is addressed to positive, functioning Christians; ones who
maintain consistent fellowship with God.
7. By sound teaching: The only basis for true motivation
is the clear uncompromising teaching of bible truth.
a. The word, sound, is a present active participle of
hugiaino, which means to be healthy. The participle is adjectival and is
describing the teaching as healthy, whole, complete, accurate.
b. The word, teaching, is didaskalia, which emphasizes
the act of teaching. "Healthy is what emphasizes the content.
8. But sometimes the pastor needs to address those who
are not positive to the teaching of God's word, so we have another communication
word, "and to refute."
a. Refute, is elegcho, which means to expose and convince.
This is a more intense aspect of representing truth.
The only way that one is properly refuted is by the communication of the
b. those who contradict: present active participle of
antileg, which means to speak against, deny or oppose. This is expressed
through adherence to and promotion of false "unhealthy" teaching.
c. Again, exhort, is addressed to positive believers.
refute, is addressed to people who are negative.
B. 2 Tim. 4:2 - application from instructions to Timothy.
If Timothy had the gift of pastor-teacher, then this passage is directly
applicable. If he had the gift of exhortation (which I believe to be the
only other viable choice and in fact, the preferable one) then the "principles"
of communication are applicable to both gifts.
1. Preach the word: kārusso, (aorist active
imperative) means to proclaim. "Preach" is a bad word that is
used today to indicate highly emotional speech making. Proper communication
of bible truth should be the "proclamation" of truths and principles
and the application of those things to Christian living. This is not to
suggest that emotions have no part in the teaching of the word, for indeed
they do, but too often, the use of emotions is fabricated theatrics rather
than the natural expression of the soul's appreciation for the truth being
2. be ready: epistāmi, (aorist active imperative)
means to stand upon (at hand). It communicates the idea of constant readiness.
3. in season/out of season: (eukairos/akairos = good times/bad
times no time off, always available.
4. reprove : elegcho, (aorist active imperative) means
to expose or convict of error. Again, this is only done through the demonstration
of truth in the proclamation of the word.
5. rebuke: epitimao, (aorist active imperative) refers
to verbal disapproval because of doctrinal error.
6. exhort: parakaleo, (aorist active imperative) refers
to the activity of motivating the positive believer to consistent pursuit
and application of truth.
7. with great patience: (pas makrothumia) means ALL patience.
This is the quality of patience that comes through orientation and application
of God's word through the expression of agapā love character
in both attitude and expression.
Col. 6.1; Rom. 15.1-3; 2 Thes. 3.14-15
See Topics: patience and Beneficent Love
8. and instruction: didachā, (means either
the act of teaching of the CONTENT of the teaching) in this context, refers
to the content of the message; the "doctrine" that is taught.
It is the "doctrine" of the bible that is the fuel of "reprove,
rebuke and exhort."
It is necessary to maintain fellowship with God and the application of
bible truth through beneficent love, but LOVE all by itself does not provide
the answer for wrong or misapplied knowledge in the soul. There must be
the communication of bible truths and principles. The addition of the word
"doctrine," also communicates the principle of no compromise. Unless love and patience is guided by the absolute standards
of bible doctrine, it is easy for either of those characteristics to make
emotional compromises. Such compromises never help the person being addressed,
whether it is in a "one-on-one" situation or in public assembly.
9. 2 Tim. 2.25-26
10. 2 Time. 2.15, handling accurately the Word of truth.
a. orthotomeo, present active participle
b. orthos = straight
c. temno = to cut
d. the logos alātheia -
e. cutting straight (accurate) the word of truth.
C. 2 Tim. 4:5
1. be oober: nāpho, (present active imperative)
means to be balanced and controlled.
2. in all things: pas
3. Endure hardship: kakopatheo (aorist active imperative.
Bear up under pressure (kakos, that which threatens harm).
Nothing is to interfere with the spiritual purpose fo rwhich we all remain
here on earth.
4. Do the work of an evangelist: poieo, (aorist active
One occupational hazard of all the gifts is to neglect evangelism, because
the primary focus of their gift is specialized in a different area.
5. fulfill your ministry: plārophoreo, (aorist
active imperative) means to fill up to completion; do the whole job.
This indicates balance in the function of his gift through whole counsel
D. 1 Peter 5:2-3
1. shepherd: poimaino, (aorist active imperative) refers
to tending, feeding, guiding, guarding.
2. The flock of God: the group of believers in his charge.
Cf. Acts 20:28.
3. KJV: "taking the oversight," is the verb
episkopeo (present active participle). This reading in the original Greek
text has the support of the vast majority of the manuscripts, being omitted
by only two, albeit, two of the oldest.
The participle explains and amplifies the word, "shepherd,"
by indicating extensive leadership responsibility.
4. Not under compulsion: mā anakastōs
5. but voluntarily: alla ekousios, this refers to a genuine
grace motivation based on understanding what God's policy is for the proper
function of the spiritual gift.
6. according to God: kata theos
a. God gave you the gift.
b. God gives the ability to use the gift.
c. God's viewpoint is what the gift expresses.
7. not for sordid gain: aischrokerdōs,
a. aischros: means dishonorable or shameful.
b. kerdos in this context, refers to self-motivated materialistic
lust, that is interested only in pleasing self. cf. 1 Thes. 2:5
c. It indicates that the actions of "over-seeing"
a group of people in a "religious" context may produce opportunity
for financial gain. This possibility is even more realistic in view of
the modern day radio and tel-evangelist hucksters.
8. But with eagerness: (alla + prothumōs)
The word means, willingly, freely. "Thumos" means passion and
"pro" means before. The idea is that your passion, your emotional
fervor is prominent in your actions. This means that someone does it because
he REALLY wants to rather than having some ulterior motive.
9. and not lording it over: mā de kata kurieuo
(present active participle). The word means to rule "down" or
"against" those under your authority. Thus, the idea of strict,
unreasonable, oppressive authority that uses a misrepresentation of "God's
Name" to emotionally and spiritually bully others into submission.
10. Those allotted to your charge: This is only one word
in the Greek, with the definite article, (the klāros) which
should be rendered, "the allotment." There is no personal pronoun
with the word, allotment, and that makes it specialized and impersonal.
The public assembly that the elder or elders (1 Tim. 5:17) have been placed
over is God's flock (Verse 2; Acts 20:28). The elders have simply been
given the privilege to "manage" it according to the spiritual
gift that God gave to them.
11. But proving: ginomai as an aorist middle participle
means "becoming" and indicates the process of "demonstrating"
oneself as a consistent example of applying God's truth to life.
12. examples to the flock: tupos is that which is a model
or guideline for living the Christian way of life. Heb. 13:7; Philip. 4:9;
1 Cor. 11:1
E. Acts 6:4, prayer should be a regular activity in the
pastor's life, just as it should be with all believers.
A. Gereral growth requirements: 2 Pet. 3:18; 1 Pet. 2:2;
2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Tim. 2:15
B. Specific training: 2 tim. 2:2
C. The quality of "able to teach:" 1 Tim. 3:2
D. Not a new convert: 1 Tim. 3:6 cf. 1 Tim. 4:12
The word, "novice" in the KJV, traslates
which means "newly PLANTED" and indicates a new convert (NASB).
E. spiritual consistency: Titus 1.6-8
F. technical training: application of 2 Tim. 2:15
languages, isogogics, hermaneutics
5. Basic attitude of the pastor-teacher is the desire
to teach other believers more than to be involved in evangelism. Application of 2 Tim. 4:5
This will be the primary indicator as to the possession of this gift.
6. Examples of the teacher gift:
A. Gaius, Jude 1-8
B. Diotrephes, Jude 9-10
C. Demetrius, 3John 12
D. Archippus, Philemon 2; Col. 4.17
E. Possibly Timothy, but he was often dispatched by Paul for specific short-term
ministry and did not very long in one location.
F. Same thing with Titus, although it is very probable
that both Timothy and titus has the gift of exhortation instead of teacher.
7. The position of the teacher in the church.
A. The teacher is not the only leader in the assembly
or the only elder.
B. In fact, in the context of the early church, each local
body could have more than one teaching gift.
1. During the revelation period of the church, several
prophet-teachers functioned together. 1 Cor. 14:29-33
2. After the revelation period, the procedure of I
14 would no longer be in effect as there would be no one receiving revelation
3. but the principle of turns or a share in the teaching
needs of a local body by several men still exists.
C. There is no indication in scripture of one man having
absolute authority in doctrine and policy except an apostle or one operating
directly under his authority.
D. The leadership authority is held by one or more elders
as the different gifts become operative and the need exists. 1 Tim. 5:17
E. Example of Rome. Rom. 16.5,10.11,14,15 (several small
bodies) and cf. 3 Jn 5-6, 9, 12 (3 teachers in the area)
F. References: I Tim. 5.17; Phil. 1.1: Titus 1.5;
Acts 20.17; Heb. 13.7; 1 Thes. 5.12
8. Occupational hazards of the teacher gift.
A. occupation with the details of life:
1 Tim. 6.9-11; 2 Tim. 2:3-4; 1 Pet. 5:2
B. lack of self-discipline in study: I Tim. 4.6-8; 14-16;
2 Tim. 2.15
C. occ. w/ semantics and speculation: 1 Tim. 1:3-4; 2
Tim. 2:16, 23
D. occ. w/ knowledge without application of love: 1
8:1; 1 Tim. 1:5-7
E. pride: 1 Tim. 3.6
F. unfairness, subjectivity, using personal standards
as absolutes: 1 Tim. 5:20-21
G. Neglect of ambassadorship in evangelism: 2 Tim. 4:5
H. Attempt to run the whole show: 3 John 9.
Trying to "be" all the other gifts.
9. See Topic: The
principles of COMMUNICATION