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IN CHAPTER I we saw that, in accepting the record of Genesis as an inspired revelation of God, we are not following legend or tradition, but are taking our stand upon the infallibly inspired Word of God. In the second chapter we also studied the trend of the narrative in connection with chronological data and found that the record harmonizes perfectly with all other known facts. Hence our faith in this book as a divine disclosure of the Almighty has been strengthened. In the present one we shall study one of the most marvelous predictions found in the Torah. It is true that there are several prophecies in Genesis which foretell Messiah's coming, but the one, dealing with the time of His appearance, which will assist in the proper understanding of our present subject is Genesis 49:10.

This passage reads as follows:
10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah,
Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet,
Until Shiloh come;
And unto him shall the obedience of the peoples be.

In volume II of this series we saw that this prediction was recognized by the ancient synagogue as a promise of the Messiah to whom all nations will eventually render loving and loyal obedience. Among modern scholars in general it is likewise interpreted as a Messianic forecast. Some hold the position that it is to be understood as an oracle concerning a personal Messiah, whereas others, of the advanced type, claim that it is to be taken as a prediction of a golden era dawning independently of Him, toward which the world is rapidly advancing. In the discussion of this phase of the subject, I presented facts which prove that this prophecy is to be understood personally. Hence Israel's age-long hope of the coming of King Messiah is well-founded, upon the infallible Word of the Torah.

The question that now confronts us is to ascertain, if possible, from this oracle the time when He is to appear in fulfillment of the forecast. The statements which have bearing upon this important question are: "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah. . . Until

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Shiloh come." The two interpretations generally held today are: first, these clauses affirm that the ruling power shall remain with the tribe of Judah until Messiah comes, and after His appearance she loses her preeminence and governmental functions; secondly, the power is to be headed up in Judah under His regime when He appears. We must examine both positions in our quest for the facts.


The statements, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Nor the ruler's staff from between his feet," assume, as we shall see under section II, that the preeminence among the children of Israel and governmental functions among the tribes will be lodged in the tribe of Judah. This forecast does not designate the time when that tribe is to come into supreme power, but simply assumes that she will receive the authority, or that she at least will in some way possess it. From the English text these statements seem to affirm that while she is in control (neither before she obtains the preeminence nor after losing it, if such should be the case), Shiloh comes. The emphasis therefore is to be placed upon the fact that the power and ruling authority are to be in her hands when Messiah makes His appearance upon earth.

A. The Theory of Judah's Losing Her Supremacy

A theory, popular in many circles, affirms that the necessary inference to be drawn from this promise is that, when Messiah comes, Judah loses her position, or preeminence and power. Since she has, as all must admit, lost her authority among the people of Israel, the conclusion is drawn that the Messiah came before the withdrawal of her divinely-given governmental function, the collapse of the national life, and the dispersion of Israel among the peoples of the earth. This reasoning is entirely from the English standpoint. A case parallel to it might be supposed. One person before leaving another assigns him a task, saying, "Work at this job until I return." The possible inference from this bit of instruction is that, when the one giving the assignment returns, the other will not be required to continue the work. This implication, though possible, is not at all necessary. The Hebrew idiom is more specific. For instance, (adh) UNTIL, followed by the perfect infinitive carries the implication that the person stops working, the thing ceases functioning, or the condition passes away, which is said to act, function, or exist up to a given point or time, when the specified labor is

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accomplished, or the appointed time is reached. Examples of this idiom are numerous in the Hebrew Scriptures. Investigate the following passages: Genesis 32:24; 33:3; Exodus 34:34; and Leviticus 16:17.

When (adh) is followed by the perfect participle or by a noun, such as (boqar), it has the same force as when it is followed by the infinitive. Two examples on this point are sufficient. See Exodus 16:35 and 17:12.

Frequently the expression (adh asher) is rendered in the English by UNTIL and has the same significance as the idioms to which attention has already been directed. This phrase is more frequent than the ones just examined. It likewise carries a strong inference that the matter under discussion continues up to a given point, after which it ceases. A few examples will show this fact. See the following passages: Genesis 27:44; 29:8; 33:14; Exodus 23:30; 24:14; Leviticus 22:4.

The idioms which I have examined in the paragraphs immediately preceding carry the strong implication of the cessation of the given condition after the objective is reached. The strength of the inference is, of course, modified at times by the facts presented in the context. Sometimes the data supplied by the connection nearly eclipse the inference and hides it from sight. In view of the various shades of meanings of the idiom under consideration, one must be careful that he does not draw a hasty deduction from his English text.

If, arguing from the standpoint of the English translation, we should assume that the necessary inference to be drawn from the statement, "The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, Until Shiloh come," is that after Shiloh comes the sceptre would depart from this tribe, what effect would such a prediction have had upon Judah? Such an outlook could have had but. one result-discouragement. The thought that this tribe would have the ascendancy up to the time of Messiah's appearance and then would be humiliated by the loss of such regal powers would cast a gloom, as far as Judah was concerned, over the entire oracle. Furthermore, this idea does not harmonize with the rest of the prediction, which speaks in such glowing terms of the blessed and happy state of Judah when Shiloh does come. For these reasons I consider the interpretation under consideration untenable.

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B. The Theory of Judah}s Continued but Increased Supremacy

It is now proper to examine the second hypothesis which maintains that the oracle promises Judah continued supremacy up to and after the coming of Shiloh. The proper approach to the question is to examine the Hebrew idiom which is translated until in this passage. The words in the original are (adh kiy). This idiom is used only five times in the Tenach. A careful investigation of the facts presented by the context of each occurrence will show its significance.

The first appearance of this expression is found in Genesis 26:13, 14. "And the man waxed great, and grew more and more until he became very great: and he had possessions of flocks, and possessions of herds, and a great household: and the Philistines envied him." This statement is made concerning Isaac and his sojourn in Gerar. The verse preceding this quotation informs us that he sowed his crops in the land that year and reaped a hundredfold. In the sequel to the story, we find that Abimelech, the king of the country, came to Isaac and sought his favor upon the basis of God's manifest blessing upon him (vss. 26-33). This fact shows conclusively that Isaac's prosperity did not cease when he became rich, as some might infer from verse 13, but rather that it continued as before.

A second example of this idiom appears in Genesis 41:49. "And Joseph laid up grain as the sand of the sea, very much, until he left off numbering; for it was without number." This statement refers to the storing of grain by Joseph during the seven years of plenty. At first an account of the grain was made. Finally the supplies grew so very great that no longer was a record kept of the amount; nevertheless Joseph continued to have the crops harvested. The facts of the context show that this idiom does not imply Joseph's ordering a cessation of harvesting the crops. On the contrary, it assumes that, when the ingathering grew so very large, he continued as before, but only left off making the record as he had formerly done.

Another example appears in II Samuel 23:10. "He (Eleazar) arose and smote the Philistines until his hand was weary, and his hand clave unto the sword; and Jehovah wrought a great victory that day; and the people returned after him only to take spoil." The word until is the translation of our idiom. The statement, "and (he) smote the Philistines until his hand was weary," is followed by the clause, "and his hand clave unto the sword." The

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conjunction (we) might properly, in this connection, be rendered "but" instead of "and." In many instances it has, as is indicated by the context, this disjunctive function. For this meaning examine such passages as Genesis 49:19, 24 and Psalms 30:5; 44:2; 50:17. The flow of the thought in each of these references demands most emphatically the disjunctive significance. Likewise, in the passage, which we are now studying, the disjunctive meaning seems to be demanded by the context. In accordance with this suggestion I will translate the two clauses: "And (he) smote the Philistines until his hand was weary, but his hand clave unto the sword." The quotation when thus rendered fits perfectly into the context and makes the idea of the valor of Eleazar stand forth in bold relief. He continued his fighting up to the point that he was about exhausted in his hands, and yet, in order to achieve success, he summoned all the strength at his command and pressed the fight to a triumphant end. The following verse states that victory by the help of the Lord was the outcome of the conflict.

A fourth instance of this conjunction is II Chronicles 26:15. "And his (Uzziah's) name spread far abroad; for he was marvelously helped (adh kiy chazaq) till he was strong." The one who helped Uzziah was the Lord, for in verse 5 of this chapter we read, "And he set himself to seek God in the days of Zechariah, who had understanding in the visions of God: and as long as he sought Jehovah, God made him to prosper." The Hebrew sentence which I have just quoted is literally rendered, "In the days of his seeking the Lord, God prospered him." It is presumable from the facts in the case that upon his accession to the throne he did the right thing, for in verse 4 it is stated that he did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord as his father Amaziah had done. According to 25:2 "Amaziah did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, but not with a perfect heart." Uzziah started out well and continued to be faithful to the Lord throughout the greater part of his long reign of 52 years. At the close of his career he became conceited and proud. Hence the Lord forsook him and withdrew His special favor and assistance. The one act which shows that his heart was lifted up and on account of which the Lord smote him with leprosy was his attempt to act in the capacity of priest in the house of God. With this plague upon him he lived in isolation and his son Jotham performed the regal functions in his stead. From a computation of the chronological data given in the books of Kings and Chronicles it is clear that Jotham judged the people of the land

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during the last four years of his father's life and at his death mounted the throne.. From the beginning of his reign the Lord assisted him and continued to do so until he became proud.

The facts in the case show that by divine favor Uzziah was brought into a position of strength and po,wer and was also sustained by the same sovereign grace and might until he in pride of heart attempted to force himself into the priestly office. Hence (adh kiy) TILL, (IIChron. 26:15) interpreted in the light of this context shows that the grace of God brought Uzziah to a position of power and might and sustained him up to the time of his arrogant disobedience, without any suggestion of the withdrawal of the divine favor. As we have seen, verse 15 asserts that he was marvelously helped of God until he was strong. The divine grace early in his reign brought him to this position of strength and power. When he was thus established in his realm, the Lord did not forsake him, but continued to uphold him. Hence divine grace brought him to the point of security and kept him there until he became proud. Then the Lord withdrew His special kindness and brought a plague upon him. This idiom then has the same significance that it carries in the other instances which we have studied.

The last occurrence of our expression to be examined is the one in the passage which we have under consideration. Since in none of the four other places where it was used does it have the idea of the cessation, but, contrariwise, a continuance of the thing or condition about which mention is made, it is presumable that it has the same significance in this case, if there is nothing in the immediate context indicating a different meaning. As has been noted, the entire oracle speaks of superior blessing both of royal power and of material goods. The promise of such wonderful favor and preeminence prior to the days of Messiah's appearance, if darkened by the forecast of demotion and humiliation such as the withdrawal of political preeminence after His appearance, could have but one result-discouragement even to the point of despair. One could naturally conclude that, if the dynastic preeminence is to be withdrawn from the tribe at the coming of Messiah, the other blessings also would likewise be withheld. Such an interpretation is unthinkable. Hence we may correctly conclude that our idiom has the same significance here that it does in the other places. The passage therefore teaches that there will be a continuance of the blessings after Messiah comes.

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Had Jacob desired to convey the idea that the function of government would be withdrawn from the tribe of Judah at the coming of Messiah, undoubtedly he would have used the expression which would convey that thought. Ezekiel, in 21:27 of his prophecy (a passage which is an echo of Jacob's oracle as we shall later see), addressing the wicked one of the end time, used the proper word to indicate the fact that the priestly and royal crowns could not be appropriated by anyone until Messiah comes, who has the sole right to wear them.

"I will overturn, overturn, overturn it: this also shall be no more, until he come whose right it is; and I will give it him."

Since Jacob chose the conjunction which carried the implication of Judah's probable retention of the royal dignity after Messiah's appearance, I conclude that there is no suggestion in the passage indicating the passing away of her prestige and power. The facts of the context favor the explanation under discussion. The prophecy therefore indicated to Judah that his tribe would be given the supremacy in the nation, that it should maintain this preeminence to the time of Messiah's appearance, and that the governmental functions, instead of ceasing at that time, would continue with his posterity, as the inherent significance of (adh kiy) implies. Does history confirm the prediction? To this question we shall now devote our attention. Only by a thorough analysis of the entire prediction can the truth be ascertained.


A. The Significance of (shabhat) and (mechoqaq)

What is the significance of (shabhat)? It literally means a stick, Q staff, a rod,' a ruler's staff, a sceptre; a stem, tribe, division. In Genesis 49: 10, evidently it refers to a ruler, for the primary meaning of stick is out of the question; neither could it signify the tribe, for the oracle states that this (shabhat) shall not depart from the tribe of Judah. In this case, we are therefore left to the second meaning, the ruler's staff or sceptre. This position is confirmed by Balaam's fourth prophecy recorded in Numbers 24:17.

I see him but not now;
I behold him, but not nigh:
There shall come forth a star out of Jacob,
And a sceptre shall rise out of Israel,
And shall smite through the corners of Moab,
And break down all the sons' of tumult.

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In the second oracle (23: 21) Balaam was given a vision of Israel's blessed condition when the Lord God shall reign personally as her King.

He hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob;
Neither hath he seen perverseness in Israel:
The Lord his God is with him,
And the shout of a king is among them.

That God will reign over Israel in this personal manner is evident from the parallel structure of this verse. In line three Balaam declared that God is with Israel; then in line four, which is parallel to this statement, and which serves as a comment upon it, the prophet showed in what way God will be with the nation, namely, as her King. In announcing his fourth vision to the king, Balaam exclaimed: "I see him, but not now; I behold him but not nigh." The king, who had listened attentively to the three former oracles, could draw but one conclusion from these lines--that in the present vision Israel's same glorious King of the future, whom he had seen in the second revelation, appeared in all His splendor and power before the prophet's startled gaze. In this verse lines one and two constitute a parallel structure; line three is also parallel to four; and in like manner lines five and six are parallel. The ideas of each of these couplets blend into a single thought and these three poetical units in turn constitute a triple Hebrew parallelism descriptive of this coming King. The first two lines simply make the announcement that the one seen in the vision would appear in the distant future. The second couplet describes him as a king who shall spring from the loins of Israel, whereas the third foretells the crushing defeat that He will administer to Moab, Balak's kingdom. The word (shabhat) SCEPTRE, therefore in Genesis 49:10 signifies regal power and authority. From these two passages it is evident that sceptre refers to governmental functions.

What is the significance of (mechoqaq)? This word is derived from (qoqach)h which literally means, to cut, engrave, inscribe, trace, to establish, ordain, prescribe. The form appearing in this passage is the Piel Participle. When we realize that this word is parallel to (shabhat), we must accept for its meaning that which accords with the preceding, corresponding term. Hence we are led to the conclusion that it refers to the one who decrees judgments and enacts laws. The promise, contained in these lines, indicates that the governing power would remain in the hands of Judah until the Great Ruler of Israel would come. This great future Monarch by

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His wisdom and knowledge, power and might, will enact the laws for governing the nations, who will render loving obedience to Him.

B. Judah's Realization of the Promise of Supremacy

The next question to be determined is, When did Judah gain this supremacy? The historical record shows that the Lord on account of the disobedience of Saul, who was of the tribe of Benjamin (I Sam. 15), rejected him and, in keeping with the prediction of Jacob, chose David of the tribe of Judah to become his successor. For seven and a half years he reigned in Hebron. After the assassination of Ish-bosheth, Saul's son and successor, the men of Israel came to David at Hebron and entered into a covenant of allegiance with him. Immediately he went to Jerusalem, captured the stronghold, and established himself firmly on the throne of all Israel. At that time the Lord entered into an everlasting covenant with him, guaranteeing to him the perpetuity of his house, throne, and kingdom (II Sam. 7). After reigning thirty-two and one-half years, he was gathered to his fathers and his son Solomon succeeded him. For forty years he ruled in matchless splendor. During his tenure of office the kingdom reached the zenith of its power and influence. Upon his death the ten northern tribes revolted and set up a rival kingdom. Though the Lord permitted the establishment of this government, He never did sanction it. From the standpoint of the divine purpose, it was always an illegitimate institution. In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign Shishak, king of Egypt, overran the kingdom of Judah (II Chron. 12:1-8) . On the walls of the great temple at Karnak, as I observed when I was there, Shishak pictured Rehoboam and his subjects as being led into captivity by himself. As to whether or not Judah was reduced to that extremity one cannot say, since the Biblical record is silent on that point. The Egyptian monarchs, like those of other nations, often magnified their accomplishments. The sacred historian simply states that Rehoboam repented. Then the Lord promised that He would not pour out on Jerusalem His wrath by the hand of Shishak.

To the people of Judah, and possibly to all observers, it appeared that the promise of the Lord concerning the perpetuity of the Davidic house had failed. Hence the inspired poet was led to compose Psalm 89 which deals with the situation, first from the standpoint of the suffering people and then from the divine side and the unalterable character of the Davidic covenant. Hear him:

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19 Then thou spakest in vision to thy saints, And saidst, I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people.
20 I have found David my servant; With my holy oil have I anointed him:
21 With whom my hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him.
22 The enemy shall not exact from him, Nor the son of wickedness afflict him.
23 And I will beat down his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him.
24 But my faithfulness and my loving kindness shall be with him; And in my name shall his horn be exalted.
25 I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers. 26 He shall cry unto me, Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation.
27 I also will make him my first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth.
28 My loving kindness will I keep for him for evermore; And my covenant shall stand fast with him.
29 His seed also will I make to endure forever, and his throne as the days of heaven.
30 If his children forsake my law, And walk not in mine ordinances;
31 If they break my statutes, And keep not my commandments;
32 Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with stripes.
33 But my loving kindness will I not utterly take from him, N or suffer my faithfulness to fail.
34 My covenant will I not break Nor alter the thing that is gone out of my lips.
35 Once have I sworn by my holiness: I will not lie unto David:
36 His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before me.
37 It shall be established for ever as the moon, And as the faithful witness in the sky. Selah (Ps. 89:19-37).

This inspired hymn is a divine interpretation of the meaning of Jacob's prediction. Judah obtained the government and preeminence upon the accession of David to the throne. About thi5 position there can be no question. In the northern kingdom there were numerous dynastic changes during the 264 years of its stormy career. Not so was it in the southern realm. The dynasty never changed. God was true to His covenant with David. On account of Judah's sins and rebellion the Lord had to chasten her by allowing both the Assyrians and the Babylonians to invade the country and to commit every kind of depredation. Finally the kingdom fell and the leading citizens were taken into captivity to Babylon. After

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the exile and under Zerubbabel, a prince of the house of David, the nation was restored and the temple rebuilt.

On account of continued rebellion and a stubborn refusal to accept the divine will, the Lord allowed first the Medes and the Persians to exercise authority over the nation. Next, this power was granted to the Greeks and finally to the Romans. All during this foreign domination the governmental functions remained in the tribe of Judah. Notwithstanding the overlordship of these various nations Judah all the time maintained a quasi-independence. Even under the iron heel of Rome she practically enjoyed an autonomous existence. During this period of domination, therefore, the governmental functions still remained in the tribe of Judah. According to the divine promise it could not have been otherwise.

In the year 70 of the common era, however, a great change came into the life of the Chosen People. The anti-Roman rebellion, which began in Galilee in 66, was finally suppressed, and the national life blotted out at the capture of Jerusalem in 70. Thus in that fateful year the governmental function ceased from Judah. From that day to the present neither this tribe nor any other of the tribes has enjoyed national life or liberty. Since the capitulation of Jerusalem, Israel has been wandering among the nations of earth-a people without a land, and yet to her the promise was given in perpetuity. According to this oracle, Messiah appears while the ruling power is still enjoyed by Judah. Did the promise of God fail? Let us see.


The word first in connection with appearance implies that there is at least a second manifestation. By the use of this ordinal I am assuming that which I shall attempt to prove in this section. Under division IV, I shall show that there is a second appearance of Messiah included in this wonderful prediction. Then in section V, I shall show how these two comings blend into the one picture presented in this oracle.

To Judah Jacob said that the ruling power should not depart from his tribe until Shiloh comes, and that unto Him should be the obedience of the people. Having ascertained in the preceding section the significance of sceptre and lawgiver, the existence and continuance of which governmental functions are guaranteed until

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Shiloh makes His appearance with the implication that they continue thereafter, we must now investigate the significance of the promise concerning this great Ruler. There has been much discussion as to the meaning of this wonderful prediction. Though the word Shiloh is not a common Messianic title, the consensus of scholarship is that the oracle is Messianic. There is therefore no necessity of discussing a proposition on which practically all are agreed.

There is however another phase of this subject on which there is some disagreement, and, because of the diversity of opinions, much confusion exists. I will therefore at once face the problem. What is the significance of the statement, "Until Shiloh come"? Discussing the "Early Rays of Messianic Glory" in my book Messiah: His Nature and Person, I had occasion to investigate many different renderings of the clause. By the process of elimination all but one of the translations had to be thrown out as unsatisfactory, since they did not fit into the context perfectly. That one which was found to agree with all the facts of the passage is "Until He come whose right (authority) it is." In discussing this prediction I showed that this prophecy was but an echo of the primitive oracle relative to the world Redeemer (Gen. 3:15). (See pages 42-54 of that volume.) Jacob assumed on the part of his sons a thorough knowledge of this future Redeemer. This fact is apparent from the language which he used, "Until he come whose right it is." Had they not understood the reference, they would have had to ask him to explain this meaning. Who has the right to rule the world and to receive the loving homage and the obedience of the nations? He who owns it and upon whom the Lord confers this great honor. According to the primeval promise "the seed of the woman" is the one who shall win it by conquest over Satan. Undoubtedly this language to Judah points backward to this first promise.

Governmental functions shall not pass from the tribe of Judah until this great Conqueror comes. We have already seen that the idiom translated until, instead of implying that the conditions mentioned continue up to a given time or place and cease when the time designated arrives or the place suggested is reached, rather indicates that the existing situation continues as before but with some possible modification. But since we know that the supremacy and preeminence here promised to the tribe of Judah actually did pass away when the national life was blotted out by the fall of

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Jerusalem in 70 C.E., the Messiah, according to the oracle, must have made His appearance before that event. Since the Word of God is infallible, from this conclusion there can be no escape. Therefore we may proclaim with all confidence that the Messiah of Israel did appear prior to that calamity. Whether or not the world and Israel recognized Him is a matter beside the issue. Jacob promised that Judah would be in possession of the controlling power and authority when Messiah would come. She completely lost her autonomy, home-land, and national life in 70 C.E. Therefore we know absolutely that the Messiah came before that event. Since Israel did not recognize Him and accept Him, but rather rejected Him, and since the Scripture cannot be broken, evidently He accepted the invitation of the Lord to return and to sit at His right hand, as set forth in Psalm 110:1-3, until the nation will welcome Him and enthusiastically accept Him.

1 Jehovah saith unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, Until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
2 Jehovah will send forth the rod of thy strength out of Zion: Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.
3 Thy people offer themselves willingly In the day of thy power, in holy array: Out of the womb of the morning Thou hast the dew of thy youth (Ps. 110:1-3).


In the preceding section we saw that the Messiah was to appear the first time while the governmental functions remained in Judah. We learn from history that Judah lost her autonomy and national life in 70 C.E. Therefore we concluded that Messiah came prior to that great catastrophe. This promise includes world-dominion and absolute obedience to Messiah on the part of all nations. Since He did not fulfill all of these promises when He came., we may be sure that He will return and fulfill all that the Lord has promised. Of this fact we may be confident since God watches over His Word to perform it.

11 Moreover the word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Jeremiah, what seest thou? And I said, I see a rod of an almond-tree.
12 Then said Jehovah unto me, Thou hast well seen: for I watch over my word to perform it (Jer. 1:11-12).

What Messiah is to do for Israel may be summarized under three headings.

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A. To Stop Wars and to Adjust all Evils

According to Jacob's prediction all nations will render pious, loving obedience to King Messiah. When such conditions as these obtain, there will never he any more wars. At the present time some of the leading statesmen of the world are endeavoring to plan and devise ways and means whereby wars may be outlawed. These efforts are laudable. These men devoting their lives and energies to such high ideals are to be commended. Therefore I would not say anything derogatory of them or their efforts. I wish to say however, in this connection that, according to the sure word of prophecy, no man nor group of men will be able to stop wars. King Messiah alone is the one who can accomplish this herculean task. According to the primitive promise He is the one conquering him who is the source of all wars and evils, the devil. In the final conflict of the ages there will be a real combat between "the seed of the woman," King Messiah, and "the seed of the serpent,'" Satan. In this great combat the injury which Satan inflicts upon the Messiah is compared to a slight wound on the heel, whereas the victory which King Messiah gains over him is represented as a crushing blow upon the head. In this ancient promise the idea of Messiah’s causing wars to cease is found.

The prophets and the psalmists took this germinal thought and developed it as they sang of the glorious victories of the Redeemer oŁ man. For instance, in Psalm 46 the inspired writer sees the wreckage that shall be brought upon the world by the desolating judgments of the Great Tribulation. After the din of battle has ceased, the Psalmist, in his vision, summons those who survive this major catastrophe of the ages to come and see the great desolations which the Lord has wrought in the earth, for it is He who "maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; He breaketh the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder; He burneth the chariots in the fire" (Ps. 46:9).

Isaiah likewise saw the time when wars shall be no more. In his vision of the great kingdom age (2:1-4) he informs us that all nations will make pilgrimages to Jerusalem from year to year for the purpose of worshiping the Lord of Hosts, who will be enthroned in power, and who will teach these pilgrims. At that time He will be the judge between the nations and render decisions among the peoples of the earth. Nevermore will they learn war; but rather they will beat their swords into plowshares and their

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spears into pruning hooks. From these and many other predictions we see that Messiah is the one who will stop all wars.

B. To Restore Israel

In the outline of Israel's history, which was pre-written by Moses (Lev. 26; Deut. 28-30), we read that, should Israel be disobedient, God would scatter her among the nations, that her land would lie desolate, that she would be a hiss and a by-word in the lands of her enemies, and that, when she confesses her iniquity and that of her fathers, God will remember the land and His covenant which He made with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (See Lev. 26:39f). In this forecast we see that the Lord promised to re-gather Israel. He did not say by whom He would accomplish this feat. There is, however, a suggestion in the Torah which throws light upon this point. Moses, in compliance with a request of his brethren, veiled his face so that they could not see the glory of his countenance. In the eighteenth chapter of Deuteronomy, verses 15-19, he informed Israel that she did well in requesting the Lord not to speak to her again as He had done at Sinai. In connection with this statement is God's promise that He would raise up a prophet like unto Moses from among the Hebrews, that He would put His words into this prophet's mouth, that this one would speak faithfully His message, and that He would require perfect obedience to Him. When we study the general characteristics of the life of Moses and his official positions of deliverer and lawgiver, we are led to the conclusion that this prophet can be none other than the Hebrew Messiah. Some have taken exception to this position on the ground that the Messiah is in no other passage called a prophet. This objection is not valid. The choice of His name was determined by the attendant circumstances. A psychological principle which guides us today in the selection of mental images and figures of speech leads us to choose those words and expressions that are suggested by the circumstances. Since Israel trembled at the voice of God when He spoke in thundering tones from Sinai, they requested that He speak indirectly to them through Moses. This petition was equivalent to a request for God to raise up prophets who always would deliver the divine Oracles to them. In compliance with their wishes, the Lord therefore, speaking in their own terms, promised them a prophet who would be a greater Deliverer and Lawgiver than their own beloved Moses.

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The great statesman-prophet Isaiah, in the oracle in which he impersonated the Messiah, declared that the Lord would send this Servant specifically "to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel." "And now saith Jehovah that formed me from the womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob again to him, and that Israel be gathered unto him (for I am honorable in the eyes of Jehovah, and my God is become my strength); yea, he saith, It is too light a thing that thou shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of Jacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I will also give thee for a light to the Gentiles, that thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the earth" (Isa. 49:5, 6).

From these verses it is evident that the object of Messiah's mission in coming into the world is twofold: first, to restore the tribes of Israel to their homeland and to fellowship with God; secondly, to become His salvation unto the ends of the earth. Other prophets spoke of the same things, but these citations are sufficient to confirm this position.

c. To Receive the Obedience of the Nations

Our prediction says that "unto him (i.e., Messiah) shall be the obedience of the peoples." The word translated obedience literally carries the idea of pious or loving submission to His behests. From this passage it is clear that the nations of the world will render this obedience. Some have erroneously thought that the word (ammiym) refers to the tribes of Israel. This position is incorrect, for this word is used throughout the Tenach to refer to the nations. Since there is nothing in the context to indicate a deviation from its usual significance, it is a mistake to force upon it a secondary, or strained meaning. Therefore we must believe that this oracle is a prediction that Messiah will eventually receive the obedience of all nations. This same forecast appears in Psalm 2:7-9:7

I will tell of the decree:
Jehovah said unto me, Thou art my son;
This day have I begotten thee.
8 Ask of me, and I will give thee the nations for thine inheritance,
And the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession.
9 Thou shalt break them with a rod of iron;
Thou shalt dash them in pieces like a potter's vessel.

In the psalmist's impersonation of Messiah he quotes the language of the Father to the Son in which He promised Him the obedience of the nations. This same note is sounded by Solomon, the author

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of Psalm 72, in the following verses. A casual glance at this passage reveals the fact that it presents the glorious reign of King Messiah concerning who-m it is said that the kings of the earth shall fall down before Him, and that all nations shall serve Him.

8 He shall have dominion also from sea to sea,
And from the River unto the ends of the earth.
9 They that dwell in the wilderness shall bow before him;
And his enemies shall lick the dust.
10 The kings of Tarshish and of the is1es shall render tribute:
The kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer gifts.
11 Yea, all kings shall fall down before him;
All nations shall serve him (Ps. 72:8-11).


Under section III we learned that Messiah was scheduled to make His appearance while the dominion and preeminence were lodged in the tribe of Judah. Furthermore we saw that supremacy passed away from that tribe, in fact from the entire nation, in the year 70 C.E. Therefore we rightfully concluded that Messiah came prior to that date. Under section IV we also saw that Messiah in coming to earth has a threefold objective: first, to stop wars and all evils; secondly, to bring Israel back into fellowship with her God and to rehabilitate her in the land of her fathers; and thirdly, to reign over the nations of the earth in righteousness. Since He did not accomplish any of these ends when He was here the first time, and since the Word of God will be fulfilled literally, we may rightly conclude that He will come again and achieve these most desirable and beneficent objectives, the germinal promise of which we found in this primitive oracle. These facts and observations lead us to the inevitable conclusion that the two comings of the one Messiah are blended in Jacob's prediction. Therefore we shall study in this section the fading of the pictures of Messiah's two comings into one, the interval separating them, and the significance of the prophecy in general.

A. The Mystery Period

The analysis of this oracle has led to the irresistible conclusion that there are two comings off the one Messiah foretold in this primeval oracle. Since we are living on this side of the catastrophe of 70 C.E., when the national life of Israel became extinct, and since Messiah has not restored Israel, has not caused wars to cease,

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and has not begun His reign of righteousness over the nations, the fulfillment of which promises God will accomplish, we can be certain that the period between 70 C.E. and the time of Messiah's return is passed over in silence in this prediction. The prophets of Israel looking into the future and foretelling events were, as a rule, at a disadvantage, since from their point of view, figuratively speaking, they did not have the proper perspective.

In the discussion of the conjunction (adh kiy) we learned that the implication of this connective is that the condition existing up to a given time will continue thereafter indefinitely, unless there is something in the context to limit its meaning. Doubtless this idiom was chosen, in this particular instance, in order to cause the two comings to blend imperceptibly into one picture. There is a sound psychological principle involved in the withholding of some of the facts connected with this prediction. In those primitive times the revelation had not been made sufficiently to justify the Lord's entering into a detailed explanation of the future. This information was reserved for later generations that would be educated up to the point of appreciating this fuller revelation.

That interval of time, frequently passed over in the Scriptures without any mention of the fact, may be seen by a study of the period between the Exodus and the building of Solomon's temple. When one accepts, without any reservations, all the chronological data concerning this period, and when he has made the correct mathematical calculations based thereupon, as we shall see, he will find that these two events were separated by 594 years. In I Kings 6:1, however, we are told by the inspired writer that this period consisted of 480 years. There is a seeming discrepancy between the statement of this particular verse and the Biblical data found in other passages relative to this' time. By simple subtraction we find that there is an excess of 114 years, above the statement in I Kings, set forth in the various passages relating the history of this epoch. By adding the number of years during which Israel was in subjection to foreign powers together with the three years of usurpation by Abimelech, we find that there were exactly 114 years. Without doubt during this time Israel was out of fellowship with her God. Since these years of disfavor and rejection are exactly the same as the excess years passed over by the sacred historian in his blanket statement concerning this same era, we conclude that the 480 years are theocratic; that is, a cycle of time during which Israel in fellowship with her God permits Him to rule. Some one

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has aptly said that God's clock stops when the Chosen People are out of fellowship with Him. Accepting this statement as true one would conclude that the nation is out of fellowship with her Maker during the period between Messiah's two comings. This observation probably explains why the prophets constantly, with a few exceptions, blended the descriptions of the two comings of the one Messiah and passed over in silence the intervening years.

B. The Law of the Double Fulfillment of Prophecy

The explanation made in the last section leads to a brief discussion of what is known among Biblical students as the law of the double or manifold fulfillment of prophecy. This principle obtains throughout the prophetic word. Unless the student recognizes the existence of this most important law and is governed thereby, he will become greatly confused in his study of the Word of God. The reader will permit my using an illustration which I frequently employ in setting forth this principle. With a stereopticon a picture is sometimes thrown upon the screen. Presently it begins to fade and at the same time the dim outlines of another appear. As the former fades, the latter becomes clearer and more distinct. By the time the first one has vanished from the screen, the second is in full view. Thus it is with the prophetic word. Speaking in terms of this illustration I may say that the two first lines of Jacob's prediction present Messiah's first coming before the preeminent authority passed from the tribe of Judah. Presently this picture begins to fade and the dim outline of Messiah's second advent appears and blends imperceptibly with the picture of His first coming. Suddenly the representation of His former appearance vanishes from the screen and the forecast of His second coming in glory and power is before our startled gaze.

Whenever we come across a prediction relative to the coming of Messiah, we should study it carefully and compare it with the life of the Hebrew Messiah, who evidently came prior to 70 C.E., and when we come to the conclusion that all the events of this particular prediction were not fulfilled by Him at that time, we rightly conclude that the details connected with His second coming are delicately blended with the forecast concerning His first appearance. A recognition of this most important principle, which obtains in the prophetic word, will solve many of the difficulties, which we otherwise would encounter, and will make the prophecies intelligible and profitable to us.

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In this investigation we have learned a number of most important truths, but there are a few which I wish may stand out in bold relief before our minds. One is that the Torah foretells the coming of the Messiah prior to the fall of the Jewish nation, which catastrophe occurred 70 C.E. From this Scripture, however, we cannot tell the exact year when He was scheduled to come, or what He was to accomplish at that time. Some of this information is given in later predictions. A second thought in connection with this prophecy to be emphasized is that the Torah outlines, in embryonic form, Messiah's redemptive career. Our analysis of this prediction has yielded the following facts: first, He is to appear prior to 70 C.E. Though no information is here given as to His activities, these details are left for later prophets to reveal. In a general way, the Jews who lived prior to the first century of this era could conclude from a study of this oracle that Judah would still be enjoying the preeminence among the tribes of Israel at the time of His coming. They also would naturally infer from it, interpreted alone and prior to the giving of any further details by later prophets, that Messiah upon His appearance would receive the obedience of all nations. This much is clear and indisputable. As time passed and new situations arose which demanded light that could come only from revelations concerning the future, the Lord graciously met the need. Hence we find in the writings of the prophets passages which, figuratively speaking, analyze this first forecast and throw a flood of light upon it. Speaking in terms of the portrait painter, I would say that Jacob simply blocked out the picture of Messiah and His work, but left this rough sketch to be finished later by the prophets.

That the analysis presented above is correct may be seen by a glance at Psalm 110:1, 2:
1 Jehovah saith unto my Lord,
Sit thou at my right hand,
Until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
2 Jehovah will send forth the rod of thy strength out of Zion:
Rule thou in the midst of thine enemies.

The ancient synagogue correctly interpreted this passage messianically. In these verses King Messiah is seen in Zion, the population of which is hostile to Him. Then the Lord from heaven urges Him to leave the city, to ascend to His right hand, and to remain there until He puts these enemies under Messiah's feet. At that time Israel will be brought to the point that she will gladly

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accept Him and welcome His return. Then He will come back to Zion and be enthroned as her King.

From this hasty glance at this marvelous, comprehensive oracle, we see clearly the two comings of Messiah and the period intervening during which He is seated at the right hand of the throne of God in heaven. Since all truth harmonizes, we can be certain that this passage is in perfect accord with the prediction of Jacob. Speaking in a figure, I would compare Genesis 49:10 to a ray of sunlight that has simply gone through a plain glass and Psalm 110:1, 2 to the same ray after it has passed through a prism, which dissects it into the spectrum of the rainbow. The prism through which this early ray of Messianic glory passed was the inspired mind and heart of King David, who, in this and other matchless passages, painted this spectrum of Israel's glorious hope in the iridescent hues of its constituent, original, elemental shades. The conclusion of the whole matter is that Messiah made His first appearance while the ruling power and influence among the tribes of Israel were still enjoyed by the tribe of Judah. Since she lost her national life in 70 of the common era, we know with absolute certainty that He has already come the first time. From other predictions we shall endeavor to learn, if possible, the exact date.

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