1. Listed in Rom. 12:8, "he who exhorts"
Present active participle)
A. The participle is used to indicate a person who exhorts.
This describes his activity.
B. The present tense indicates the status of the person based on possession
of the gift.
2. The meaning of the word parakaleo: (107 times)
1. para - beside
2. kaleo - to call
3. to call along side for help
4. to call someone to your side, therefore, request or beg.
5. But also to call or bring yourself to the side of another. Therefore,
comfort, encourage, exhort
B. To motivate into a particular course of action; to
motivate someone to apply truth.
C. It presupposes an attitude or frame of reference that
will respond to motivation.
D. In other words, it is directed toward believers rather
than unbelievers. Its purpose is to either -
1. inform: fulfilling desire for truth, Acts 18:26
a. explained to him: ektithāmi, aorist middle
b. more accurately: akribesteron, (comparative form)
cf. Verse 25, akribōs
2. Or - to motivate to apply already learned truth, Acts
a. began to encourage: imperfect active indicative
b. To remain: prosmeno, present active infinitive
Application of truth found at John 15:1-7
c. "with purpose of heart" explains the motivation
in the exhorter.
prothesis (purpose) = dedicated intent.
d. Acts 14:21-22
E. This activity is not limited to the exhorter, but he
has specialized Divine ability and sensitivity to meet the needs of the
1. teachers: Titus 1:9
2. prophets: Acts 15.32
3. in evangelism: 1 Thes. 2.3; Acts 13.15
4. sheep in general: Heb. 3.13
3. The meaning of the word, paraklāsis: (29
It is a noun that indicates what the exhorter provides - encouragement,
A. Acts 4.36: Barnabas, the son of exhortation
B. Heb. 13.22
1. I urge you: parakaleo, present active indicative
2. bear with: anecho, present middle imperative - indicates
a positive volition follow through upon hearing exhortation.
3. The word (logos) of paraklāsis
4. The meaning of the word paraklātos: (5
It is a technical word for activity of the Godhead toward the believer.
A. The Holy Spirit: 4 times as the one who calls himself
along side of the believer for guidance and teaching.
1. John 14:16, 26; 15:26; 16:7
2. He produces the character qualities of the love complex.
3. Acts 9:31, the experience of the Spirit's activity
was a reality in the early church.
B. Jesus Christ: 1 time in 1 John 2:1
1. Used in an indirect way in that he does not come to
our side, but is our advocate in the presence of the
Father. Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25
2. When the believer comes under Satanic accusation (Rev.
12:10), Jesus as our defense attorney pleads our case based on His accomplished
work on the cross, and the accusation is "thrown out of court."
C. Although parakletos is not used of the Father, He still
functions as one, through providing encouragement
in times of pressure.
1. 2 Cor. 1:3-4
2. 2 Cor. 7:6
a. God, who comforts: parakaleo, present active participle
His ability and His activity.
b. BUT - the depressed: tapeinos refers to the grace-oriented
ones who trust in Him. It does not refer to some kind
of automatic encouragement from the Father just because
someone is depressed.
c. The basis for truly experiencing the comfort of God
is the attitude of humility; recognizing God as the source and the only
point of reference for everything in life.
Phil. 4:6-8; Ps. 33:18-22
d. In other words, a consistent faith-rest
life is the basis for truly experiencing God's comfort.
3. Romans 15:5, the God of patience and encouragement.
And of course, the main way that God provides this comfort is through the
word (v. 4). 2 Peter 1:3-5
5. The function of the gift:
A. He is basically a peace-keeper.
Thus, he will deal with either a potential problem or an actual one.
He will deal with both positive and negative believers.
B. With the positive believer, he offers support as a
REMINDER of what should be done in the Christian's life.
C. With the negative believer, he deals with a situation
of inactivity or neutralization in order to get him
back into line.
1. Doctrinal hangups: Aquila vs. Apollos at Acts 18:24-26
2. Experiential hangups: Suzugos vs. two women at Phil.
Suzogos (my true comrade) is addressed personally at this point as perhaps
the "official" exhorter in the Philippian church.
D. The standard for his function is given in Romans 12:6
as, "according to agreement with The Faith." The Faith, is the
whole realm of revealed Christian truth, provided by Jesus and the apostles
and prophets. (1 Tim. 4:6 with 3:14-16 and 2 Tim. 1:13)
E. The gift is expressed to the need, no matter who it
is in need.
1. An apostle: Luke, Acts 16:1-10; Col. 4:14
2. Teacher: Aquila vs. Apollos, Acts 18:24-26
3. Women: Suzogos, Phil. 4:2-3
4. Compare the principle with Elihu toward Job. Job 32:6-22
(See Topic: ELIHU is the Hero
of the book of Job)
F. It promotes unity by smoothing out and solving problem
The one who is called a "wise man" (sophos) at 1 Cor. 6:5, is
probably an exhorter.
Also Philip. 4:2-3
G. The exhorter appeals to the will to promote application,
while the teacher appeals to the mind to promote content
H. The gift is provided to both men and women as indicated
by the team of Aquilla and Priscilla, Acts 18:26 (they).
The woman's function in her gift would, of course, be guided by the authority
principles in the word (1 Cor. 14:34-35; 1 Tim. 2:11-12).
I. The exhorter can function as a secondary communicator
in the local church, or be very effective in evangelistic
activity. Barnabas teamed with Paul.
The ability is IN THE GIFT, through the Spirit, and there is nothing that
would forbid him to teach in either capacity.
6. Preparation and recognition would be based on examination
and appointment by the church leadership as per 1 Tim. 3:10.
The exhorter can serve either as an elder or a deacon.
7. Occupational hazards of the exhorter.
A. Personal involvement rather than objective communication
of divine viewpoint.
B. Pushy and nosey: An over emphasis of the gift's function.
C. Attempt to force personal standards on others.
D. May try to become the primary communicator in a local
(He can certainly function temporarily in this capacity, but the gift is
not designed to take the place of a pastor).
8. The Principles
of Communication apply to this gift.