1. The title: Eph. 4:11, poimān kai didaskalos

A. Technical use of kal as a hyphen

B. The separate gifts are joined by "de" but the last gift is formed by adding two words as is indicated by "kai."

C. poimān means shepherd. It comes from the verb poimaino, which means to tend the flock; which entails feeding, comforting, guding, protecting.

1. This describes the overall purpose of the gift.
2. Non-teaching elders also have responsibility of shepherding. Acts 20.17, 28 1 Tim. 5:12

D. didaskalos: is the word for teacher and describes how he fulfils the function of shepherding. He shepherds by teaching truth.

E. He is responsible for guidance, comfort, instruction and protection in every area of the sheep's life that is covered in God's word. The Word of course is his authority.

F. This is done on an impersonal level through teaching in public assembly, which provides an environment that allows for personal attention without invasion of privacy, brow-beating, or emotional pressure.

G. Personal level counseling is not the way the teacher gift fulfills his function.

1. all counseling issues car be solved ideally from the teaching of the word in public assembly.

2. When immediate attention is needed, the spiritual gift of counselor should be consulted.

3. The pastor-teacher is capable of providing insight and help for those in need, simply through the application of bible truth to the situation.

4. But the counselor gift has divine ability to evaluate the emotional environment of the people involved, and thus is able to enter more personally into the solution.

5. The teacher's divine ability and responsibility is in the area of correlating and teaching the word of God. The presence and function of the counselor gift "frees" up the pastor to fulfill that responsibility. This is the principle found at Acts 6:1-4.

2. Other titles that indicate the function of the pastor-teacher.

A. presbuteros: elder or old man as a term of authority and rank.

1. The authority of the teacher is through the teacching.

2. There is also a ruling elder whose authority is through administration.

B. episkopos: overseer. It comes from episkopeo, which means to look upon from the standpoint of care and protection.

1. The teacher oversees by his a teaching.
2. The ruling elder oversees through his particular gift.

C. diakonos: servant or minister.
The teacher serves through his teaching.


3. Responsibility of the pastor-teacher

A. Titus 1.9 (v. 8 deals with general character qualities)

1. holding fast: present middle participle of antecho.
The verb means literally, "to have out in front of you."
It thus comes to mean to cling to or be dedicated to something.

2. The faithful word: pistos logos = the dependable word, which actually refers to divine truth as it is revealed in the bible.

3. According to the doctrine: kata THE didachā refers to the details of the faithful word as it is revealed through the apostles and prophets and ultimately preserved on the pages of the bible. Compare with Rom. 12:6-7, "according to agreement with THE faith," (kata analogia)

4. Purpose: hina + subjunctive = in order that

5. You might be able: This is a present subjunctive of eimi (the "to be" verb) with the adjective, dunatos, to indicate the possession of an ability that comes from knowing the truths of God's word.

Power and ability to represent truth is only possible as the communicator, indeed any believer, has that truth constantly before his face. He needs total dedication to learning and applying truth in his own life before he can have the capacity to represent truth to others.

6. To exhort: parakaleo, is an application and motivation word.
Usually, this is addressed to positive, functioning Christians; ones who maintain consistent fellowship with God.

7. By sound teaching: The only basis for true motivation is the clear uncompromising teaching of bible truth.

a. The word, sound, is a present active participle of hugiaino, which means to be healthy. The participle is adjectival and is describing the teaching as healthy, whole, complete, accurate.

b. The word, teaching, is didaskalia, which emphasizes the act of teaching. "Healthy is what emphasizes the content.


8. But sometimes the pastor needs to address those who are not positive to the teaching of God's word, so we have another communication word, "and to refute."

a. Refute, is elegcho, which means to expose and convince.
This is a more intense aspect of representing truth.
The only way that one is properly refuted is by the communication of the right information.

b. those who contradict: present active participle of antileg, which means to speak against, deny or oppose. This is expressed through adherence to and promotion of false "unhealthy" teaching.

c. Again, exhort, is addressed to positive believers. refute, is addressed to people who are negative.


B. 2 Tim. 4:2 - application from instructions to Timothy.
If Timothy had the gift of pastor-teacher, then this passage is directly applicable. If he had the gift of exhortation (which I believe to be the only other viable choice and in fact, the preferable one) then the "principles" of communication are applicable to both gifts.

1. Preach the word: kārusso, (aorist active imperative) means to proclaim. "Preach" is a bad word that is used today to indicate highly emotional speech making. Proper communication of bible truth should be the "proclamation" of truths and principles and the application of those things to Christian living. This is not to suggest that emotions have no part in the teaching of the word, for indeed they do, but too often, the use of emotions is fabricated theatrics rather than the natural expression of the soul's appreciation for the truth being taught.

2. be ready: epistāmi, (aorist active imperative) means to stand upon (at hand). It communicates the idea of constant readiness.

3. in season/out of season: (eukairos/akairos = good times/bad times no time off, always available.

4. reprove : elegcho, (aorist active imperative) means to expose or convict of error. Again, this is only done through the demonstration of truth in the proclamation of the word.

5. rebuke: epitimao, (aorist active imperative) refers to verbal disapproval because of doctrinal error.

6. exhort: parakaleo, (aorist active imperative) refers to the activity of motivating the positive believer to consistent pursuit and application of truth.

7. with great patience: (pas makrothumia) means ALL patience. This is the quality of patience that comes through orientation and application of God's word through the expression of agapā love character in both attitude and expression.
Col. 6.1; Rom. 15.1-3; 2 Thes. 3.14-15

See Topics: patience and Beneficent Love

8. and instruction: didachā, (means either the act of teaching of the CONTENT of the teaching) in this context, refers to the content of the message; the "doctrine" that is taught. It is the "doctrine" of the bible that is the fuel of "reprove, rebuke and exhort."
It is necessary to maintain fellowship with God and the application of bible truth through beneficent love, but LOVE all by itself does not provide the answer for wrong or misapplied knowledge in the soul. There must be the communication of bible truths and principles. The addition of the word "doctrine," also communicates the principle of no compromise. Unless love and patience is guided by the absolute standards of bible doctrine, it is easy for either of those characteristics to make emotional compromises. Such compromises never help the person being addressed, whether it is in a "one-on-one" situation or in public assembly.

9. 2 Tim. 2.25-26

10. 2 Time. 2.15, handling accurately the Word of truth.

a. orthotomeo, present active participle

b. orthos = straight

c. temno = to cut

d. the logos alātheia -

e. cutting straight (accurate) the word of truth.


C. 2 Tim. 4:5

1. be oober: nāpho, (present active imperative) means to be balanced and controlled.

2. in all things: pas

3. Endure hardship: kakopatheo (aorist active imperative.
Bear up under pressure (kakos, that which threatens harm).
Nothing is to interfere with the spiritual purpose fo rwhich we all remain here on earth.

4. Do the work of an evangelist: poieo, (aorist active imperative).
One occupational hazard of all the gifts is to neglect evangelism, because the primary focus of their gift is specialized in a different area.

5. fulfill your ministry: plārophoreo, (aorist active imperative) means to fill up to completion; do the whole job.
This indicates balance in the function of his gift through whole counsel teaching.

D. 1 Peter 5:2-3

1. shepherd: poimaino, (aorist active imperative) refers to tending, feeding, guiding, guarding.

2. The flock of God: the group of believers in his charge. Cf. Acts 20:28.

3. KJV: "taking the oversight," is the verb episkopeo (present active participle). This reading in the original Greek text has the support of the vast majority of the manuscripts, being omitted by only two, albeit, two of the oldest.

The participle explains and amplifies the word, "shepherd," by indicating extensive leadership responsibility.

4. Not under compulsion: mā anakastōs

5. but voluntarily: alla ekousios, this refers to a genuine grace motivation based on understanding what God's policy is for the proper function of the spiritual gift.

6. according to God: kata theos

a. God gave you the gift.
b. God gives the ability to use the gift.
c. God's viewpoint is what the gift expresses.


7. not for sordid gain: aischrokerdōs,

a. aischros: means dishonorable or shameful.

b. kerdos in this context, refers to self-motivated materialistic lust, that is interested only in pleasing self. cf. 1 Thes. 2:5

c. It indicates that the actions of "over-seeing" a group of people in a "religious" context may produce opportunity for financial gain. This possibility is even more realistic in view of the modern day radio and tel-evangelist hucksters.

8. But with eagerness: (alla + prothumōs) The word means, willingly, freely. "Thumos" means passion and "pro" means before. The idea is that your passion, your emotional fervor is prominent in your actions. This means that someone does it because he REALLY wants to rather than having some ulterior motive.

9. and not lording it over: mā de kata kurieuo (present active participle). The word means to rule "down" or "against" those under your authority. Thus, the idea of strict, unreasonable, oppressive authority that uses a misrepresentation of "God's Name" to emotionally and spiritually bully others into submission.


10. Those allotted to your charge: This is only one word in the Greek, with the definite article, (the klāros) which should be rendered, "the allotment." There is no personal pronoun with the word, allotment, and that makes it specialized and impersonal. The public assembly that the elder or elders (1 Tim. 5:17) have been placed over is God's flock (Verse 2; Acts 20:28). The elders have simply been given the privilege to "manage" it according to the spiritual gift that God gave to them.


11. But proving: ginomai as an aorist middle participle means "becoming" and indicates the process of "demonstrating" oneself as a consistent example of applying God's truth to life.

12. examples to the flock: tupos is that which is a model or guideline for living the Christian way of life. Heb. 13:7; Philip. 4:9; 1 Cor. 11:1

E. Acts 6:4, prayer should be a regular activity in the pastor's life, just as it should be with all believers.


4. Preparation:

A. Gereral growth requirements: 2 Pet. 3:18; 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Tim. 3:16-17; 2 Tim. 2:15

B. Specific training: 2 tim. 2:2
C. The quality of "able to teach:" 1 Tim. 3:2
D. Not a new convert: 1 Tim. 3:6 cf. 1 Tim. 4:12

The word, "novice" in the KJV, traslates nesphutos, which means "newly PLANTED" and indicates a new convert (NASB).

E. spiritual consistency: Titus 1.6-8

F. technical training: application of 2 Tim. 2:15 languages, isogogics, hermaneutics


5. Basic attitude of the pastor-teacher is the desire to teach other believers more than to be involved in evangelism. Application of 2 Tim. 4:5
This will be the primary indicator as to the possession of this gift.


6. Examples of the teacher gift:

A. Gaius, Jude 1-8
B. Diotrephes, Jude 9-10
C. Demetrius, 3John 12
D. Archippus, Philemon 2; Col. 4.17
E. Possibly Timothy, but he was often dispatched by Paul for specific short-term ministry and did not very long in one location.

F. Same thing with Titus, although it is very probable that both Timothy and titus has the gift of exhortation instead of teacher.


7. The position of the teacher in the church.

A. The teacher is not the only leader in the assembly or the only elder.

B. In fact, in the context of the early church, each local body could have more than one teaching gift.

1. During the revelation period of the church, several prophet-teachers functioned together. 1 Cor. 14:29-33

2. After the revelation period, the procedure of I Cor. 14 would no longer be in effect as there would be no one receiving revelation from God.

3. but the principle of turns or a share in the teaching needs of a local body by several men still exists.

C. There is no indication in scripture of one man having absolute authority in doctrine and policy except an apostle or one operating directly under his authority.

D. The leadership authority is held by one or more elders as the different gifts become operative and the need exists. 1 Tim. 5:17

E. Example of Rome. Rom. 16.5,10.11,14,15 (several small bodies) and cf. 3 Jn 5-6, 9, 12 (3 teachers in the area)

F. References: I Tim. 5.17; Phil. 1.1: Titus 1.5; Acts 20.17; Heb. 13.7; 1 Thes. 5.12


8. Occupational hazards of the teacher gift.

A. occupation with the details of life:
1 Tim. 6.9-11; 2 Tim. 2:3-4; 1 Pet. 5:2

B. lack of self-discipline in study: I Tim. 4.6-8; 14-16; 2 Tim. 2.15

C. occ. w/ semantics and speculation: 1 Tim. 1:3-4; 2 Tim. 2:16, 23

D. occ. w/ knowledge without application of love: 1 cor. 8:1; 1 Tim. 1:5-7

E. pride: 1 Tim. 3.6

F. unfairness, subjectivity, using personal standards as absolutes: 1 Tim. 5:20-21

G. Neglect of ambassadorship in evangelism: 2 Tim. 4:5

H. Attempt to run the whole show: 3 John 9.
Trying to "be" all the other gifts.


9. See Topic: The principles of COMMUNICATION


Return to Spiritual Gifts Index




İRon Wallace, http://www.biblefragrances.com. Anyone is free to reproduce this material and distribute it,
but it may not be sold under any circumstances whatsoever without the author's consent.


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